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  • Learning medicine is hard work!

    學習醫學是艱苦的工作!

  • Osmosis makes it easy.

    滲透使它變得容易。

  • It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos,

    它需要你的講座和筆記來創建 個性化的學習計劃,包含獨家視頻,

  • practice questions and flashcards, and so much more.

    練習題和抽認卡,等等 多得多。

  • Try it free today!

    今天免費試用吧!

  • The menstrual cycle refers to the regular changes in the activity of the ovaries and

    月經週期指的是常規 卵巢和卵巢活動的變化

  • the endometrium that make reproduction possible.

    子宮內膜使繁殖成為可能。

  • The endometrium is the layer of tissue lining the inside of the uterus.

    子宮內膜是組織襯裡的一層 子宮內側。

  • This lining consists of a functional layer, which is subject to hormonal changes and is

    這襯裡由功能層組成, 這是受荷爾蒙變化的影響

  • shed during menstruation, and a thin basal layer which feeds the overlying functional

    月經期間脫落,薄薄的基底 提供上覆功能的層

  • layer.

    層。

  • The menstrual cycle actually consists of two interconnected and synchronized processes:

    月經週期實際上包括兩個 互連和同步的過程:

  • the ovarian cycle, which centers on the development of the ovarian follicles and ovulation, and

    卵巢週期,以發展為中心 卵巢卵泡和排卵,和

  • the uterine or endometrial cycle, which centers on the way in which the functional endometrium

    子宮或子宮內膜週期,其中心 在功能性子宮內膜的途中

  • thickens and sheds in response to ovarian activity.

    變形和脫落以應對卵巢 活動。

  • Menarche, which refers to the onset of the first menstrual period, usually occurs during

    月經初潮,指的是發病的 第一次月經期,通常發生在月經期間

  • early adolescence as part of puberty.

    青春期早期是青春期的一部分。

  • Following menarche, the menstrual cycle recurs on a monthly basis, pausing only during pregnancy,

    月經初潮後,月經週期再次出現 每月,只在懷孕期間暫停,

  • until a person reaches menopause, when her ovarian function declines and she stops having

    直到一個人到了更年期,當她 卵巢功能下降,她停止了

  • menstrual periods.

    月經期。

  • The monthly menstrual cycle can vary in duration from 20 to 35 days, with an average of 28

    每月月經週期的持續時間可能不同 從20天到35天,平均28天

  • days.

    天。

  • Each menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation, and this is referred to as

    每個月經週期從第一天開始 月經,這被稱為

  • day one of the cycle.

    第一天的周期。

  • Ovulation, or the release of the oocyte from the ovary, usually occurs 14 days before the

    排卵,或從卵母細胞釋放 卵巢,通常發生在14天前

  • first day of menstruation (i.e., 14 days before the next cycle begins).

    月經的第一天(即14天前) 下一個週期開始)。

  • So, for an average 28-day menstrual cycle, this means that there are usually 14 days

    因此,對於平均28天的月經週期, 這意味著通常有14天

  • leading up to ovulation (i.e., the preovulatory phase) and 14 days following ovulation (i.e.,

    導致排卵(即排卵前期) 排卵後第14天和第14天(即

  • the postovulatory phase).

    術後階段)。

  • During these two phases, the ovaries and the endometrium each undergo their own set of

    在這兩個階段,卵巢和 子宮內膜各自經歷自己的一套

  • changes, which are separate but related.

    變化,是分開但相關的。

  • As a result, each phase of the menstrual cycle has two different names to describe these

    結果,月經週期的每個階段 有兩個不同的名稱來描述這些

  • two different parallel processes.

    兩個不同的並行過程。

  • For the ovary, the two weeks leading up to ovulation is called the the ovarian follicular

    對於卵巢,兩週前往 排卵稱為卵巢卵泡

  • phase, and this corresponds to the menstrual and proliferative phases of the endometrium.

    階段,這對應於月經 和子宮內膜的增殖期。

  • Similarly, the two weeks following ovulation is referred to as the ovarian luteal phase,

    同樣,排卵後兩週 被稱為卵巢黃體期,

  • which also corresponds to the secretory phase of the endometrium.

    這也對應於分泌期 子宮內膜。

  • So, let's first focus on the preovulatory period, starting with the ovarian follicular

    所以,讓我們首先關注排卵前期 期間,從卵巢卵泡開始

  • phase.

