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  • Human beings are always in search of truth; we want to know things.

    人類總是在追求真理,我們想了解事物。

  • To not know often causes us great pain.

    不知道往往會給我們帶來巨大的痛苦。

  • We search for truth, together, in various ways such as discussion, argumentation, philosophy,

    我們通過討論、論證、哲學等各種方式,共同尋找真理。

  • science, and even art.

    科學,甚至藝術。

  • When we have conflicting views over the truth, we often enter into a game of persuasion:

    當我們在真理問題上意見相左時,往往會進入一場說服的遊戲。

  • we try to convince the other that the belief we hold is, in fact, the true one.

    我們試圖讓對方相信,我們所持有的信念其實是真實的。

  • The art of persuasion is an important one because - in the right hands - it allows truth

    說服的藝術是很重要的,因為--在正確的人手中--它可以讓真理--變得更有說服力。

  • to win over lies.

    以贏得謊言。

  • In this video, we will explore the three methods of persuasion laid out by Aristotle in his

    在本視頻中,我們將探討亞里士多德在他的《論說服》中提出的三種說服方法。

  • book Rhetoric.

    書《修辭學》。

  • Keep in mind that - for Aristotle - rhetoric is the art of persuasion and not the meaningless

    請記住,對亞里士多德來說,修辭是說服的藝術,而不是毫無意義的。

  • language that many politicians are charged with using.

    許多政客被指控使用的語言。

  • The first of the three persuasive methods is persuasion by character or credibility.

    三種說服方法中的第一種是以人格或信譽說服。

  • We are more easily persuaded by people who come across as trustworthy.

    我們更容易被表現得值得信賴的人說服。

  • Aristotle put forth three qualities that a trustable person would have: good sense, good

    亞里士多德提出一個值得信賴的人會有三種品質:良好的感覺、良好的。

  • moral character, and good will.

    道德品質,和良好的意願。

  • We say a that person has good sense when we trust their judgment.

    當我們相信一個人的判斷力時,我們就會說這個人很有道理。

  • They're a rational and reasonable thinker.

    他們是一個理性合理的思考者。

  • They stay cool, calm, and collected.

    他們保持冷靜、沉著、沉著。

  • They are a credible professional in the field they speak about.

    他們在自己所講的領域是一個可信的專業人士。

  • We say that a person has good moral character when we expect them to do the right thing

    當我們期望一個人做正確的事情時,我們就會說他有良好的道德品質。

  • even if no one is looking.

    即使沒有人看到。

  • Lastly, we say that a person has good will when we believe that they have our best interests

    最後,我們說一個人有善意的時候,我們認為他是為我們的利益著想。

  • at heart.

    心中。

  • According to Aristotle, these are the three traits that a trustable person has.

    亞里士多德認為,這是一個值得信賴的人所具有的三個特徵。

  • Now, let's move on to the next method of persuasion.

    現在,讓我們繼續下一個說服的方法。

  • The second of the three modes is persuasion by emotion.

    三種模式中的第二種是以情動人。

  • Depending on our emotional state, we may be more or less inclined to adopt a particular

    根據我們的情緒狀態,我們可能會或多或少地傾向於採取特定的。

  • belief.

    相信。

  • A master of persuasion must know how to make these emotions arise and, perhaps more importantly,

    一個說服高手必須知道如何讓這些情緒產生,也許更重要的是。

  • disappear.

    消失。

  • It helps to get people angry about a new law being passed, if you believe that the law

    如果你認為一項新法律的通過有助於讓人們感到憤怒,如果你認為該法律

  • is honestly harmful to them: they may channel their anger towards stopping that law.

    誠實地對他們有害:他們可能會把他們的憤怒引向阻止該法律。

  • On the other hand, it may be important to dispel anger directed towards you when it's

    另一方面,消除針對你的憤怒可能是很重要的,當它是。

  • undeserved.

    不值得。

  • Putting people into a calmer state of mind makes them more likely to listen to what you

    讓人們進入一個平靜的心態,讓他們更有可能聽你的話

  • have to say.

    不得不說。

  • Aristotle talks about the emotions in depth in Book 2 of Rhetoric but I'll give a brief

    亞里士多德在《修辭學》第二卷中深入地談到了情感,但我還是簡單地說一下。

  • summary of the, roughly, 7 emotional dualities he puts forward.

