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  • Welcome to "Anatomy of a Proposal," the second in the professional communication series.

    歡迎來到「企畫書剖析」 專業溝通系列的第二部影片

  • My name is Soma Jurgensen, I'm the chair of the School of Business at Rasmussen College in Brooklyn Park Minnesota.

    我的名字是Soma Jurgensen 是位於Brooklyn Park Minnesota的Rasmussen College商學院的主任

  • For today's video, our learning objectives are to:

    在今天的影片之中 我們學習目標有

  • One, be able to organize a proposal into specific sections.

    第一 將企劃書組織成專門的區塊

  • Two, induce problem discovery in the problem statement,

    第二 在問題論述的地方進行問題探討

  • propose SMART solutions and to conclude your proposal with power.

    接著提出SMART原則之下的解決途徑 然後於最後留下強而有力的結尾

  • The organization of a proposal follows pretty common conventions.

    一個企畫書的編排 依循著相當普遍的成規

  • There's a purpose statement,

    有一個企劃宗旨

  • which is a short statement of about a paragraph explaining what you're proposing, why,

    也就是一個簡短的段落 說明你所要企畫的內容 為何提出這個企劃

  • and what the benefit will be to the company.

    以其對於公司的利益

  • There's a problem statement that fully identifies the problem,

    接著是問題論述 充分定義問題

  • but the most important characteristics of the problem

    但所探討的是問題最重要的特質

  • that than relate to your solution.

    也就是接著會關係到解決方案的部分

  • So your solution should be related directly to your problem.

    所以你的解決方案需要直接呼應到問題之上

  • And then there's the cost-benefit.

    然後接著是成本效益分析

  • Because any solution is going to require resources.

    因為任何的解決方案都需要動用資源

  • How do you balance that cost with the benefits that the organization realize?

    該如何平衡成本與公司所回收的成本?

  • And because proposals require approval to move forward,

    然後因為企劃書需要核准才能開始推動

  • how do you conclude with power to ensure the best chance have your proposal being instituted by the organization?

    所以 如何做才能透過有力的結尾 讓自己的企劃有最高的機會被公司所執行?

  • Start with the purpose.

    首先是企劃宗旨

  • A purpose statement is like a movie trailer or a pitch.

    企劃宗旨就像是電影預告或是提案

  • One of the most famous pitches is that for "Alien."

    最有名的提案就是《異形》

  • The person, who was pitching it, is rumored to have said that,

    提出這個提案的人 在傳言之中是這麼說的:

  • "Alien is like Jaws on a spaceship."

    「《異形》就是在太空船上的《大白鯊》」

  • That's it.

    就這樣

  • "Jaws on a spaceship."

    「在太空船上的《大白鯊》」

  • No extra words used.

    沒有贅字

  • All the connotations of Jaws, and all the magic,

    所以關於《大白鯊》的聯想 所有的魔法

  • and science fiction feelings and thoughts of a spaceship were brought together in that one sentence.

    那些關於太空船的科幻情感與想像 都在一個句子之中被帶出來

  • Now, I don't know that any purpose statement for a business can be quite that concise, or that visual,

    雖然我不知道任何商場上的活動企劃書 曾經做到著麼精簡 這麼具體

  • but you do want to keep it to a one-paragraph introduction.

    但你還是希望把一切濃縮在一個段落

  • This is like a trailer, you're getting a taste of what's coming, but you want to read more.

    這就像一個電影預告 你淺嚐即將端上來的東西 然後你想看得更多

  • In it, you want to identify the problem,

    在這之中 你會要定義問題

  • preview the solution,

    預告解決方案

  • and illustrate a better future.

    然後描繪一個美好的前景

  • In the Alien pitch, "Jaws on a spaceship."

    在《異形》的提案中就是 「太空船上的《大白鯊》」

  • Well, Jaws grossed quite a bit of money,

    《大白鯊》賺了好一些錢

  • and at the time that this idea was pitched,

    而這個提案被提出的時候

  • science fiction movies in those in space were getting quite a bit of attention.