    相。

  • This phase starts on the first day of menstruation and represents weeks one and two of a four-week

    這個階段從月經的第一天開始 並代表四周的第一周和第二週

  • cycle.

    週期。

  • The whole menstrual cycle is controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland,

    整個月經週期由 下丘腦和腦下垂體,

  • which are like the masterminds of reproduction.

    這就像是繁殖的主謀。

  • The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or

    下丘腦是大腦的一部分 分泌促性腺激素釋放激素,或

  • GnRH, which causes the nearby anterior pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone,

    GnRH,導致附近的垂體前葉 腺體釋放卵泡刺激素,

  • or FSH, and luteinizing hormone, or LH.

    或FSH,黃體生成素或LH。

  • Before puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released at a steady rate, but once puberty

    在青春期之前,促性腺激素釋放激素 以穩定的速度釋放,但一旦進入青春期

  • hits, gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released in pulses, sometimes more and sometimes less.

    命中,釋放出促性腺激素釋放激素 脈衝,有時更多,有時更少。

  • The frequency and magnitude of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses determine how much follicle

    促性腺激素釋放的頻率和大小 激素脈衝決定卵泡多少

  • stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone will be produced by the pituitary.

    刺激素和促黃體激素 將由垂體產生。

  • These pituitary hormones control the maturation of the ovarian follicles, each of which is

    這些垂體激素控製成熟 卵巢的卵泡,每個都是

  • initially made up of an immature sex cell, or primary oocyte, surrounded by layers of

    最初由不成熟的性細胞組成, 或原代卵母細胞,被層層包圍

  • theca and granulosa cells, the hormone-secreting cells of the ovary.

    theca和granulosa細胞,激素分泌 卵巢細胞。

  • Over the course of the follicular phase, these oocyte-containing groups of cells, or follicles,

    在卵泡期的過程中,這些 含卵母細胞的細胞群或卵泡,

  • grow and compete for a chance at ovulation.

    成長並爭奪排卵的機會。

  • During the first ten days, theca cells develop receptors and bind luteinizing hormone, and

    在前十天,卵泡膜細胞發育 受體和結合促黃體激素,和

  • in response secrete large amounts of the hormone androstenedione, an androgen hormone.

    作為回應,分泌大量的激素 雄烯二酮,一種雄激素。

  • Similarly, granulosa cells develop receptors and bind follicle stimulating hormone, and

    類似地,顆粒細胞發育受體 和卵泡刺激素結合,並且

  • in response produce the enzyme aromatase.

    作為回應產生酶芳香酶。

  • Aromatase converts androstenedione from the theca cells into 17β-estradiol, which is

    芳香酶轉化雄烯二酮 theca細胞分為17β-雌二醇,即

  • a member of the estrogen family.

    雌激素家族的一員。

  • During days 10 through 14 of this phase, granulosa cells also begin to develop luteinizing hormone

    在這個階段的第10到14天,顆粒狀 細胞也開始發育促黃體激素

  • receptors, in addition to the follicle stimulating hormone receptors they already have.

    受體,除了卵泡刺激 他們已有的激素受體。

  • As the follicles grow and estrogen is released into the bloodstream, increased estrogen levels

    隨著卵泡的生長和雌激素的釋放 進入血液,增加雌激素水平

  • act as a negative feedback signal, telling the pituitary to secrete less follicle stimulating

    充當負面反饋信號,告訴我們 垂體分泌較少的卵泡刺激

  • hormone.

    激素。

  • As a result of decreased follicle stimulating hormone production, some of the developing

    由於卵泡刺激減少 激素的產生,一些正在發展

  • follicles in the ovary will stop growing, regress and die off.

    卵巢中的卵泡會停止生長, 回歸併消亡。

  • The follicle that has the most follicle stimulating hormone receptors, however, will continue

    毛囊刺激最多的卵泡 然而,激素受體將繼續存在

  • to grow, becoming the dominant follicle that will eventually undergo ovulation.

    成長,成為主導的卵泡 最終將進行排卵。

  • This dominant follicle continues to secrete estrogen, and the rising estrogen levels make

    這種優勢卵泡繼續分泌 雌激素和雌激素水平上升

  • the pituitary more responsive to the pulsatile action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from

    垂體對脈動更敏感 促性腺激素釋放激素的作用

  • the hypothalamus.

