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  • This video is sponsored by The Great Courses Plus, an on-demand video learning service

    本視頻由The Great Courses Plus贊助,是一項按需視頻學習服務

  • where you'll find lectures from top professors from around the world.

    在這裡你會發現來自世界各地的頂級教授的講座。

  • Click on the link in the description to get started with your free trial today!

    點擊描述中的鏈接,今天就可以開始免費試用了!

  • You're at the beach one day, going for a pleasant swim under the hot sun.

    一天,你在海灘上,在烈日下愉快地游泳。

  • It's a perfect day to spend floating lazily in the ocean - aside from that cut in your

    這是一個完美的日子,可以懶洋洋地漂浮在海面上--除了你身上的那道傷口之外。

  • hand you got from a nasty barnacle on an underwater rock.

    你的手是由水下岩石上的討厭的藤壺弄來的。

  • But you don't pay much attention to it, you're too busy relaxing out in the water.

    但你並沒有太注意它,你忙著在水中放鬆。

  • So relaxed, in fact, that you don't even notice the fin cresting out of the water towards

    事實上,如此放鬆,以至於你甚至沒有注意到魚鰭衝出水面的方向。

  • you.

    你。

  • Just because you haven't been paying attention to the cut on your hand doesn't mean nobody

    你沒有注意到你手上的傷口並不意味著沒有人

  • has.

    有。

  • In fact, to some residents of the ocean, you smell downright delicious...

    事實上,對一些海洋的居民來說,你聞起來簡直是美味......。

  • Sharks: They're some of the oldest vertebrates on the planet, having existed before even

    鯊魚。它們是地球上最古老的脊椎動物之一,甚至在它們出現之前就已經存在。

  • dinosaurs.

    恐龍。

  • From the tiny, parasitic cookie-cutter shark, to the massive, filter-feeding whale shark,

    從微小的、寄生的餅乾鯊,到巨大的、以過濾為生的鯨鯊。

  • to the majestic but deadly Great White, the shark family has dominated the ocean for the

    到雄偉但致命的大白鯊,鯊魚家族一直統治著海洋。

  • past 420 million years.

    過去4.2億年。

  • They've been feared, respected, and even worshipped by seafaring civilizations for thousands of

    幾千年來,它們一直受到航海文明的敬畏、尊重,甚至崇拜。

  • years, and in recent times have been unfairly targeted out of fear due to movies like Jaws

    多年來,由於《大白鯊》等電影的出現,近來人們因恐懼而成為不公平的目標。

  • and Deep Blue Sea portraying sharks as homicidal monsters.

    和《深藍之海》將鯊魚描繪成殺人的怪物。

  • But it's easy to see where that reputation comes from - even though sharks only rarely

    但很容易看出這種聲譽的來源--儘管鯊魚只是很少的

  • target humans, they possess a number of adaptations that make them the ocean's perfect killers.

    針對人類,它們擁有一些適應性,使它們成為海洋中的完美殺手。

  • Probably the most famous and feared of these adaptations is a shark's ability to smell

    這些適應性中最著名和最令人恐懼的可能是鯊魚的嗅覺能力。

  • blood in the water from miles away, but that's just one part of the amazing biology that

    從幾英里外就能看到水中的血跡,但這只是神奇生物學的一部分。

  • makes the shark the greatest hunter in the ocean.

    使得鯊魚成為海洋中最偉大的獵手。

  • Before we answer our main question, let's take a quick crash course in Why Sharks Are

    在回答我們的主要問題之前,讓我們快速瞭解一下為什麼鯊魚是

  • Incredible 101.

    令人難以置信的101。

  • There are 500 species of shark, and all are members of the Selachimorpha family, a group

    鯊魚有500種,都是Selachimorpha家族的成員,這組家族

  • that also includes rays.

    這也包括射線。

  • This family is unique among fish because unlike other vertebrates, who have skeletons composed

    這個家族在魚類中是獨一無二的,因為與其他脊椎動物不同,它們的骨架由以下部分組成

  • of bone, sharks and rays have skeletons composed of cartilage - the same material that forms

    鯊魚和鰩魚的骨骼是由軟骨組成的--形成軟骨的相同材料。

  • the structure of your ears and nose.

