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  • April 23, 1771, some people were sitting around reading news articles published by theEssex

    1771年4月23日,一些人正圍坐在一起閱讀《埃塞克斯報》發表的新聞文章。

  • Gazette.”

    報紙。"

  • One article was dedicated to the punishment of a man named William Carlisle.

    有一篇文章是專門寫對一個叫威廉-卡萊爾的人的懲罰。

  • He'd been found guilty of using counterfeit money in the town of Newport, Massachusetts.

    他在馬薩諸塞州新港鎮被發現使用假幣,罪名成立。

  • The newspaper said he was sentenced to one hour in the pillory, during which time both

    該報稱,他被判處在藥房裡呆一個小時,期間兩

  • his cheeks were branded with the letter “R'.

    他的臉頰被烙上了 "R "字。

  • That was because he'd been accused of being a “rogue”.

    那是因為他被指控為 "流氓"。

  • If that wasn't bad enough, they sliced off both of his ears.

    如果這還不夠糟的話,他們還把他的兩隻耳朵切掉了。

  • Needless to say, they were tough on crime back in those days.

    不用說,那時候他們對犯罪的打擊是很嚴厲的。

  • We found this information in a series of notes and news clippings in something called, “The

    我們在一系列的筆記和新聞剪報中發現了這些資訊,在一個叫 "The "的東西里。

  • olden time series - some strange and curious punishments.”

  • Most of the crimes and the punishments discussed had taken place in Boston and Salem, Massachusetts.

    所討論的大部分罪行和懲罰都發生在波士頓和馬薩諸塞州的塞勒姆。

  • It makes for interesting reading.

    這讓人讀起來很有意思。

  • Someone who'd written a book that had upset the authorities was forced to literally eat

    有人寫了一本讓當局不高興的書 被逼著真的吃下了

  • his own words.

    他自己說。

  • That meant the book he'd written was pulled apart and then force-fed to the hapless man.

    這意味著他寫的書被拉開,然後強行餵給那個無奈的人。

  • He had to eat the pages until the authorities thought if he ate more, he'd die.

    他必須吃下這些書頁,直到當局認為如果他吃多了,就會死。

  • For worse crimes, there were worse measures.

    對於更惡劣的犯罪,有更惡劣的措施。

  • Pirates just about always went to the gallows, although those people who'd been forced

    海盜總是被送上絞刑架,雖然那些被強迫的人

  • to work on pirate ships got off lightly.

    在海盜船上工作的人輕而易舉地脫身了。

  • Robberies also usually meant execution, as did murder, or in one case, an attempted murder

    搶劫通常也意味著處決,謀殺也是如此,或者在一個案件中,謀殺未遂。

  • of a woman by her husband.

    丈夫對女人的。

  • Petty thievery it seems usually resulted in the accused being whipped.

    小偷似乎通常會導致被告被鞭打。

  • In another case, a man accused of being a bad husband was paraded through town and shouted

    在另一起案件中,一名被指控為壞丈夫的男子被遊街示眾,並高聲喊道:"我是一個壞丈夫。

  • at by the mobs.

    在由暴徒。

  • As for unruly kids in olden days America.

    至於舊時代美國的不守規矩的孩子。

  • Sometimes teachers would make them put walnuts in their mouths, so they were unable to speak.

    有時老師會讓他們把核桃塞進嘴裡,讓他們無法說話。

  • Other kids would be forced to walk around all day carrying a heavy stone.

    其他孩子會被迫整天揹著沉重的石頭走來走去。

  • One teacher had something he called thethe mansion of misery”, which was a space he'd

    有一位老師有一個被他稱為 "苦難的大廈 "的東西,這是他的一個空間。

  • drawn with chalk on the floor where naughty kids had to stand for hours perfectly still.

    用粉筆在地板上畫出了調皮的孩子們必須站在那裡幾個小時不動。

  • If they moved, they might take a beating with his paddle.

    如果他們動起手來,說不定會被他的帕子打一頓。

  • Just so you better understand the climate of the times, here are some more punishments

    為了讓你更好地瞭解這個時代的風氣,這裡還有一些懲罰措施

  • we found: A woman who'd been fighting for women's

    我們發現。一個一直在為婦女爭取權益的女人。

  • rights was accused of upsetting the elders.

    權被指責為擾亂長輩。

  • For that, her tongue was literally tied.