    下丘腦。

  • As blood estrogen levels start to steadily climb higher and higher, the estrogen from

    隨著血液雌激素水平開始穩定 越來越高,雌激素來自

  • the dominant follicle now becomes a positive feedback signalthat is, it makes the

    優勢卵泡現在變成了陽性 反饋信號 - 也就是說,它使得

  • pituitary secrete a whole lot of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

    垂體分泌出大量的卵泡 刺激素和促黃體激素

  • in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    響應促性腺激素釋放激素。

  • This surge of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone usually happens a

    這種卵泡刺激素激增 和黃體生成素通常會發生

  • day or two before ovulation and is responsible for stimulating the rupture of the ovarian

    在排卵前一兩天負責 用於刺激卵巢破裂

  • follicle and the release of the oocyte.

    卵泡和卵母細胞的釋放。

  • You can think of it this way: for most of the follicular phase, the pituitary saves

    你可以這樣想:對大多數人來說 卵泡期,垂體挽救

  • its energy, then when it senses that the dominant follicle ready for release, the pituitary

    它的能量,然後當它感覺到占主導地位 卵泡準備釋放,垂體

  • uses all its energy to secrete enough follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

    用它所有的能量來分泌足夠的卵泡 刺激素和促黃體激素

  • to induce ovulation.

    誘導排卵。

  • While the ovary is busy preparing an egg for ovulation, the uterus, meanwhile, is preparing

    雖然卵巢忙著準備一個雞蛋 排卵,子宮,同時,正在準備

  • the endometrium for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy.

    子宮內膜用於植入和維持 懷孕

  • This process begins with the menstrual phase, which is when the old endometrial lining,

    這個過程從月經階段開始, 這是舊的子宮內膜襯裡,

  • or functional layer, from the previous cycle is shed and eliminated through the vagina,

    或來自前一周期的功能層 通過陰道脫落和消除,

  • producing the bleeding pattern known as the menstrual period.

    產生出血模式稱為 月經期。

  • The menstrual phase lasts an average of five days and is followed by the proliferative

    月經期平均持續五個月 天,然後是增殖

  • phase, during which high estrogen levels stimulate thickening of the endometrium, growth of endometrial

    階段,其中高雌激素水平刺激 子宮內膜增厚,子宮內膜增生

  • glands, and emergence of spiral arteries from the basal layer to feed the growing functional

    腺體和螺旋動脈的出現 基底層為生長功能提供食物

  • endometrium.

    子宮內膜。

  • Rising estrogen levels also help change the consistency of the cervical mucus, making

    雌激素水平上升也有助於改變 宮頸粘液的稠度,使得

  • it more hospitable to incoming sperm.

    它更適合來襲的精子。

  • The combined effects of this spike in estrogen on the uterus and cervix help to optimize

    這種穗狀花序在雌激素中的綜合作用 對子宮和子宮頸有幫助進行優化

  • the chance of fertilization, which is highest between day 11 and day 15 of an average 28-day

    受精的機會,這是最高的 在平均28天的第11天和第15天之間

  • cycle.

    週期。

  • Following ovulation, the remnant of the ovarian follicle becomes the corpus luteum, which

    排卵後,卵巢的殘餘 卵泡成為黃體,其中

  • is made up of luteinized theca and granulosa cells, meaning that these cells have been

    由黃體化的theca和granulosa組成 細胞,意味著這些細胞已經存在

  • exposed to the high luteinizing hormone levels that occur just before ovulation.

    暴露於高黃體生成素水平 發生在排卵前。

  • Luteinized theca cells keep secreting androstenedione, and the luteinized granulosa cells keep converting

    促黃體細胞保持分泌雄烯二酮, 並且黃體化的顆粒細胞不斷轉化

  • it to 17β-estradiol, as before.

    如前所述,它與17β-雌二醇一樣。

  • However, luteinized granulosa cells also respond to the low luteinizing hormone concentrations

    然而,黃體化顆粒細胞也有反應 低黃體生成素的濃度

  • that are present after ovulation by increasing the activity of cholesterol side-chain cleavage

    排卵後通過增加而存在 膽固醇側鏈裂解的活性

  • enzyme, or P450scc for short.

    酶,或簡稱P450scc。

  • This enzyme converts more cholesterol to pregnenolone, a progesterone precursor.