    在宇宙中的科幻電影正獲得一些注目

  • So this better future for the producer, was clearly a lot more money for a famous grossing film,

    所以這個捧給製作人的美好前程 彰顯一個可以滾進的大量營收的強檔鉅片

  • which is exactly what Alien became.

    也就是《異形》最後的成果

  • Here's an example of a purpose statement:

    這裡是一個企劃宗旨的例子:

  • Gardens R Us has struggled to grow their business through more landscaping clients.

    「Gardens R Us 無法在景觀美化的客戶得到公司成長

  • A site audit reveals that rewriting website copy can optimize the site for landscaping search engine results

    一次的網頁稽核顯示 只要重新改寫網頁的程式語言 就可以優化「景觀美化」在收尋引擎之中的收尋結果

  • that will lead to new business.

    這會帶來新的商機

  • I've emphasize some words here.

    在這裡我強調了幾個字

  • So Gardens R Us is the organization that I work for in this case, as an example.

    所以Gardens R Us是我在這個案例之中服務的公司 以它為例

  • And I am indicating that this organization,

    然後我指出這個公司

  • my organization, has struggled to grow our business

    我的這個組織 在成長上遇到瓶頸

  • through more landscaping clients.

    在景觀美化的客戶這方面

  • We've conducted the site audit in our marketing department,

    在行銷部門之中 我們已經進行了網頁稽核

  • and it's revealed,

    然後它顯示

  • so you notice that I use evidence here,

    所以看到我在這邊用了證據

  • that rewriting the website's copy can optimize the site for the landscaping keyword search engine,

    重寫網頁的程式語言 會優化收尋引擎之上「景觀美化」的關鍵字查詢

  • So the search engines can find those results that will lead to new business.

    所以收尋引擎就可以找到這些結果 並帶來新的商機

  • So this is the example of the future.

    這就是一個「提及未來」的例子

  • So in a purpose statement ask yourself these questions and then hone it down to a single paragraph.

    所以在企劃宗旨之中 問你自己這幾個問題 並把一切濃縮到一個段落之中

  • And you notice no where here do I have the word "I."

    你同時也可以注意到我在這並沒有用「我」

  • Remember that a proposal is a professional document,

    記得企劃書是一份正式的文件

  • and therefore should be written in the third person professional.

    所以應該以專業的第三人稱書寫

  • So the first question is, what are you proposing?

    所以第一個問題是 你在企劃什麼?

  • In this case, I'm proposing rewriting website copy so that

    在這個例子之中 我提議重寫網頁的程式語言

  • landscaping can be optimized for search engine results.

    使「景觀美化」的收尋結果可以在收尋引擎中被優化

  • I'm proposing this because......

    我提出這個企劃是因為.....

  • And you notice I start with my reason,

    然後你會注意到我從「理由」出發

  • and then go to my solution,

    接著寫到「解決方案」

  • but this is just easier to think through as you're drafting.

    這是為了在打草稿時 可以思考的更流暢

  • So the reason I'm proposing this is

    所以我提出這個企劃的原因是

  • because my company has struggled to grow their business through more landscaping clients.

    因為公司在景觀美化的客戶方面遇到成長的困境

  • So this is what the business wants. And why?

    這是公司想要知道的 至於為什麼呢

  • Because the end benefit is new business. Right?

    因為最終效益是新商機 不是嗎?

  • They don't want to serve the same clients over and over again and just serve them more.

    他們不想要一直服務同樣的客戶 一而再再而三 然後再塞給他們更多東西

  • They want to bring in new clients in the landscaping area,

    他們希望可以在景觀美化地方帶入更多的新客戶

  • so with my end benefit, I've also shown that understand the needs of my company

    所以有了我的最終效益 我同時也展現我了解公司的需求

  • and what they're trying to do in their business.

    以及他們嘗試在做的工作

  • A lot to do in just a short paragraph.

