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  • A small isopod scurries along the ocean floor, collecting food.

    一隻小型的等足類動物在海底爬行,收集食物。

  • It can see above it there are no predators, so its scavenging mission can continue without

    它可以看到上面沒有捕食者,所以它的清掃任務可以繼續,而不需要... ...

  • danger.

    危險。

  • There is nothing below it except the sand of the sea bed.

    除了海床的沙子,下面什麼都沒有。

  • Or so it seems.

    或者這樣看來。

  • Suddenly, the sandy floor seems to explode, and a monstrosity bursts forth.

    忽然,沙地彷彿炸開了,一個怪獸衝了出來。

  • A long snaky worm-like creature with extended antennae and a segmented body extends from

    一條長長的蛇形蟲狀生物,觸角延伸,身體分節,從上到下,從下到上。

  • its burrow and lightning-fast, grabs the isopod in its jaws.

    它的洞穴和閃電般的速度,抓住了它的顎部的等足動物。

  • Just as fast, predator and prey sink back into the sand, never to be seen again - at

    掠食者和獵物同樣快速地沉入沙子裡,再也看不到了------在

  • least until the hunter is hungry again

    至少直到獵人又餓了... ...

  • Something out of a horror movie?

    恐怖片裡的東西?

  • Not quite.

    不完全是

  • It was the beginning of 2021 when Ludvig Lowemark, a scientist from National Taiwan University,

    那是2021年初,國立臺灣大學的科學家Ludvig Lowemark。

  • announced that he and his fellow geoscientists had made a disturbing discovery in the sea

    宣佈他和他的地球科學家同事們在海里有了一個令人不安的發現。

  • beds.

    床。

  • It was a creature that was one of the ocean's deadliest predators twenty million years ago,

    這是一種生物,是兩千萬年前海洋中最致命的掠食者之一。

  • but it wasn't an ancient whale or shark, or a giant squid that wrapped unsuspecting

    但它不是遠古的鯨魚或鯊魚,也不是巨大的烏賊,它包裹著毫無戒心的人。

  • prey up in its tentacles.

    獵物在它的觸手中。

  • It was a worm.

    那是一隻蟲子。

  • But definitely not like the earthworms you see in your garden.

    但絕對不像你在花園裡看到的蚯蚓。

  • We don't know as much about these ancient forms of life as we'd like, because fossils

    我們對這些遠古生命形式的瞭解並不像我們所希望的那樣多 因為化石

  • usually require one thing to be left behind - bones.

    通常需要留下一樣東西--骨頭。

  • And that makes studying invertebrates tricky.

    而這也使得研究無脊椎動物變得很棘手。

  • But this mysterious worm, named Pennichnus, had a few factors that made it different from

    但這種神祕的蠕蟲,名為Pennichnus,有幾個因素使它不同於一般的蠕蟲。

  • most invertebrates.

    大多數無脊椎動物。

  • For one, it had an exoskeleton that was more likely to be left behind and survive in fossils.

    其一,它的外骨骼更容易留下,並在化石中存活。

  • Second, it had distinctive burrows that were easy to be identified in the rock that was

    其次,它有獨特的洞穴,很容易在岩石中被識別出來,這是

  • preserved.

    保留下來的。

  • Finally, it was big.

    終於大功告成了。

  • Really big.

    真的很大。

  • So, how big can a worm get?

    那麼,蟲子能有多大呢?

  • Ludvig Lowemark and his team believe Penninchus could have grown to be as large as six feet

    路德維格-洛馬克和他的團隊認為,彭寧斯可能已經長到6英尺那麼大了

  • long or larger - making them a threat not just to unfortunate fish or isopods that wandered

    長或更大--這使得它們不僅對不幸的魚或遊蕩的等足類動物構成了威脅,而且還威脅到它們的生存。

  • by, but to larger prey - including humans if they happened to be around.

    由,但對更大的獵物--包括人類,如果他們碰巧在附近。

  • However, these creatures weren't easy to find.

    不過,這些生物並不容易找到。

  • They were likely masters of disguise, and functioned less as apex predators on the hunt

    他們很可能是偽裝高手,在狩獵時不像頂級掠奪者那樣發揮功能。

  • than as living deathtraps waiting to be triggered.