    你的耳朵和鼻子的結構。

  • Cartilage is sturdy, but also flexible, and much lower density than bone, allowing sharks

    軟骨很結實,但也很靈活,而且密度比骨頭低得多,使鯊魚能夠

  • to be buoyant in water without needing a swim bladder like other marine animals.

    在水中具有浮力,而不像其他海洋動物那樣需要有游泳囊。

  • In addition to this lack of a swim bladder, sharks also have a very specific pattern of

    除了缺乏魚鰾之外,鯊魚還有一種非常特殊的模式,那就是

  • fin placement.

    鰭的位置。

  • Ask anyone to draw a shark and they'll know where to place the fins - a large dorsal fin

    讓任何人畫一條鯊魚,他們都會知道把魚鰭放在哪裡--一個大背鰭

  • on the back, a fin on either side, and a vertical fin on the end of the tail.

    背部有一個鰭,兩側有一個鰭,尾巴末端有一個垂直鰭。

  • It's no mistake that pretty much all shark species have this fin configuration - it's

    幾乎所有的鯊魚物種都有這種鰭的構造,這並不是什麼錯誤--它是

  • the perfect arrangement to maximize speed and maneuverability.

    完美的安排使速度和可操作性最大化。

  • Fish that have swim bladders are kind of like hot air balloons - they can only change depth

    有魚鰾的魚有點像熱氣球--它們只能改變深度

  • by squeezing out some of the gas stored in their swim bladders which then refills over

    通過擠壓出儲存在他們魚鰾中的一些氣體,然後再填充到魚鰾中。

  • time as they take in oxygen from the water around them.

    當它們從周圍的水中吸收氧氣的時候。

  • But because sharks don't need a swim bladder to stay afloat, they're more like a fighter

    但是,由於鯊魚不需要用鰾來保持漂浮,它們更像是一個戰士

  • jet - able to dive up and down in the water using only the propulsion of their back fins.

    噴氣機--能夠僅利用其背鰭的推進力在水中上下潛行。

  • That's why the arrangement of a shark's fins look a little like the wings on an airplane.

    這就是為什麼鯊魚鰭的排列看起來有點像飛機的機翼。

  • The two side fins are used to change direction while the upper dorsal fin acts as a stabilizer.

    兩個側鰭用來改變方向,而上部背鰭作為穩定器。

  • So, unlike other fish, sharks can cruise at high speeds, stop quickly, swim directly up

    是以,與其他魚類不同的是,鯊魚可以高速巡航,迅速停止,直接游上岸。

  • or down, and turn on a dime.

    或向下,並在一瞬間轉彎。

  • This makes it very easy for them to chase their prey.

    這使得它們非常容易追趕獵物。

  • Sharks are also unique from other fish in the texture of their skin.

    鯊魚在皮膚的質地上也有別於其他魚類。

  • Despite what you might think, sharks aren't smooth.

    儘管你可能認為,鯊魚並不光滑。

  • Instead of having scales like other fish, they're actually covered in small teeth called

    它們不像其他魚類那樣有鱗片,而是實際上覆蓋著小牙齒,稱為

  • denticles, which gives their skin a rough texture like sandpaper.

    牙齒,這使他們的皮膚具有像砂紙一樣的粗糙紋理。

  • These denticles provide a layer of lightweight armor, but are arranged in a way that minimizes

    這些齒孔提供了一層輕量級的盔甲,但其排列方式可最大限度地減少

  • drag while swimming, making sharks extremely hydrodynamic.

    游泳時的阻力,使鯊魚具有極高的水動力。

  • Like all fish, sharks breathe by filtering oxygen out of water as they swim, but their

    像所有魚類一樣,鯊魚在游泳時通過過濾水中的氧氣來呼吸,但它們的

  • gills are structured a little bit differently.