    為此,她的舌頭真的被綁住了。

  • Another person wastied neck and heels and thrown into a pond.”

    還有一個人被 "綁住脖子和腳後跟,扔進池塘"。

  • That's just brutal.

    這實在是太殘忍了。

  • One person got off lucky and was only, “tied to a tree and chastised.”

    有一個人僥倖脫險,只是,"被綁在樹上,受到責罰"。

  • The person who was sentenced to having theirtongue bored with a hot ironwasn't

    被判處 "舌尖上的熱烙鐵 "的人並不是

  • so fortunate.

    如此幸運。

  • Quite a few folks were forced to walk on thetreadmill”, which was a bit like a step

    不少鄉親被迫走在 "跑步機 "上,有點像臺階的感覺

  • machine in the gym except you couldn't get off.

    在健身房的機器,除了你不能下車。

  • Perhaps the most bizarre punishment we found in this booklet was someone being, “sewed

    也許我們在這本小冊子中發現的最奇怪的懲罰是,有人被 "縫合"。

  • up in bed-clothes and thrashed.”

    在床上的衣服和毆打。"

  • In view of that, ear-cropping wasn't exactly a big thing back then.

    有鑑於此,當時的割耳並不是什麼大事情。

  • There were a whole host of cruel and unusual punishments in what was called the New World.

    在被稱為新世界的地方,有一大堆殘酷異常的懲罰。

  • But you might be wondering, because they had so many strange punishments, what made the

    但你可能會好奇,因為他們有這麼多奇怪的懲罰,是什麼讓他們的

  • judge choose a certain one?

    法官選擇某一個?

  • Well, execution was reserved for the worst punishments, and whipping was very common

    嗯,處決是留給最嚴重的懲罰,鞭打是非常普遍的。

  • indeed.

    的確

  • When it came to ear-cropping and branding the onus was on making the person live the

    當涉及到挖耳和烙印的時候,責任是讓人活出了

  • rest of their lives in shame.

    羞愧地度過餘生。

  • Forevermore when they walked around people knew they'd committed a crime.

    當他們走來走去的時候,人們永遠知道他們犯了罪。

  • With branding, a person wore the letter that represented the particular crime.

    有了烙印,一個人戴著代表特定犯罪的字母。

  • So, if they were a cheat, or adulterer as people would say back then, they were branded

    所以,如果他們是一個金光黨,或者是當時人們所說的通姦者,他們就被打上了烙印

  • with an A. If they were a blasphemer, they got a B. Drunks, likely drunks who'd caused

    如果他們是一個褻瀆者,他們得到的是B。 醉漢,很可能是醉漢,誰造成的。

  • trouble, would forevermore wear a D. Thieves got a T, and people accused of forgery got

    盜賊得了個T,被控造假的人得了。

  • an F. So then, why take a person's ear?

    那麼,為什麼要把一個人的耳朵?

  • Well, it's complicated.

    嗯,這很複雜。

  • Let's now visit England and see why it happened there.

    現在讓我們去英國看看為什麼會發生在那裡。

  • Take for instance the story of a man named Thomas Barrie.

    以一個叫托馬斯-巴利的人的故事為例。

  • He was what was called analmoner”.

    他就是所謂的 "杏仁人"。

  • This was a person of the church who did the nice thing of giving alms to the poor.

    這是一個教會的人,他做了施捨給窮人的好事。

  • It was a good job to have, but it didn't prevent a person from getting into trouble.

    這是個好工作,但這並不能阻止一個人陷入困境。

  • Barrie was around during the reign of King Henry VIII.

    巴利在英王亨利八世在位期間。

  • Close to the end of Henry's life, Barrie started saying he'd heard that the king

    在亨利生命接近尾聲的時候,巴利開始說他聽說過國王...

  • was already dead.

    已經死了。

  • He thought he had reliable sources, so he went about telling people.

    他認為自己有可靠的消息來源,所以他就去告訴別人。

  • The trouble was, Henry wasn't dead.

    問題是,亨利還沒死。

  • Saying the king is dead was a huge crime back then, and one that would usually result in

    說國王死了,在當時是個大罪,而且通常會導致...

  • execution since it was an act of treason.

    因為這是一種叛國行為。

  • Barrie wasn't sentenced to death, but he was sentenced to standing in the pillory all

    巴利沒有被判處死刑 但他被判處一直站在枕頭房裡

  • day long while people in the market square stood around calling him treasonous while

    當人們在市場廣場上圍著他罵他是叛國賊的時候

  • throwing rotten vegetables at him.

