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  • Illegal fisheries today are actually a really big business.

    如今的非法漁業其實是一門很大的生意。

  • So the US, for example, is the largest importer of seafood in the world, about

    所以,以美國為例,美國是世界上最大的海產品進口國,約有1.

  • 30%

    30%

  • of that seafood, we think comes from illegal fishing.

    我們認為,這些海產品來自非法捕撈。

  • It's kind of international crime nexus at this point.

    這點上算是國際犯罪關係了。

  • And that's what causes people to fish for sharks, take their fins, and then export these

    所以人們才會去捕魚,取走鯊魚的鰭,然後出口這些東西。

  • to various countries.

    到各個國家。

  • So technology has a really big role in improving our capacity for surveillance in the oceans

    所以技術對提高我們對海洋的監控能力有非常大的作用。

  • and for reducing ocean crime and wildlife crime.

    和減少海洋犯罪和野生動物犯罪。

  • Shark fin are the biggest economic driver, but the shark meat then is kind of really

    魚翅是最大的經濟驅動力,但魚翅肉則是一種真正的

  • cheap.

    廉價。

  • And because other sources of protein like other fish are being depleted, in the oceans,

    而且因為其他的蛋白質來源,比如其他的魚類正在枯竭,在海洋中。

  • it's just easy to actually also pass on this shark meat as other fish.

    只是很容易,其實也是把這種鯊魚肉當做其他魚來吃。

  • The fish and chips that people were having in the UK was actually

    在英國,人們吃的魚和薯條其實是。

  • shark meat where they actually thought they were having cod or whatever other fish,

    鯊魚肉,他們居然以為自己吃的是鱈魚或其他什麼魚。

  • it should be.

    它應該是。

  • Why should we really care about sharks and why does it bother us if sharks are being taken out of our oceans?

    我們真的應該關心鯊魚,為什麼鯊魚被從我們的海洋中帶走會讓我們感到不安?

  • Sharks are actually at the top of the marine food web, which means that they're apex predators,

    鯊魚其實處於海洋食物網的頂端,也就是說,它們是頂層捕食者。

  • and they keep the balance in oceanic ecosystems.

    並保持海洋生態系統的平衡。

  • If you take out the apex predator, there is an increase in mesopredators that are below

    如果你把頂層捕食者拿掉,就會增加中層捕食者,而這些中層捕食者低於

  • the sharks in the trophic food web.

    營養食物網中的鯊魚。

  • And that increase in mesopredators can then deplete species that are at the bottom of

    而中掠食者的增加會消耗掉那些處於底層的物種。

  • the food chain and all of this together, it can just really lead to a big imbalance in

    食物鏈和所有這一切在一起, 它可以真正導致一個大的不平衡在

  • the ecosystem.

    生態系統。

  • So the MinION is a portable sequencer where in you can take DNA from any given species

    所以MinION是一個便攜式測序儀 你可以從任何物種中提取DNA。

  • and quickly prepare it and then you can introduce into the MinION and then you plug it into

    並迅速準備好,然後你就可以把它引入到MinION中,然後你把它插進

  • your laptop and you can actually start seeing sequencing happening in real time.

    你的筆記本電腦,你可以真正開始看到實時發生的排序。

  • Let's take a scenario where we got a shipment and we want to figure out what's really in

    讓我們來看看這樣一個場景:我們收到了一批貨物,我們想弄清楚裡面到底有什麼。

  • this shipment of shark fins.

    這批魚翅。

  • Is it a hammerhead shark or is it a silky shark? Or is it a great white shark?

    是雙髻鯊還是絹鯊?還是大白鯊?

  • So you would take a small bit of the fins in that shipment and extract the DNA and then

    所以你會從那批貨中提取一小部分魚翅,然後提取DNA,然後...

  • I take that DNA and do a sample prep and then plug it into the MinION sequencer.

    我拿著這些DNA做樣本預處理,然後把它插入MinION測序儀。

  • I can figure out what species of fins I'm dealing with in the first

    我可以在第一時間弄清楚我面對的是什麼品種的魚翅。

  • couple hours.

    幾個小時。

  • In order to get more extensive genomic data to figure out the stock, the origin population

    為了獲得更廣泛的基因組數據,弄清種群情況,產地種群

  • for these fins, I would leave it plugged in and let it sequence all of the DNA that has

    對於這些鰭,我會離開它插入 並讓它的序列所有的DNA,有

  • been entered into the device for about 48 hours.