    鰓的結構有一點不同。

  • You might've heard it said that sharks will suffocate if they stop moving, and while that's

    你可能聽說過,如果鯊魚停止移動,就會窒息而死,而這是

  • not true of all sharks, it is true for a number of shark species.

    並非所有的鯊魚都是如此,對一些鯊魚物種來說是如此。

  • While some species, like the wobbegong, are ambush predators and have the capability of

    雖然有些物種,如wobbegong,是埋伏的捕食者,有能力

  • laying still for long periods of time, most sharks lack a gill pump and breathe through

    長時間靜止不動,大多數鯊魚沒有鰓泵,而是通過呼吸。

  • a process called ram ventilation.

    一個叫做衝壓通風的過程。

  • As long as the shark is moving, water will flow into the gill slits, where it rushes

    只要鯊魚在移動,水就會流進鰓裂,在那裡沖刷。

  • over the shark's gill filaments, allowing the oxygen in the water to diffuse into the

    在鯊魚的鰓絲上,讓水中的氧氣擴散到鯊魚的鰓絲中。

  • shark's bloodstream.

    鯊魚的血流。

  • Now, back to our central question.

    現在,回到我們的中心問題。

  • Another commonly repeated fact about sharks is that they can locate a single drop of blood

    關於鯊魚的另一個普遍重複的事實是,它們可以找到一滴血的位置

  • in an olympic swimming pool's worth of water.

    在一個奧林匹克游泳池的水裡。

  • That might sound impossible, but sharks really do have amazing senses at their disposal that

    這聽起來可能是不可能的,但鯊魚確實有驚人的感官,它們可以利用這些感官

  • they use to hunt.

    他們用來打獵。

  • Sharks have incredibly keen hearing, able to detect sounds below the range of human

    鯊魚有令人難以置信的敏銳聽力,能夠探測到低於人類範圍的聲音。

  • hearing.

    聽力。

  • Eyesight varies from species - the Great White and other species that hunt close to the surface

    視力因物種而異--大白鯊和其他靠近水面狩獵的物種

  • of the water have quite poor eyesight, which is the main reason behind most shark attacks.

    水中的鯊魚視力相當差,這是大多數鯊魚襲擊背後的主要原因。

  • The hammerhead, in contrast, has an extremely wide field of view owing to its bizarrely

    相比之下,雙髻鯊的視野非常寬廣,這是因為它具有奇特的

  • shaped head.

    形狀的頭。

  • Sharks also have a very highly developed sense of taste, with some species in fact being

    鯊魚也有非常發達的味覺,有些物種事實上是

  • very picky eaters.

    非常挑剔的食客。

  • Great whites in particular are known for their pickiness, even though they're the largest,

    特別是大白鯊以其挑剔而聞名,儘管它們是最大的。

  • most powerful, and most deadly of the macropredatory sharks - macropredatory meaning sharks that

    最強大的,也是最致命的大型捕食性鯊魚--大型捕食性指的是鯊魚的

  • eat anything larger than plankton.

    吃任何比浮游生物更大的東西。

  • Great Whites normally feed on seals, otters, dolphins, and large fish like tuna and mackerel,

    大白鯊通常以海豹、水獺、海豚以及金槍魚和鯖魚等大魚為食。

  • but because of their poor eyesight, they rely on smell and movement to hunt, and will usually

    但由於它們的視力不佳,它們依靠嗅覺和運動來捕獵,通常會

  • take an initialtest biteof whatever prey they find.

    無論它們發現什麼獵物,都要先 "試咬 "一下。

  • If the taste isn't to their liking, they'll spit it out and abandon the kill entirely.

    如果味道不對他們的胃口,他們會吐出來,完全放棄殺戮。

  • This is what happens in most shark attacks - sharks will mistake humans for their regular

    這就是大多數鯊魚襲擊事件中發生的情況--鯊魚會誤以為人類是它們的常客。

  • prey, then leave them after one bite once they realize what they've just chomped on.

    獵物,然後在它們意識到自己剛剛咬了什麼之後,咬一口就離開。

  • So, if you're afraid of sharks, maybe you can take a little comfort in knowing that

    是以,如果你害怕鯊魚,也許你可以稍稍安慰一下,因為你知道

  • Great Whites at least don't find people very appetizing.