    向他扔爛菜。

  • If that wasn't bad enough, his ears were nailed to the wood.

    如果這還不夠糟糕,他的耳朵被釘在木頭上。

  • As the sun went down that day, the authorities cut off his ears and let him out of the pillory.

    那天太陽下山,當局割掉他的耳朵,讓他出了藥房。

  • Some sources say he died of shock there and then, but other sources say he lived on.

    有的消息說他當時就休克死了,但也有消息說他還活著。

  • This was one form of cropping.

    這是裁剪的一種形式。

  • They always intended to take off his ears, but worse, the punishment was intended for

    他們總是打算摘掉他的耳朵,但更糟糕的是,懲罰的目的是為了

  • the person to struggle in the pillory while dealing with a sometimes hostile mob, and

    (b) 在面對有時是敵對的暴徒時,在監獄中掙扎;以及

  • therefore rip their own ears off.

    是以把自己的耳朵扯下來。

  • It was also a symbolic punishment in this case since Barrie had spread rumors which

    在本案中,這也是一種象徵性的懲罰,因為巴里散佈了謠言,而這些謠言是

  • had entered other people's heads through their ears.

    已經通過耳朵進入了別人的腦袋。

  • Then there was William Prynne.

    然後是威廉-白蘭因。

  • In the 17th century, he was well-known for writing a lot of pamphlets that delineated

    在17世紀,他因寫了很多小冊子而聞名於世,這些小冊子劃分了

  • his religious beliefs.

    他的宗教信仰。

  • He was quite the Puritan and detested all forms of decadence, including drinking booze,

    他是相當的清教徒,討厭一切形式的頹廢,包括飲酒。

  • which was as common as drinking water in his native England.

    在他的家鄉英國,這就像飲用水一樣普遍。

  • He even hated acting, which put him on the wrong side of King Charles I. Charlie's

    他甚至討厭演戲,這讓他站在了查理一世國王的對立面。

  • wife was a big fan of the theater.

    妻子是個戲迷。

  • To cut a long story short, Prynne bugged a lot of people, a lot of powerful people.

    長話短說,白蘭因禍害了很多人,很多有權勢的人。

  • He ended up in prison, but even while in a cell, he managed to troll the people he didn't

    他最後被關進了監獄 但即使在牢房裡,他也能挖苦那些他不喜歡的人。

  • like.

    喜歡。

  • That's why in 1633 he had SL branded on both cheeks, which stood for Seditious Libel.

    所以在1633年,他的兩頰都被烙上了SL的印記,這代表著煽動性誹謗。

  • They also sliced off both his ears.

    他們還切掉了他的兩隻耳朵。

  • Even though he walked with marks of shame, King Charles II took a liking to him and he

    儘管他走路時帶著恥辱的痕跡,但國王查理二世還是喜歡上了他,他。

  • spent the latter part of his life a free man.

    後半生都是自由人。

  • We found quite a few cases of people accused of libel in England who were given a hefty

    我們發現,在英國有不少被指控誹謗的人,被判處鉅額的

  • prison sentence to be served without a pair of ears.

    獄中服刑,沒有一雙耳朵。

  • Believe it or not, England had a kind of three-strikes law long before it was introduced in the USA.

    信不信由你,英國早在美國引進三擊法之前,就有一種三擊法。

  • Under Henry VIII, the Vagabonds Act 1530 came into existence.

    在亨利八世的統治下,《1530年流浪漢法》應運而生。

  • It's said to be one of the first poor laws, a kind of welfare, because it made sure that

    據說這是最早的窮人法律之一,是一種福利,因為它確保了... ...

  • beggars could have a license to beg if they applied for one.

    乞丐如果申請了乞討執照,就可以擁有乞討執照。

  • This was better than before because prior to that they might have just been punished.

    這比之前要好,因為之前他們可能只是受到懲罰。

  • The law, however, was tough on vagrants, people accused of just not wanting to work rather

    然而,法律對流浪者是嚴厲的,人們被指控只是不想工作,而不是。

  • than being disabled or old.

    比起殘疾或年老。

  • Under this new law, if people were arrested for vagrancy the first time they were put

    根據這項新法律,如果人們第一次因流浪而被捕,他們就會被關進監獄。

  • in the stocks for three days.