    已進入設備約48小時。

  • Using convention techniques you would get this

    使用傳統技術,你會得到這樣的結果

  • Using conventional techniques, you would get the samples and send it out to a sequencing person.

    使用傳統的技術,你會得到樣本,然後把它發給測序人員。

  • And then wait for you to get the data back.

    然後等你拿回數據。

  • So when we are thinking of law enforcement sometimes the timing

    所以,當我們在考慮執法的時候,有時候時機

  • is really important because you don't want to wait days or even months kind of get some

    是非常重要的,因為你不希望等待數天甚至數月種得到一些。

  • of these results.

    這些結果的。

  • Genomes offer a big array of information about a given species.

    基因組提供了一大批關於特定物種的資訊。

  • So the first thing that you can tell from looking at a genome is what is the species like.

    所以,看基因組首先可以知道物種是什麼樣的。

  • If you have looked at multiple individuals of the same species,

    如果你看過同一物種的多個個體。

  • you can start figuring out what is the effective population size of this species, from this particular population.

    你可以從這個特殊的種群中,開始找出這個物種的有效種群數量。

  • So let's see if there are very few genomic variations that would indicate that the population

    所以我們來看看是否有極少的基因組變異,這將表明該種群中的

  • size is not very big, which means that this could be a functionally extinct or really

    大小不是很大,這意味著這可能是一個功能滅絕或真正的

  • depleted stock.

    枯竭的庫存。

  • You can take those genetic differences and then test seafood that you think has come

    你可以把這些基因差異,然後測試海鮮,你認為已經來了

  • from a given part of the world and ask is this shark that they're claiming has been

    並問他們聲稱的這條鯊魚是否已被

  • fished in the Indian Ocean?

    在印度洋捕魚?

  • Is it really from the Indian Ocean?

    真的是來自印度洋嗎?

  • Or is it being fished in some where in Atlantic or the Pacific?

    還是在大西洋或太平洋的某個地方被捕撈?

  • Genomic surveillance per se is really key in this toolkit because genetic signatures

    基因組監測本身在這個工具箱中確實很關鍵,因為基因標誌。

  • of seafood is essentially tamper proof.

    的海產品基本上是防偽的。

  • I can misreport and turn off my vessel monitoring system so that nobody can figure out where

    我可以謊報並關閉我的船舶監控系統,這樣就不會有人知道我的船在哪裡。

  • I am.

    我就是

  • I can mislabel my shipping boxes and say whatever I want to say about the origin and the contents.

    我可以給我的運輸箱貼上錯誤的標籤,想說什麼產地和內容就說什麼。

  • However, I cannot change the genetic makeup or the DNA of my seafood

    但是,我不能改變我的海產品的基因組成和DNA。

  • In the end,

    到最後。

  • the people who are engaging in illegal fishing are doing that in most cases

    從事非法捕魚的人在大多數情況下是這樣做的。

  • to support their livelihoods.

    以支持他們的生計。

  • So until we include

    所以,在我們加入

  • the communities that are involved in fishing in our conservation programs and partner with

    在我們的保護計劃中參與捕魚的社區,並與之合作

  • them, we are not going to have an effective and sustainable conservation strategy.

    如果我們不對它們進行保護,我們就不會有一個有效和可持續的保護戰略。

  • And no matter how many tools we add to our surveillance toolkit, there's always going

    無論我們在監控工具箱中添加多少工具,總是會有

  • to be a way for these communities to engage in illegal fishing and they will

    是這些社區從事非法捕魚的一種方式,他們將。

  • do it to support their families and their livelihoods.

    為養家餬口而做。

  • So it's really important to include social sciences and understanding socioeconomic

    所以,包括社會科學和了解社會經濟真的很重要。

  • drivers, and rehabilitation of communities that are involved in illegal fishing or illegal

    司機,以及參與非法捕魚或非法捕撈的社區的恢復。

  • wildlife crime to actually solve this.

    野生動物犯罪,才能真正解決這個問題。

Illegal fisheries today are actually a really big business.

如今的非法漁業其實是一門很大的生意。

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B2 中高級 中文 鯊魚 基因組 物種 種群 海洋 捕食

DNA測序正在打擊偷獵鯊魚的行為 (DNA Sequencing Is Cracking Down on Shark Poaching)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 13 日
影片單字