    大白人至少不覺得人很有胃口。

  • But, the most impressive of a shark's senses is, as we said before, their sense of smell.

    但是,鯊魚的感官中最令人印象深刻的是,正如我們之前所說,它們的嗅覺。

  • Sharks have two forward-facing nostrils, which passively take in water as the shark swims.

    鯊魚有兩個朝前的鼻孔,在鯊魚遊動時被動地吸水。

  • The water is filtered through folds of tissue that contain millions of sensory cells that

    水通過含有數百萬個感覺細胞的組織褶皺進行過濾,這些感覺細胞是

  • can pick up even the tiniest trace of blood.

    即使是最細微的血跡也能撿到。

  • That alone is impressive, but what really gives the shark's sense of smell a killer

    僅此一點就令人印象深刻,但真正讓鯊魚的嗅覺具有殺傷力的是

  • edge is the fact that it's directional, much like our sense of hearing.

    邊緣是它是有方向性的,很像我們的聽覺。

  • The position and shape of the nostrils means that each one detects smells separately, so

    鼻孔的位置和形狀意味著每個鼻孔都能單獨探測到氣味,所以

  • a shark can tell whether the scent of blood is being picked up by the left or right nostril.

    鯊魚可以分辨出血腥味是由左鼻孔還是右鼻孔接收的。

  • Using that information, the shark can follow the trail and hone in on the exact location

    利用這些資訊,鯊魚可以追蹤線索並鎖定準確位置

  • of the wounded animal that the blood is coming from.

    血液來自受傷的動物。

  • On top of their amazing senses of smell, sharks have another sense that is unique to them,

    除了驚人的嗅覺之外,鯊魚還有另一種感官是它們所特有的。

  • as well as their close cousins, rays and skates.

    以及它們的近親,魟魚和鰩魚。

  • This sense is called electroreception, and it's exactly what it sounds like - the ability

    這種感覺被稱為 "電感",它和聽起來一樣,是一種能力。

  • to, more or less, smell electricity.

    到,或多或少,聞到了電。

  • All animals conduct electricity - it's what allows our muscles to move us around.

    所有的動物都會導電--是它使我們的肌肉能夠移動我們。

  • The more we move, the more electricity our muscles release.

    我們運動得越多,我們的肌肉就會釋放更多的電力。

  • Air is a poor conductor of electricity, so on land the ambient charge created by living

    空氣是一種不良的電導體,是以在陸地上,由生物所產生的環境電荷是非常重要的。

  • creatures is simply dissipated into the air or down through our feet into the ground.

    生物只是消散在空氣中,或通過我們的腳落到地上。

  • Water, however, especially salt water, is an excellent conductor, so when animals swim

    然而,水,特別是鹽水,是一個極好的導體,所以當動物游泳時

  • through the water, the tiny charges that our bodies create influence an electrical field

    通過水,我們的身體所產生的微小電荷影響了電場。

  • that extends far away from us.

    延伸到離我們很遠的地方。

  • Sharks, using a cluster of specialized pores on the tips of their noses called the ampullae

    鯊魚利用其鼻尖上的一簇特殊的孔隙,稱為安瓿。

  • of lorenzini, can detect those charges from the field.

    的Lorenzini,可以從現場檢測到這些指控。

  • Like their sense of smell, their sense of electroreception is directional, because the

    和他們的嗅覺一樣,他們的電感也是有方向性的,因為

  • ampullae of lorenzini is connected to the shark's lateral line.

    洛倫茲尼的安瓿與鯊魚的側線相連。

  • The lateral line is an organ that most fish and amphibians possess - it's a kind of tube

    側線是大多數魚類和兩棲動物擁有的一種器官--它是一種管子

  • that runs along their bellies to the end of their tails that helps them sense things like

    沿著它們的腹部到尾巴的末端,幫助它們感知諸如以下的事物

  • water pressure and currents.

    水壓和海流。

  • This helps them maintain a sense of direction in the featureless open ocean.