    在短短一個段落之中 有很多需要做

  • The problem statement is next,

    問題論述是下一個

  • and, so, do delineate and organize under subheadings.

    務必描述和歸納在各子標題之下 (註:這邊講者突然插入這句話,意思是在企劃書的各個部分都需要做好描述以及歸納整理的工作)

  • So the problem statement can either be simply problem statement,

    所以問題論述可以直接是一個簡單的問題陳述

  • or you can reveal the problem in the subheading itself.

    或是在「問題論述」的子標題底下 揭發問題的本身

  • So in the case of the previous example,

    所以在前面的例子之中

  • I might say, "landscaping customers still hold only five percent of our business."

    我可以說:「景觀美化的客戶仍佔企業的5%」

  • So I do reveal that a serious problem exists in the problem statement.

    所以我在問題論述之中 揭露了一個嚴重的問題

  • But, do know, that it's a missed opportunity.

    但 請記清楚 這是一個錯失的機會

  • One thing you don't want to do is make the reader feel like you are criticizing their work.

    一件你不想要做的事情是讓讀者覺得你在批評他們過去的成果

  • That a serious problem exists that we're not getting landscape customers is something the

    你要說的是 現在存在一個嚴重的問題就是我們抓不住景觀美化的客戶

  • whole organization is struggling with.

    這是整個組織的困擾

  • And I've identified this as a missed opportunity for the company.

    然後我替公司洞悉了這個錯失的機會

  • So now I'm gonna define it in the problem statement.

    所以我要在問題論述之中定義著個問題

  • How long has our organization been trying to attract landscaping customers?

    我們公司嘗試吸引景觀美化的客戶多久了?

  • Why, in this case, landscaping customers are more profitable?

    為什麼在這個個案中景觀美化的客戶會更有利可圖?

  • For us there's less upkeep once the design is put into place by us,

    可能是因為 對我們來說 當新的設計上線後我們只需要更少的維護

  • and so as the customer stays longer we actually enjoy more profit from them.

    所以假如客戶可以待得更久 我們事實上就可以從他們身上享受更多的利益

  • And for whom is it a problem?

    然後對誰來說這是一個問題?

  • It's a problem for the whole organization because the growth in the health of this organization relies on new customers.

    這對於整個組織都是一個問題 因為公司能健全成長 仰賴著新的客戶

  • Support the symptoms with relevant statistics.

    利用相關的統計府做這些徵兆

  • At this point, I might say that,

    在這個點上 我可能會說

  • "5 percent of our customers are represented by landscaping business."

    「5%的客戶是由景觀美化的客戶提供」

  • "If our goal is 20 percent, I can say that we're still in the single digits

    「假如我們的目標是20% 那我可以說我們仍然只在目標的第一個位數

  • while we are trying to reach a 20 percent of business out of landscaping customers."

    當我們正在努力達成20%來自景觀美化的客戶比例」

  • That's a relevant statistic.

    這就是相關的統計

  • Now some other symptoms you might say that are:

    現在 其他你能說的徵兆有

  • "when we do get a new landscaping customer,

    「當我們攫獲一個新的景觀美化用戶時

  • we tend to lose them at twice the rate of our gardening services for snowplow customers."

    我們常以兩倍的速度流失他們 相較於使用庭園服務的除雪客戶」

  • Right? Relevant statistic. Losing customers is a symptom.

    對吧? 相關的統計 失去客戶就是一個徵兆

  • Those small number of landscape customers is a symptom.

    那些極少數的景觀美化客戶就是一個徵兆

  • And third might say, "perhaps our current landscaping customers

    然第三你可能說:「或許我們現階段的景觀美化客戶

  • have told us that we don't have the expertise to meet their needs properly."

    曾經告訴過我們 我們沒有專業技能可以適切地完成他們的要求」

  • And so that's another symptom that we can put some relevant statistics to.

    所這些就是其他你可以用相關數據去佐證的徵兆

  • Does the owner have landscaping architecture as their primary education?