    在股價三天。

  • But if they were caught again, they had their ears shorn off.

    但如果再被抓到,他們的耳朵就會被削掉。

  • If they were struck out a third time they were executed.

    如果他們第三次被三振出局,就會被處死。

  • So, it was during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Britain that ear-cropping was

    所以,在十六、十七世紀的英國,割耳術是

  • sometimes the go-to punishment for sedition, which basically means saying things that might

    有時是對煽動叛亂的懲罰,這基本上意味著說的東西,可能會。

  • make people want to rebel against the authorities, mainly the church and the monarchy.

    使人們想要反抗當局,主要是教會和君主制。

  • Ear-cropping actually didn't happen too often, but there are plenty of reliable resources

    掏耳朵的事情其實並不常發生,但有很多可靠的資源。

  • that stated it definitely did happen.

    說的絕對是真的。

  • Here's what a British chronicler wrote after he'd watched a person having his ears cropped.

    這是一個英國的編年史家在看到一個人被剪掉耳朵後寫的。

  • The executioner cut off his ears deep and closewith much effusion of blood, an artery

    "劊子手把他的耳朵深深地割了下來... ...流了很多血,是一條大動脈

  • being cut.”

    被砍。"

  • The further we looked into this, we found that in some countries other body parts might

    我們越是深入研究,發現在一些國家,其他身體部位可能會

  • have been removed.

    已被刪除。

  • When nuns rebelled in the 6th century at a French Benedictine monastery, some of them

    6世紀時,當修女們在法國本篤會的一個修道院裡造反時,他們中的一些人

  • had their noses removed.

    鼻子被切除。

  • It happened a bit later to the Byzantine emperor, Justinian II.

    這種情況稍後發生在拜占庭皇帝查士丁尼二世身上。

  • After that, he wore a golden prosthesis.

    之後,他戴上了金色的假肢。

  • Apparently, this kind of mutilation was common in Byzantine culture, as it was in parts of

    顯然,這種殘害行為在拜占庭文化中很常見,在部分地區也是如此。

  • East Asia.

    東亞:

  • In ancient Egypt, there was something called thegreat harem conspiracy”.

    在古埃及,有一種叫做 "大後宮陰謀 "的東西。

  • A harem had conspired to bring down the ruler, pharaoh Ramesses III.

    一個後宮密謀推翻統治者法老拉美西斯三世。

  • That resulted in a few people losing not only their noses but also their ears.

    這導致一些人不僅失去了鼻子,還失去了耳朵。

  • Scholars sometimes disagree about the translation of this version of events, but it seems quite

    學者們有時對這一事件版本的翻譯有不同意見,但似乎很

  • a few conspirators were executed, others were forced to take their own lives, some lost

    少數陰謀家被處決,其他人被迫自殺,一些人失去了

  • their nose and ears, and at least one was given a “severeverbal warning.

    他們的鼻子和耳朵,至少有一人被給予 "嚴厲 "的口頭警告。

  • In fact, we found this kind of thing happening all over the place back in the day.

    其實,我們發現這種事情在當年到處都有發生。

  • When the great Danish king, king Cnut reigned over not only Denmark but England and Norway,

    當年丹麥大王庫納特國王不僅統治丹麥,還統治英國和挪威。

  • he introduced some new laws.

    他出臺了一些新的法律。

  • This is how one of them went, “A woman who commits adultery with another man whilst her

    他們中的一個人是這樣說的:"一個女人在與另一個男人通姦的同時,她的...

  • husband is still alive, and is found out, shall suffer public disgrace, and her husband

    丈夫還活著,如果被發現,將遭受公眾的恥辱,而她的丈夫

  • will have all her property, and she will lose her nose and ears.”

    將擁有她所有的財產,她將失去她的鼻子和耳朵。"

  • In various parts of the world at some point in time the crime of adultery could have led

    在世界不同的地方,通姦罪在某些時候可能會導致。

  • to losing a nose or ears.

    到失去鼻子或耳朵。

  • In some cases, the part of the body that came off was a man's penis, and other times,

    在某些情況下,身體脫落的部分是男人的陰莖,而其他時候。

  • a person's eyes could be gouged out.

    一個人的眼睛可能會被挖掉。

  • But let's stick with the ears for now and hear more about ear-cropping in North America.