    而不是作為活生生的死亡陷阱等待被觸發。

  • People have compared them to a pair of iconic monsters from science fiction - the Sarlacc

    人們將它們與科幻小說中的一對標誌性怪物--薩拉克相比。

  • Pit from Star Wars and the Sandworms from Dune - both of whom lay in wait in the sand

    星球大戰》中的皮特和《沙丘》中的沙蟲--他們都躺在沙子裡等著你

  • until their prey came into range.

    直到它們的獵物進入射程。

  • But Penninchus may be more vicious than either of them.

    但彭寧克斯可能比他們中的任何一個都要凶狠。

  • The scientists carefully reconstructed the creature's burrow from samples of rock found,

    科學家們從發現的岩石樣本中小心翼翼地重建了這個生物的洞穴。

  • and nearly complete fossils were found inside.

    並在裡面發現了幾乎完整的化石。

  • The creature would lurk inside, completely concealed except for one part of its body

    這個生物會潛伏在裡面,除了身體的一個部位外,完全隱藏了起來

  • - its long antennae, that it used as feelers.

    - 它那長長的天線,被它用來當做觸鬚。

  • These sensors would alert the creature to when an unfortunate sea creature was passing

    當有不幸的海洋生物經過時,這些傳感器會向生物發出警報。

  • in range, and like a loaded spring it would burst out of its burrow.

    在射程內,它就像上了膛的彈簧一樣,會從洞裡衝出來。

  • This is similar to the trap system used by an iconic plant - the Venus Flytrap, which

    這與一種標誌性植物--金星捕蠅器所使用的誘捕系統類似,它的特點是

  • snaps shut when it senses movement.

    當它感覺到移動時,就會扣上。

  • But unlike the hungry plant, Penninchus had one advantage.

    但與飢餓植物不同的是,奔牛有一個優勢。

  • It could fight.

    它能打。

  • And when it got prey in its jaws, it didn't back down.

    而當它的下巴里有了獵物,它也沒有退縮。

  • When Penninchus latched onto its prey, the fight was just beginning.

    當潘寧克斯抓住獵物時,戰鬥才剛剛開始。

  • The monster worm would recede back into its burrow, but the grabbed creature would still

    怪物蠕蟲會退到它的洞穴裡,但被抓住的生物仍然會... ...

  • be alive.

    還活著

  • There would often be a pitched battle under the sand, as the creature desperately tried

    在沙子下面經常會有一場激烈的戰鬥,因為生物拼命地想...

  • to escape and the worm clamped down tighter to finish it off.

    要逃跑,蟲子夾得更緊,要把它幹掉。

  • This often led to distinctive markings around the burrow from the disturbances - but it

    這常常導致洞穴周圍因擾動而產生明顯的標記--但它

  • was likely that most if not all the battles ended with a Penninchus with a full belly.

    很可能大部分甚至所有的戰役都是以滿腹經綸的奔牛犬結束的。

  • But what would happen if the creature bit off more than it could chew?

    但如果生物咬掉的東西超過了它的咀嚼能力,會發生什麼?

  • While we don't have many fossils to indicate this, Penninchus seems to be built in a way

    雖然我們沒有太多化石可以證明這一點,但Penninchus似乎是以一種方式建造的。

  • that would allow it to be very flexible.

    這將使它非常靈活。

  • That means it wouldn't be vulnerable to a larger prey snapping it in two, and it has

    這意味著它不容易被更大的獵物折斷成兩截,而且它還擁有

  • no bones to break.

    沒有骨頭打破。

  • If it was in a pitched battle that it was in danger to losing, the odds are it would

    如果是在一場有輸贏危險的對戰中,它有可能會

  • simply release its powerful jaws and let its prey swim or scuttle away - if it was in any

    只需鬆開它有力的下顎,讓它的獵物遊動或逃竄--如果它在任何情況下

  • shape to do that after the initial bite.

    形狀來做,在最初的咬合後。

  • Live and attack another day.

    活著,攻克另一天。

  • There's bound to be something swimming by soon.

    很快就會有東西遊過來。

  • But what if Penninchus had to go after Earth's dominant lifeform today?

    但是,如果彭寧克斯今天要追殺地球的主宰生命體呢?