    屋主是否有將景觀美化建築 作為基礎的教育?

  • Is it something that we should develop?

    有沒有什麼是我們需要去開發的?

  • Is their expertise that we can bring in from outside for design,

    有沒有專業人士 是我們可以從外部請來幫忙做設計的

  • but then satisfy the other areas that a customer would need.

    但同時又能夠滿足客戶在其他方面的需求

  • So these symptoms need to be supported with specifics

    所以這些徵兆需要用具體的事物去佐證

  • because that's one way to grow credibility.

    因為這是增加可信度的一個方式

  • If you'd like to read a little bit more about making a case in your problem statement,

    假如你想要多閱讀一點關於「如何在問題論述之中大作文章」

  • and how symptoms can be substantiated,

    以及徵兆如何被證實

  • please visit the Sofia packet on "Making a Case in your Problem Statement" at your leisure.

    請在閒餘之時造訪Sofia的訊息包「在問題論述中大作文章」

  • Now, after the problem statement, of course,

    之後 在問題論述之後 當然

  • you're going to propose a solution.

    你需要提出一個解決方案

  • That's why you began the proposal in the first place.

    這就是你一開始撰寫企劃的原因

  • Now you'll notice I did not jump right into my recommended solution

    你可以注意到 我沒有馬上跳到我的推薦解決方案之中

  • because, first, I have to bring the reader along with the discovery of the problem with me.

    因為 首先 你需要帶著讀者依同來探索問題

  • Perhaps they knew they were frustrated by this five percent of landscaping customers,

    或許他們知道他們正為5%景觀美化的客戶所擾

  • but they couldn't understand what was happening.

    但完全不了解發生了什麼事

  • And we have, in our problem statement, brought other symptoms to light.

    此時我已經 在問題論述之中 將徵兆都點明了

  • So now, this may sound elementary, but state your solution.

    所以這個時候 雖然聽起來很基本 就可以表述你的解決方案

  • State it quickly, state it clearly.

    寫的快速而簡潔

  • Do not assume that your reader knows exactly what you want to happen,

    不要期待你的讀者會了解你所希望發生的事情

  • and don't allow them to read through several paragraphs to find your solution.

    然後不要讓他們閱遍了好幾個段落才找到解決方案

  • So, in this case, I would state clearly that

    所以 在這個個案中 我會清楚寫道:

  • "after a site audit, on page copywriting optimization is the way that we can reach more landscape customers."

    「在網頁稽核之後 網頁程式語言的改寫是我們接觸更多景觀美化客戶的方法」

  • That has related it directly to the problem.

    這就將它直接導回問題之上了

  • If we reach more landscaping customers, and show the expertise that we have on our website,

    假如我們接觸到更多景觀美化客戶 並在網頁上向他們展現我們的專業能力

  • and show our ability to do the work for our contractors,

    並展現我們幫承包商做事的能力

  • then we can keep those landscape customers.

    我們就可以留下這些景觀美化的客戶

  • And this plan is workable.

    這個方案是可行的

  • We're not talking about hiring a consultant to completely redesign our website,

    我不是在討論找一個顧問來全部重寫我們的網頁

  • or create a million dollar advertising campaign.

    或是製作一支上百萬的廣告

  • We're talking about something that, although challenging, is workable for our organization.

    我們在談的是一件 雖然具挑戰性 但對於組織是可行的一件事

  • And we want to make it SMART, so if you recall from my last video that means:

    所以我們要透過SMART落實 假如你記得上一支影片

  • S being specific, using specific language and goals.

    S就是具體 用具體的語言和目標

  • So rewriting our website optimizes for landscaping search terms in order to increase our websearch results.

    所以重寫我們的網路語言 會優化我們在「景觀美化」上面的收尋成果

  • That's specific language in goals.

    這就是討論目標時 具體的語言

  • How will you measure success?

    要如何衡量成效?