    這有助於它們在沒有特徵的公海上保持方向感。

  • A shark's sense of electroreception , combined with their extremely keen sense of smell,

    鯊魚的電感,加上它們極其敏銳的嗅覺。

  • are probably the shark's two greatest weapons when it comes to locating prey.

    這可能是鯊魚在尋找獵物時的兩個最大武器。

  • When their noses pick up a trace of blood, they can then use their ampullae to sniff

    當它們的鼻子嗅到一絲血跡時,它們就可以用它們的安瓿來嗅。

  • out the electric currents being released by whatever distressed animal the blood is coming

    血液是由任何受苦的動物釋放出來的電流。

  • from.

    從。

  • Then, using their directional sense of smell, they follow the scent, along with the electrical

    然後,利用他們的嗅覺方向性,他們沿著氣味和電的方向前進。

  • currents, until they're able to pinpoint the exact location of their prey.

    潮流,直到它們能夠確定獵物的確切位置。

  • Because sharks have such keen senses and are such excellent trackers, one whiff of fish

    因為鯊魚有如此敏銳的感官,並且是如此出色的追蹤者,只要聞到魚的氣味

  • guts can attract dozens of sharks at a time.

    內臟可以一次吸引幾十條鯊魚。

  • And because sharks are usually solitary predators, this can lead to a lot of competition over

    由於鯊魚通常是孤獨的捕食者,這可能導致大量的競爭。

  • prey.

    獵物。

  • When competition occurs, it leads to a feeding frenzy.

    當競爭發生時,就會導致進食狂潮。

  • You've probably heard the term used before, and you've probably heard it used many times

    你可能聽過這個詞,你可能也聽過很多次了

  • to refer to Black Friday shoppers or kids at a party when the pizza finally arrives.

    指的是黑色星期五的購物者或聚會上的孩子們,當比薩餅終於到了。

  • How it typically goes is, a few sharks will be attracted by the large electrical signals

    通常的情況是,一些鯊魚會被大型電信號所吸引

  • being put out by multiple prey in one location, then once they arrive, they will fight over

    在一個地方被多個獵物放出來,那麼一旦他們到達,他們就會爭奪

  • the prey.

    獵物。

  • The commotion caused by the sharks fighting will add to the electrical signals, making

    鯊魚打架引起的騷動將增加電信號,使

  • them stronger and attracting even more sharks.

    他們更強大,吸引了更多的鯊魚。

  • Sometimes this can be relatively uneventful, but other times the sharks will start fighting

    有時,這可能是相對不平靜的,但其他時候,鯊魚會開始戰鬥

  • each other, repeating the process, and pretty soon it turns into an all-out battle royale.

    相互之間,重複這個過程,很快就變成了一場全面的戰鬥。

  • Shark experts theorize that shark feeding frenzies are less about actually feeding and

    鯊魚專家推斷,鯊魚進食狂潮與其說是真正的進食,不如說是

  • more about defending territory.

    更多關於保衛領土。

  • They often engage in cannibalism as a show of dominance, with bigger sharks taking bites

    它們經常進行食人活動,以顯示其統治地位,較大的鯊魚會咬人。

  • out of the smaller ones to reinforce the pecking order.

    小的出局,以加強啄木鳥的秩序。

  • This doesn't seem to bother the small sharks as much as you'd think, though, as sharks

    不過,這似乎並不像你想象的那樣困擾小鯊魚,因為鯊魚

  • in frenzy mode are so fixated on claiming their share that there have been reports of

    處於狂熱狀態下的人們如此執著於索取他們的份額,以至於有報道稱

  • frenzied sharks continuing to feed even while being mortally wounded by other sharks.

    瘋狂的鯊魚即使在被其他鯊魚致命傷害的情況下仍然繼續進食。

  • Chillingly, some of the biggest shark feeding frenzies ever recorded happened at the sites

    令人不寒而慄的是,一些有史以來最大的鯊魚餵食狂潮發生在這些地方

  • of shipwrecks.