  • At six feet, Penninchus is longer than many humans - and could definitely pose a threat

    六英尺長的奔牛比很多人都要長,肯定會對人造成威脅。

  • to us if it existed today.

    對我們來說,如果它存在於今天。

  • There's just one problem for the monster worm - what would it do with us?

    只是對於怪物蟲來說,有一個問題--它會對我們做什麼?

  • While it may be close to us in length, it's definitely not in overall size, and definitely

    雖然在長度上可能和我們接近,但在整體尺寸上絕對不是,而且絕對是

  • wouldn't be able to eat us.

    就不能吃我們了。

  • But that doesn't mean encountering them would be a pleasant experience.

    但這並不意味著遇到他們會是一次愉快的經歷。

  • Humans walking along the sea bed could definitely trigger its antennae, and between their speed

    人類在海床上走動,肯定會觸發它的天線,而在他們的速度之間。

  • of attack and powerful bite, they could definitely cause some serious damage.

    的攻擊力和強大的咬合力,它們絕對可以造成一些嚴重的傷害。

  • The effect might be similar to the Mantis Shrimp, another sea-bed predator that punches

    這種效果可能類似於螳螂蝦,另一種海床捕食者,它們會刺穿

  • above its weight class.

    高於其重量級。

  • This crustacean kills by delivering a devastating high-speed punch with its leg.

    這種甲殼類動物通過用腿部進行毀滅性的高速衝撞來殺人。

  • The impact is so powerful, the creature gained the nicknameToe-Splitter” - with many

    衝擊力極強,這種生物獲得了 "腳趾頭分裂器 "的綽號--有很多人。

  • of its victims needing surgery.

    的受害者需要手術。

  • The good news is, Penninchus is extinct and humans aren't likely to encounter it - right?

    好消息是,彭林克斯已經滅絕了,人類不可能遇到它--對嗎?

  • Yes...and no.

    是的......也不是。

  • We only have a few fossils of this ancient sea worm and some fossilized burrows.

    我們只有幾條古海蟲的化石和一些洞穴化石。

  • So how do Dr. Ludvig Lowemark and his team know so much about how it lived and hunted?

    那麼,Ludvig Lowemark博士和他的團隊是如何知道這麼多關於它的生活和狩獵方式的呢?

  • It's because there is a creature living today that may be a direct descendant - and

    這是因為今天有一種生物生活在這裡,它可能是一個直接的後代--而且...

  • while it may be smaller, it's no less dangerous and terrifying.

    雖然它可能比較小,但它的危險性和恐怖性並不低。

  • Eunice Aphroditois is a benthic bristle worm that lives in warm ocean waters, but is much

    優尼絲-阿佛洛狄忒是一種生活在溫暖海水中的底棲鬃毛蟲,但卻被許多

  • more known by its more colorful name - the Bobbit Worm.

    更為人熟知的是它那更豐富多彩的名字--博比特蟲。

  • Named after the famous case of Lorena Bobbit, who hacked off her abusive husband's...member

    以著名的Lorena Bobbit案件命名,她砍掉了虐待她的丈夫的...成員。

  • in 1993.

    1993年,

  • What's the connection between this worm and that case?

    這個蟲子和那個案子有什麼聯繫?

  • Well, the worm's vicious snapping motion made people think it could take off members

    好吧,這隻蟲子凶狠的啪啪啪動作,讓人覺得它能把成員們都幹掉了

  • in a hurry.

    匆匆忙忙。

  • Could that happen?

    會不會有這種情況?

  • Probably not - but no one's looking to find out.

    也許不是--但沒有人想知道。

  • Typically living among coral reefs, this modern worm can be as small as four inches - but

    這種現代蠕蟲通常生活在珊瑚礁中 這種現代蠕蟲可以小到4英寸,但也可以小到4英寸

  • the biggest and most well-fed specimens can grow to as much as ten feet.

    最大的、餵養得最好的標本可以長到十英尺。

  • Despite this long body, it's still very thin - only an inch wide at most.

    雖然身體這麼長,但還是很瘦,最多隻有一寸寬。

  • With no eyes, it hunts entirely using its antennae as feelers and has a similar hard

    由於沒有眼睛,它完全用它的觸角作為感覺器來捕獵,並且有類似的硬性

  • exoskeleton to the ancient version.