  • At this point in my solution, I might say that,

    在這個點上 我可能會在解決方案中說:

  • "we would like to see our increase for landscaping services increase by seventy-five percent,

    「我們希望詢問景觀美化服務的客戶提升75%

  • and if just two percent of them turned over into customers

    假如2%的可以成為真正的消費者

  • that would increase our number of landscape customers in six months to 10 percent and double it.

    那就會在六月後讓景觀美化的客戶達到10% 讓原本的數字翻倍

  • Now I'm talking about how to measure success.

    現在我所談的就是衡量成效

  • And do I have support from experts at this point in my proposal?

    接著是 我的企劃之中 是否有專家的支持?

  • I would show the impact that page copy optimization has on bringing in new customers

    我會顯示 修改網路語言後的優化 所帶來的新客戶

  • and turning them into clients, paying clients.

    並讓他們成為用戶 付費的用戶

  • I know that research is out there, so I will borrow from external experts to add credibility to my position and my recommendation.

    我知道研究就在那裏 所以我會借用外部專業人士的言語來為我的立場和建議增加可信度

  • So this is my A, my agreed upon. And M for measurable.

    這就是我的A 我的一致性 還有之前的M 可衡量性

  • So R for realistic. Challenging, yes, but realistic

    R是實際 雖然有挑戰 但也要實際

  • Realistic is something that we can do with effort and resources.

    實際就是我們可以透過努力和資源達成的事情

  • And finally time bound.

    最後是時限

  • I would recommend in my solution that we follow a particular timetable that

    我會在我的解決方案之中 建議遵循一個特定的時間表

  • we conclude a site audit, do a competitive analysis of keyword search terms,

    我們會完成一個網頁稽核 做關鍵字查詢的競爭分析

  • test the new copy by three months so that

    在三個月內完成新的程式語言

  • our new copy is ready to launch two months before our busiest time of the year,

    以致我們新的網頁程式語言 可以在今年最忙時間點的兩個月之前上線

  • so two months before spring, okay.

    所以在春天前的兩個月 可以吧

  • That is what allows my solution to be SMART.

    這就是用SMART方法落實的解決方法

  • But first I have to convince my reader that my solution relates directly to the problem that I've reveal to them.

    但我得先說服我的讀者 我所提供的解決方案是與我揭露的問題直接相關的

  • And now you have to be clear about the resources that you need.

    所以現在你需要清楚你所需要的資源

  • So this is the costs and benefits section.

    這就是成本效益分析的部分

  • First is time, that is a resource.

    首先是時間 這是一個資源

  • Someone's time needs to be spent rewriting the website and writing new copy researching keyword terms.

    有人需要哈時間編寫新的網頁語言 編寫新的關鍵字搜尋

  • There is some money involved potentially, because you would have to pay that person.

    這其中很可能牽涉到錢 因為你會需要支付那個人薪資

  • You might decide that you want to pay a copywriter.

    你或許會決定雇用一個程式設計師

  • There's going to be people needed either you're gonna have to hire them or you're going to have to redirect their work from within the organization.

    你會需要人 因為你要不就是聘僱新的人 或是從公司內部找人指派新的工作

  • So now my benefits have to outweigh the costs.

    所以現在我的利益一定要超出我的成本

  • In this case when benefit is very quantifiable, I can calculate the new business.

    在這個例子中 利益是可以計算的 所以我可以計算這個新商機

  • So if I get even one new landscape customer that stays with us through two seasons,

    所以假如我們攫獲一個新的景觀美化客戶 並使他跟著我們超過兩季

  • I make enough profit to pay for the solution.

    我就會有足夠的營利去吸收解決方案的成本

  • Now my original solution says that success would mean seven new customers,

    在本來的方案之中 成功可能代表著我需要七個新客戶

  • so I have more than paid for the resources I have used for this project.

    所以我現在所回收的利益比企劃所投資的資源還多 (註:講者在這邊講得比較複雜,簡單說這個企劃只要有一個客戶就可以損益兩平,而企劃所預計增加的新客戶是七人,所以賺的比成本支出的還要來的多)

  • Sometimes the benefits, however, will not be monetarily quantifiable,

    但有時候 利益沒有辦法以金錢來衡量

  • so think about it from the reader's perspective.