    的船舶殘骸。

  • Because we're not used to swimming, our movements in water require more energy and produce a

    因為我們不習慣游泳,我們在水中的運動需要更多的能量,併產生一個

  • higher amount of electrical current.

    更高的電流量。

  • Combine that with our large body size relative to most fish, the stress of having to tread

    再加上我們相對於大多數魚類的大體型,不得不踩在腳下的壓力。

  • water while stranded at sea, and the fact that some people in a shipwreck may end up

    擱淺在海上的水,以及沉船事故中的一些人可能最終

  • injured and bleeding, and you have the perfect storm to cause a truly epic shark frenzy.

    受傷和流血,你就有了一場完美的風暴,引起真正史詩般的鯊魚狂歡。

  • And while most sharks don't like the taste of human flesh at all, a frenzied shark will

    雖然大多數鯊魚根本不喜歡人肉的味道,但狂熱的鯊魚會

  • attack and eat anything, just so that the other sharks won't be able to.

    攻擊和吃任何東西,只是為了讓其他鯊魚無法攻擊。

  • You probably remember the scene in Jaws where Captain Quint describes the crew of the USS

    你可能還記得《大白鯊》中昆特船長描述美國軍艦的船員的場景

  • Indianapolis being picked off by sharks after the ship was torpedoed.

    印第安納波利斯號被魚雷擊中後被鯊魚挑走。

  • Well, that was based on a true story, and it's not even the only one like it from naval

    嗯,這是基於一個真實的故事,甚至不是唯一一個來自海軍的類似故事。

  • history.

    歷史。

  • Oceanic whitetip sharks, one of the most common species found in open water, were known to

    大洋白鰭鯊是在開放水域發現的最常見的物種之一,被稱為

  • make buffets out of many a sinking ship during the major naval battles of World War 1 and

    在第一次世界大戰和第二次世界大戰的主要海戰中,他們在許多沉船上做自助餐。

  • World War 2.

    第二次世界大戰。

  • The steamship Nova Scotia, sunk during the second world war, had around a thousand crew

    在第二次世界大戰期間被擊沉的新斯科舍號蒸汽船有大約一千名船員。

  • members when it went down, and only 192 survived to be rescued.

    當它墜落時,只有192名成員倖存下來獲救。

  • By their accounts, many of the crew who survived but were injured in the initial disaster were

    根據他們的描述,許多在最初的災難中倖存下來但受傷的船員是

  • devoured by frenzied oceanic whitetips.

    被狂熱的海洋白鰭豚吞噬。

  • Not all sharks are so viciously territorial, however.

    然而,並非所有的鯊魚都是如此惡毒的領地。

  • The sub-group of sharks known as dogfish are so named because of the fact that they have

    被稱為 "狗魚 "的鯊魚亞群之所以如此命名,是因為它們有

  • been seen hunting cooperatively in dog-like packs.

    被看到以狗一樣的群組合作狩獵。

  • Whether they're pack hunters or working alone, gentle filter-feeders or frenzied man-eaters,

    無論它們是成群結隊的獵手還是獨自工作,是溫和的濾食者還是狂熱的食人者。

  • whether they're ambush predators or roving assassins, sharks are some of the most unique

    無論它們是埋伏的捕食者還是遊蕩的刺客,鯊魚都是一些最獨特的動物。

  • and fascinating animals on the planet.

    和地球上迷人的動物。

  • Their incredible senses make them unparalleled when it comes to tracking their prey, and

    它們令人難以置信的感官使它們在追蹤獵物方面無與倫比,而且

  • because of this they've filled a vital role in the ocean's ecosystem for hundreds of millions

    正因為如此,它們在海洋的生態系統中扮演著重要的角色,為數億人服務。

  • of years.

    年的時間。

  • No other predator is quite as good at what they do as the shark, but unfortunately, many

    沒有其他捕食者能像鯊魚那樣擅長它們的工作,但不幸的是,許多人

  • species of shark are on the decline.

    鯊魚的種類正在減少。

  • Overfishing plays a part in this decline, but another part is simply fear and misunderstanding.