    但我們還是先從耳朵說起,聽聽北美地區更多關於耳朵的介紹。

  • The winter of 1609-1610 was a bad time in the Virginia colony.

    1609-1610年的冬天,是弗吉尼亞殖民地的一段糟糕的時期。

  • In fact, it was called, “The Starving Time.”

    其實,它的名字叫,"飢餓的時光"。

  • A lot of people literally had nothing to eat.

    很多人真的沒有東西吃。

  • This is how one person described it, “Having fed upon horses and other beasts as long as

    有一個人是這樣描述的:"以馬和其他野獸為食,只要。

  • they lasted, we were glad to make shift with vermin, as dogs, cats, and mice.”

    他們持續,我們很高興與害蟲,如狗,貓,和老鼠的轉變。"

  • Some people also apparently ate shoe leather and the rotten flesh from corpses they'd

    有些人顯然還吃了鞋皮和屍體上的腐肉,他們會

  • dug up.

    挖出。

  • It wasn't a nice scene at all.

    這場面一點也不好看。

  • You can imagine these folks weren't exactly soft on crime.

    可想而知,這些人對犯罪並不手軟。

  • If people were found stealing food during the starving time it was very likely they'd

    如果人們在飢餓的時候被發現偷吃東西,很有可能他們就會

  • be punished in a cruel and unusual way.

    以殘忍和不尋常的方式受到懲罰;

  • If it was just petty theft, they might have had something called a bodkin inserted in

    如果只是小偷小摸的話,他們可能會有一種叫做 "bodkin "的東西插在......的地方。

  • their tongue.

    他們的舌頭。

  • This device kind of looked like an arrowhead or a spike.

    這個裝置有點像箭鏃或尖刺。

  • That wasn't close to the worst that could happen.

    這還沒有達到最壞的情況。

  • In 1623 in Virginia a guy named Captain Richard Quailes was sent to the pillory, although

    1623年,在弗吉尼亞州,一個叫理查德-奎爾斯上尉的人被送進了監獄,雖然... ...

  • it's not exactly clear why.

    這不是很清楚的原因。

  • This is what was written about the nature of his punishment.

    這是對他的懲罰性質的寫照。

  • He should beset upon the pillory with his ears nailed thereto, they either to be

    他應該 "被釘在枕頭上,耳朵被釘在上面,它們要麼就是

  • cut off of or redeemed by paying the fine of 100 pounds sterling.”

    罰款100英鎊,就可以切斷或贖回"。

  • Fast-forward to 1755 and a person might have picked up the Maryland Gazette.

    快進到1755年,一個人可能已經拿起了《馬里蘭公報》。

  • On one particular day, they'd have read that an African-American woman had been flogged

    在某一天,他們會讀到一個非裔美國婦女被鞭打的消息。

  • but also had herears cropped close.”

    但也把她的 "耳朵剪得很近"。

  • Around the same time, someone might have readThe Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania.”

    大約在同一時間,有人可能讀過 "賓夕法尼亞州的法規"。

  • This was what that law said about counterfeiting.

    這是那部法律對造假的規定。

  • Such person or persons shall be sentenced to the pillory and to have both his or her

    "這些人應被判處監禁,並將其兩邊的人都送進監獄。

  • ears cut off and nailed to the pillory, and to be publicly whipped on his or her bare

    割下耳朵,釘在枕頭上,並當眾鞭打他或她的裸體。

  • back with thirty-one lashes well laid on.”

    後面有三十一根睫毛鋪好。"

  • Horse thieves received a similar punishment, but they might also have been branded with

    盜馬賊也會受到類似的懲罰,但他們也可能被打上了 "馬賊 "的烙印。

  • the letters, H.T.

    的信件,H.T。

  • In 1782, a guy named Brice McWhimney of Bedford County, Pennsylvania, lost his ears after

    1782年,賓夕法尼亞州貝德福德縣的一個叫布萊斯-麥克維姆尼的人,在失去了他的耳朵以後

  • stealing a horse, but it seems he didn't get the brand treatment.

    偷馬,但似乎他沒有得到品牌待遇。

  • He did get 39 lashes, though.

    不過他確實被打了39鞭。

  • In 1790, in Tennessee, two guys named John Wilson and Joseph Fulsome were accused of

    1790年,在田納西州,兩個叫約翰-威爾遜和約瑟夫-福爾索姆的人被指控為

  • horse stealing.