    這種酶將更多的膽固醇轉化為孕烯醇酮, 黃體酮前體。

  • So luteinized granulosa cells secrete more progesterone than estrogen during the luteal

    因此,黃體化的顆粒細胞分泌更多 孕期黃體酮比雌激素

  • phase.

    相。

  • Progesterone acts as a negative feedback signal on the pituitary, decreasing release of follicle

    孕酮作為負反饋信號 在垂體上,減少卵泡的釋放

  • stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    刺激素和促黃體激素。

  • At the same time, luteinized granulosa cells begin secreting inhibin, which similarly inhibits

    同時,黃體化顆粒細胞 開始分泌抑制素,同樣抑制

  • the pituitary gland from making follicle stimulating hormone.

    腦垂體從製作卵泡刺激 激素。

  • Both of these processes result in a decline in estrogen levels, meaning that progesterone

    這兩個過程都會導致下降 在雌激素水平,意味著黃體酮

  • becomes the dominant hormone present during this phase of the cycle.

    成為過去的主要激素 這個階段的循環。

  • Together with the decreased level of estrogen, the rising progesterone level signals that

    加上雌激素水平下降, 孕酮水平上升表明了這一點

  • ovulation has occurred and helps make the endometrium receptive to the implantation

    排卵已經發生並有助於製造 子宮內膜可接受植入

  • of a fertilized gamete.

    施肥配子。

  • Under the influence of progesterone, the uterus enters into the secretory phase of the endometrial

    在黃體酮,子宮的影響下 進入子宮內膜的分泌期

  • cycle.

    週期。

  • During this time spiral arteries continue to grow, and the uterine glands begin to secrete

    在此期間,螺旋動脈繼續 生長,子宮腺體開始分泌

  • more mucus.

    更多的粘液。

  • After day 15 of the cycle, the optimal window for fertilization begins to close.

    在循環的第15天之後,最佳窗口 施肥開始關閉。

  • The cervical mucus starts to thicken and becomes less hospitable to the sperm.

    宮頸粘液開始變厚並變成 不太適合精子。

  • Over time, the corpus luteum gradually degenerates into the nonfunctional corpus albicans.

    隨著時間的推移,黃體逐漸退化 進入非功能性白色念珠菌。

  • The corpus albicans doesn't make hormones, so estrogen and progesterone levels slowly

    白色念珠菌不會產生荷爾蒙, 所以雌激素和孕激素水平緩慢

  • decrease.

    減少。

  • When progesterone reaches its lowest level, the spiral arteries collapse, and the functional

    當黃體酮達到最低水平時, 螺旋動脈塌陷,功能性

  • layer of the endometrium prepares to shed through menstruation.

    子宮內膜層準備脫落 通過月經。

  • This shedding marks the beginning of a new menstrual cycle and another opportunity for

    這種脫落標誌著一個新的開始 月經週期和另一個機會

  • fertilization.

    施肥。

  • All right, so as a quick recap - the menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation.

    好吧,快速回顧一下 - 月經 週期從月經的第一天開始。

  • For an average 28-day menstrual cycle, the changes which occur in the ovary during the

    對於平均28天的月經週期, 在卵巢期間發生的變化

  • first 14 days are called the follicular phase.

    前14天稱為卵泡期。

  • Ovulation usually occurs at day 14, as a result of the estrogen-induced surge in luteinizing

    因此,排卵通常發生在第14天 雌激素誘導的黃體生成激增

  • hormone.

    激素。

  • The last 14 days of the cycle are the luteal phase, during which progesterone becomes the

    循環的最後14天是黃體 相,孕酮成為期間

  • dominant hormone.

    顯性激素。

  • While the length of the follicular phase can vary, the luteal phase almost always precedes

    雖然卵泡期的長度可以 變化很大,黃體期幾乎總是先於

  • the onset of menses by 14 days.

    月經開始14天。

  • The uterus also goes through its own set of changes.

    子宮也經歷了自己的一套 變化。

  • During the first 14 days of the cycle, the endometrium goes through the menstrual phase

    在周期的前14天, 子宮內膜經歷月經期

  • and the proliferative phase, and during the last 14 days it goes through the secretory

    和增殖期,以及期間 過去14天它經歷了分泌

  • phase.

    相。

Learning medicine is hard work!

學習醫學是艱苦的工作!

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 激素 月經 子宮 週期 細胞 釋放

月经周期(The menstrual cycle)

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    JillHuang 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 12 日
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