    過度捕撈在這種衰退中起了一定的作用,但另一部分只是恐懼和誤解。

  • Sharks can die getting tangled in anti-shark nets, and often if a shark attack occurs in

    鯊魚可能會被防鯊網纏住而死亡,而且如果鯊魚襲擊發生在

  • an area, this leads to all the local sharks being killed out of over-cautiousness.

    一個地區,這導致所有當地的鯊魚因過度謹慎而被殺害。

  • So, even though it's perfectly natural to be scared of these apex predators, keep in

    是以,儘管害怕這些頂級掠食者是非常自然的,但要記住

  • mind that they're just doing what they were made to do, and next time you go fishing or

    他們只是在做他們被製造出來的事情,而下次你去釣魚或

  • swimming or jet-skiing, try to be mindful of the amazing creatures you're sharing the

    游泳或滑水時,儘量注意你所分享的這些神奇的生物。

  • ocean with.

    海洋與。

  • Cause the blood being spilled there is more often theirs than ours.

    因為那裡流的血往往是他們的而不是我們的。

  • Now check out “I was Attacked By a Sharkand “I Was Lost At Sea for 76 Days With

    現在請看 "我被鯊魚襲擊 "和 "我在海上迷失了76天"。

  • Sharks Circlingfor more fascinating shark facts!

    鯊魚在盤旋",瞭解更多迷人的鯊魚知識!

  • Thanks again to The Great Courses Plus!

    再次感謝The Great Courses Plus!

  • I couldn't be happier that they've sponsored this video since I'm both a fan and a user

    我對他們贊助這個視頻感到非常高興,因為我既是他們的粉絲也是他們的用戶

  • of theirs.

    他們的。

  • You know that all of us here love to learn and challenge ourselves, sometimes in crazy

    你知道,我們這裡所有的人都喜歡學習和挑戰自己,有時在瘋狂的

  • ways, and no matter what you're looking for, The Great Courses Plus has a course for

    無論你在尋找什麼,The Great Courses Plus都有適合你的課程。

  • you.

    你。

  • This is the best video learning service I've ever tried, with incredible lectures from

    這是我所嘗試過的最好的視頻學習服務,有令人難以置信的講座,來自於

  • top professors at some of the best universities in the world.

    世界上一些最好的大學的頂級教授。

  • I feel like I'm sitting in an Ivy League classroom every time I watch a new one.

    每次看完新片,我都覺得自己坐在常春藤大學的教室裡。

  • They have over 11,000 videos on just about any subject from science, to literature, how

    他們有超過11,000個視頻,幾乎涉及任何主題,從科學到文學,以及如何使用這些視頻。

  • to get better at chess, or even how to cook.

    為了在國際象棋方面做得更好,甚至是如何做飯。

  • I'm right in the middle of two courses right now.

    我現在正處於兩個課程的中間。

  • One on sketching that's seriously improved my drawing skills and one about the ancient

    一篇是關於素描的文章,它嚴重地提高了我的繪畫技巧,還有一篇是關於古人的。

  • Etruscans, I'm shocked how many things I thought were Roman were actually from an earlier

    埃特魯里亞人,我感到震驚的是,有多少我認為是羅馬人的東西實際上是來自更早的時代。

  • civilization!

    文明!

  • But no matter what you're interested in, The Great Courses Plus has something for you,

    但無論你對什麼感興趣,The Great Courses Plus都有適合你的東西。

  • and best of all, they're giving viewers of The Infographics Show a FREE trial.

    最重要的是,他們為《資訊圖表展》的觀眾提供了免費試用。

  • Just go to the thegreatcoursesplus.com/theinfographicsshow and get started today!

    只要到thegreatcoursesplus.com/theinfographicsshow,今天就可以開始了。

This video is sponsored by The Great Courses Plus, an on-demand video learning service

本視頻由The Great Courses Plus贊助,是一項按需視頻學習服務

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B2 中高級 中文 鯊魚 獵物 嗅覺 魚類 海洋 動物

鯊魚如何真正聞到血腥味 (How Sharks Actually Smell Blood)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 22 日
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