    外骨骼到古代版。

  • While it's not known if Penninchus had similar features, this creature has retractable mandibles

    雖然不知道Penninchus是否有類似的特徵,但這種生物有可伸縮的下頜骨。

  • that are strong enough to snap prey clean in half.

    足夠強壯,能把獵物咬成兩半。

  • And just like its ancestor, it's a master of disguise.

    就像它的祖先一樣,它是一個偽裝高手。

  • The Bobbit Worm became famous in 2013, when an aquarium's staff noticed something disturbing

    波比蟲成名於2013年,當時一家水族館的工作人員發現了一些令人不安的事情。

  • in their fish tank.

    在他們的魚缸裡。

  • The collection of coral seemed to be getting smaller and smaller, almost like something

    珊瑚的數量似乎越來越少,幾乎就像什麼東西一樣

  • had been eating it.

    一直在吃它。

  • After observing the tank carefully for a while, they saw something moving in there - something

    仔細觀察了一會兒,他們看到裡面有東西在動--有東西

  • that shouldn't be there.

    那不應該在那裡。

  • The Bobbit Worm had likely hitched a ride back when it was tiny, and had been growing

    波比蟲很可能在它很小的時候就搭上了它的順風車,並且一直在成長。

  • fat on the tank for years.

    油箱上的脂肪多年來。

  • By the time the aquarium staff finally noticed it, the creature had grown to over four feet

    當水族館的工作人員終於注意到它的時候 這隻生物已經長到了四英尺以上

  • in length - and it was going to keep growing as long as it had things to eat in the tank.

    只要它在缸裡有東西吃,它就會繼續生長。

  • But one detail indicated just how much of an invasive threat these worms could be.

    但一個細節表明,這些蠕蟲的入侵威脅有多大。

  • The long creature covered in small spiked tentacles seemed to move as one, but before

    渾身長滿了小尖刺觸手的長形生物似乎一動不動,但在

  • the surveillance video that had discovered it started, its tail had been cut off.

    發現它的監控視頻開始,它的尾巴已經被切斷了。

  • And before the footage of the worm ended, the tail seemed to slither away independently

    而在蟲子的鏡頭結束前,尾巴似乎獨立地溜走了。

  • - indicating that each segment of the worm could potentially become its own creature.

    - 表明蠕蟲的每一段都有可能成為自己的生物。

  • And when the worm is as hungry and as deadly a predator as this one, that could be a major

    而當蟲子像這隻蟲子一樣飢餓和致命的捕食者時,這可能是一個重大的。

  • problem for any bodies of water it swims in - both as small as a fish tank, and as large

    它所遊的任何水體都有問題--無論是小到魚缸,還是大的水體。

  • as a sea.

    如海。

  • But some scientists worry that the creature may have another deadly weapon in its arsenal.

    但一些科學家擔心,這種生物的軍火庫中可能有另一種致命的武器。

  • When the Bobbit Worm became world-famous in 2013, everyone wanted to study the four-four

    2013年,當波比蟲成為世界著名的蟲子時,大家都想研究一下這個四四方方的蟲子

  • creature they nicknamedBarry”.

    他們暱稱為 "巴里 "的生物。

  • A newspaper quickly claimed that the worm likely had a devastating venom in its bristles

    一家報紙很快宣稱,這種蟲子的鬃毛中很可能有毀滅性的毒液。

  • - possibly causing permanent numbness and paralysis in humans who touch it.

    - 可能使接觸它的人永久麻木和癱瘓。

  • But scientists studying Barry raised doubts - the theory about the venom came from assessing

    但研究巴里的科學家提出了疑問--關於毒液的理論來自於評估

  • another family of worms called fireworms that have bristles capable of causing severe skin

    蟯蟲族

  • irritation.

    刺激。

  • However, the bobbit worms seem to be something very different despite some physical similarity

    然而,博比特蟲雖然在物理上有一些相似之處,但似乎是非常不同的東西。

  • to fireworms.

    到螢火蟲。

  • And possibly far more ancient.

    而且可能更古老。

  • The bobbit worm can cause a lot of havoc in fish tanks, but it's far more dangerous

    波比蟲會給魚缸造成很大的破壞,但它的危險性要大得多。

  • to the creatures it encounters in the wild.