    偷馬。

  • Their punishment was to beconfined in the public pillory for the space of one hour,

    他們的懲罰是 "被關在公堂裡一個小時。

  • and that each of them have both their ears nailed to the pillory and severed from their

    他們每個人的雙耳都被釘在枕頭上,並從他們的身上割下。

  • heads.”

    頭。"

  • In 1794, a slave in Virginia was accused of stealing a hog from the man that enslaved

    1794年,弗吉尼亞州的一個奴隸被指控從奴役他的人那裡偷了一頭豬。

  • him.

    他。

  • He had one of his ears nailed to the pillory and after an hour it was cut off.

    他的一隻耳朵被釘在枕頭上,過了一個小時就被割掉了。

  • Then his other ear was nailed to the pillory and that too was cut off after an hour.

    然後他的另一隻耳朵被釘在枕頭上,一個小時後也被割掉了。

  • The New England Puritans created something called the Blue Laws, likely called that because

    新英格蘭的清教徒們創造了一種叫做藍色法律的東西,很可能是由於

  • they were written on blue paper.

    他們是寫在藍紙上的。

  • The laws related to being impious, which could mean a lot of things.

    與不虔誠有關的法律,這可能意味著很多東西。

  • Drinking too much, or shopping on a Sunday, or even showing someone too much affection,

    喝酒喝多了,或者週日逛街,甚至向別人表達太多感情。

  • could land a person in trouble.

    可能會讓一個人陷入困境。

  • It was normal in New England but seen as backward in some other places.

    這在新英格蘭很正常,但在其他一些地方卻被視為落後。

  • A woman could even have been found guilty of theexcessive wearing of lacebecause

    一名婦女甚至可能被認定為 "過度穿著蕾絲",因為

  • that could get men aroused.

    能讓男人興奮的。

  • Back then, men in the town of New Haven were forced to wear a hat on Saturday and shave

    那時候,紐黑文鎮的男人們被迫在週六戴上帽子,然後刮鬍子。

  • off all the hair that remained under the brim of the hat.

    脫掉帽簷下殘留的所有頭髮。

  • If they didn't have a hat, they had to wear half a pumpkin shell.

    如果他們沒有帽子,就得戴上半個南瓜殼。

  • That is why they were sometimes calledpumpkin heads”.

    所以有時他們被稱為 "南瓜頭"。

  • According to Reverend Samuel Peters in hisGeneral History of Connecticut”, one

    根據塞繆爾-彼得斯牧師在他的《康涅狄格州通史》中的記載,有一

  • of the reasons why they had to cut their hair wassuch persons as have lost their ears

    他們不得不剪髮的原因是 "失去耳朵的人"。

  • for heresy, and other wickedness, cannot conceal their misfortune and disgrace.”

    因為異端和其他惡行,無法掩蓋他們的不幸和恥辱。"

  • Hearing that, you have to wonder just how common ear-cropping was.

    聽了這話,你不得不感嘆,掏耳朵到底有多普遍。

  • As far as we can see, branding and ear-cropping didn't completely die out in the US until

    就我們所見,品牌和掏耳在美國一直到現在都沒有完全消亡。

  • around 1850, and much of the time it was slaves who were the victims of the punishment.

    1850年前後,很多時候是奴隸成為懲罰的受害者。

  • Louisiana, for instance, had something called the Black Code or Code Noir.

    比如路易斯安那州就有一種叫黑碼或黑碼的東西。

  • This law made it possible for slave owners to brand or crop the ears of slaves who had

    該法規定,奴隸主可以對有以下行為的奴隸進行烙印或割耳。

  • run away.

    逃跑。

  • It seems these days the only victims of such barbarity are some family pets.

    如今看來,這種野蠻行為的受害者只有一些家庭寵物。

  • Now you need to watch, “The Catherine Wheel - Worst Punishments In The History of Mankind.”

    現在你需要看,"凱瑟琳輪--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰"。

  • Or, have a look at...

    或者,看看...

April 23, 1771, some people were sitting around reading news articles published by theEssex

1771年4月23日,一些人正圍坐在一起閱讀《埃塞克斯報》發表的新聞文章。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 耳朵 枕頭 法律 鼻子 發現 國王

割耳--人類歷史上最嚴重的懲罰措施。 (Cropping of Ears - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 14 日