    所以試著從讀者的角度出發

  • If I am talking to a nonprofit organization, and I'm trying to bring in clients from other areas,

    假如我現在正在跟非營利機構談合作 然後我想試著引進新的客源

  • so for example, the Courage Center which is very well known in the Minnesota area for helping people with disabilities lead full lives.

    舉例來說 Courage Center是明尼蘇打知名的機構 幫助身障人士走出完滿的人生

  • I wouldn't necessarily be able to quantify through profit

    我無法用利益的方式計算

  • how our website optimization might affect business,

    我們的網頁優化會如何影響這個商機

  • but if I'm able to reach more people who have disabilities,

    但假如我可以接觸到更多的身障人士

  • and find them meaningful jobs, find them places to live where they can be independent.

    讓他們做有意義的工作 並找到讓他們可以獨立居住的空間

  • That benefit can also be weighed against the costs of the project.

    那這樣的利益也是可以拿來與公司成本衡量的 (註:這邊講者所要講的是從身心障礙者身上,找到新的勞動市場)

  • So don't be afraid to relate it to the mission or the core values of the organization, as well.

    所以別害怕把這些事情回歸到公司的組織目標或核心價值

  • And all this that we've done is well and good,

    所以我們現在所做的這些 已經相當不錯了

  • but this work, if you don't conclude by asking for what you want,

    但這個工作 假如你不以你所要的作為結尾

  • will not make for a successful proposal.

    那這就不是一個成功的企劃

  • So it's that time.

    所以這就是時候了

  • Remind the reader that change is necessary, you've made a good case for change.

    提醒你的讀者改變是必要的 你已經提供了一個很好的改變機會

  • Emphasize the benefits to the decision maker, do not go over the mean points of your solution.

    對決策者強調好處 然後不要提解決方案中刻薄的部分

  • Now's the time to create a word picture in their mind.

    現在是在他們腦中建立圖像的時候

  • So now you have rooms filled with people who need job placement and places to live,

    所以現在你有一屋子的人需要工作 然後需要居住的地方

  • and who need counseling through their disability.

    然後對於他們身心上的障礙 我們需要諮詢

  • You have a roster filled with landscaping customers,

    你有一整張列表的景觀美化客戶

  • so that your spring and summer are already full two months out.

    所以在春季與夏季 你已經有兩個月被占的滿滿的了

  • What does success look like from the readers point of view.

    成功現在讀者的觀點看起如何呀?

  • And then ask for the next steps.

    接著尋求下一個步驟

  • Depending on where you are in your organization, and how far your process is,

    端視你在組織之中的位置 以及計畫走到了哪裡

  • you could ask for approval right then and there.

    你可以就在現場要求核准

  • However, you typically might want to ask what next steps are.

    但基本上 你還是需要問接下來的步驟是什麼

  • At this point you might want to ask for an opportunity to meet and talk about the proposal.

    在這個時間點上 你可能會請求一個機會會談這個企劃

  • There is a deadline, for example, if we're going to make this proposal work,

    舉個例子 可能有一個死限 假如你想要這個企劃成功推行

  • we will need to sit down and start our timeline as early as next month,

    所以我們可能需要在下個月之前 坐下來好好規劃時程

  • so let's come together on approval the next two weeks.

    所以我們不如在兩個禮拜後核准這個企劃

  • That type of a thing.

    這一類的東西

  • So it's time to ask for your action that you were hoping for from the very beginning.

    所以現在就是時間 請求你一開始就想要拿出的行動

  • Thank you very much for your time.

    謝謝你抽空聆聽

Welcome to "Anatomy of a Proposal," the second in the professional communication series.

歡迎來到「企畫書剖析」 專業溝通系列的第二部影片

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提案解剖 (Anatomy of a Proposal)

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    Colin Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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