    對它在野外遇到的生物。

  • It has a wide range, living in sandy and muddy areas near coral reefs.

    它的分佈範圍很廣,生活在珊瑚礁附近的沙地和泥地。

  • But it's notoriously hard to detect due to its ability to blend into its surroundings

    但由於它能與周圍環境融為一體,所以很難被發現。

  • and its habit of burrowing into the ground.

    以及其鑽入地下的習慣。

  • It can live deep under the water - as deep as 285 feet.

    它可以生活在水底深處,最深可達285英尺。

  • And while most of its prey never see it coming, a few fish have developed a unique defense

    雖然大多數獵物都沒有看到它的到來 但有一些魚已經開發出了獨特的防禦手段。

  • mechanism.

    機制。

  • A group of fish swim over the sea bed.

    一群魚兒在海床上游來游去。

  • Suddenly, the worm strikes, grabbing one of them.

    忽然,蟲子出手了,抓住了其中一隻。

  • But the other fish don't swim away and leave their schoolmate to its fate.

    但其他的魚兒並沒有遊走,任憑學姐的命運。

  • Instead, they mob the worm, shooting the worm and its burrow with jets of water from their

    相反,它們圍攻蟲子,用它們的水柱射殺蟲子和它的洞穴。

  • mouth, hoping to disorient it and make it let the other fish go.

    口,希望能迷惑它,讓它放過其他魚。

  • Does it work?

    它有用嗎?

  • Not always, but it gives them a fighting chance - and proves that in nature, few creatures

    並非總是如此,但它給了它們一個戰鬥的機會--並證明了在自然界中,很少有生物

  • are without some kind of defense.

    是沒有某種防禦的。

  • But has this nightmare worm really been stalking the seas for twenty million years?

    但是,這隻夢魘蟲真的已經在海洋中潛伏了兩千萬年嗎?

  • It's too early to tell if Eunice Aprhoditois and Penninchus are the same creature, but

    現在判斷尤妮絲-阿普霍迪託斯和潘寧克斯是否是同一種生物還為時過早,但... ...

  • they're likely closely related.

    他們很可能是密切相關的。

  • A look at the Bobbit Worm's reproductive cycle indicates they can live three to five

    觀察一下波比蟲的繁殖週期,就會發現它們可以活三到五歲。

  • years, but their eggs have a harder go of it - often being eaten by other animals before

    年,但它們的蛋卻更難受--往往在被其他動物吃掉之前

  • hatching.

    孵化。

  • Which may be the only time the nightmare worm is prey rather than predator.

    這可能是唯一一次夢魘蟲是獵物而不是捕食者。

  • How big would Penninchus grow?

    蟠龍魚會長到多大?

  • What were the biggest animals it hunted in ancient times?

    它在古代獵殺的最大動物是什麼?

  • The life cycle of its modern relative may provide some clues, but for now, the ancient

    它的現代親戚的生命週期可能會提供一些線索,但現在,古老的... ...

  • nightmare worm found in the seas off Taiwan is keeping many of its secrets locked up in

    在臺灣附近海域發現的夢魘蠕蟲將它的許多祕密都鎖在了臺灣附近海域。

  • the past.

    過去。

  • And most people are probably happy they won't be encountering it any time soon.

    而大多數人可能會慶幸自己不會在短時間內遇到它。

  • For more on nature's deadliest small predators, check outMurder Hornet Sting, This Is

    更多關於自然界最致命的小食肉動物的資訊,請查看《殺人黃蜂蜇人,這是

  • How Painful It Is”, or watchMost Venomous Animals In The World You Should Watch Out

    多麼痛苦",或觀看《世界上你應該小心的最毒的動物》。

  • For!” for some of the animal kingdom's secret killers.

    為!"對於動物王國的一些祕密殺手。

A small isopod scurries along the ocean floor, collecting food.

一隻小型的等足類動物在海底爬行,收集食物。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 生物 蟲子 獵物 蠕蟲 動物 化石

噩夢般的蠕蟲讓科學家們徹底嚇壞了。 (Nightmare Worm has Scientists Completely Freaked Out)

  • 4 0
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 20 日
影片單字