    總結他提出的,大概是7種情感的雙重性。

  • People feel angry when you show contempt towards, act spitefully against, or shame them.

    當你對他們表現出輕視、唾棄或羞辱他們時,人們會感到憤怒。

  • Showing contempt means that you treat the things, or people, that someone cares about

    表現出蔑視的意思是,你對待別人關心的事情,或者說是人。

  • as unimportant.

    視為無關緊要。

  • Acting spitefully means that you are preventing someone from getting something that they want

    卑鄙的行為意味著你在阻止別人得到他們想要的東西。

  • just to hurt them.

    只是為了傷害他們。

  • Shaming someone means that you are discrediting them in some way.

    羞辱一個人意味著你在某種程度上詆譭他。

  • People feel calm when you do the opposite of these acts.

    當你做出與這些行為相反的行為時,人們會感到平靜。

  • We feel friendly towards people who unselfishly want the best for us.

    我們對那些無私地為我們著想的人感到友好。

  • The opposite makes us feel hateful.

    反之則讓我們覺得可恨。

  • We feel fearful when someone, or something, has the power to bring us harm or suffering.

    當某人或某物有能力給我們帶來傷害或痛苦時,我們會感到恐懼。

  • We feel confident when no such danger exists or when we have methods for dealing with it.

    當沒有這樣的危險存在,或者我們有辦法應對這樣的危險時,我們會感到自信。

  • We feel shame when we have been discredited for, as Aristotle would call it, some moral

    當我們因為亞里士多德所說的某些道德問題而名譽掃地時,我們會感到羞恥。

  • badness we have done such as being cowardly, greedy, arrogant, or mean.

    我們所做的壞事,如懦弱、貪婪、傲慢或卑鄙。

  • We feel shameless when we are indifferent, or contemptible, towards people's thoughts

    當我們對別人的想法漠不關心,或者說輕視的時候,我們會覺得自己很無恥。

  • about are moral badness.

    關於都是道德的壞處。

  • People think we are kind when we help them, especially if they need it, for their own

    當我們幫助他們的時候,特別是當他們需要幫助的時候,人們會認為我們是善良的,為了他們自己的利益

  • sake.

    的緣故。

  • People feel we are unkind when we do not help them or when we do but for selfish reasons.

    當我們不幫助他們或幫助他們但出於自私的原因時,人們會覺得我們不仁慈。

  • We feel pity for someone who suffers undeservedly, especially if that suffering could have come

    我們對遭受不應有的痛苦的人感到憐憫,特別是如果這種痛苦本可以來

  • upon us or someone close to us.

    在我們或我們身邊的人身上。

  • On the other hand, we feel indignation when we see someone doing well when they don't

    另一方面,當我們看到有人做得很好時,我們會感到憤慨,而他們不

  • deserve it.

    應得的。

  • People feel envious when they see someone who they thought was their equal, a peer,

    當人們看到一個自己認為和自己平起平坐的人,一個同行時,就會感到羨慕。

  • get some good fortune.

    得到一些好運氣。

  • This is especially true if they think they are entitled to that same good fortune or

    如果他們認為自己有資格獲得同樣的好運或。

  • if they no longer feel equal with that person because of their good fortune.

    如果他們因為自己的好運而不再覺得自己和那個人是平等的。

  • On the other hand, people feel emulation when they see someone who is their equal get some

    另一方面,當人們看到與自己平起平坐的人得到一些時,會感到效仿。

  • good fortune that they haven't got themselves yet but believe that they could.

    他們還沒有得到自己的好運氣,但相信他們可以。

  • Both feelings are painful but emulation is better than envy.

    兩種感覺都很痛苦,但效仿比嫉妒好。

  • The envious person wishes that the other party did not have their good fortune.

    羨慕者希望對方沒有自己的好運氣。

  • The person who feels emulation wishes themselves to have that same good fortune and is pained

    感受到效仿的人希望自己也有這樣的好運氣,於是痛苦不已。

  • by not having it yet.

    由還沒有。

  • Humans are emotional beings.

    人類是有感情的人。

  • Sometimes, are emotions are justified; sometimes, feeling angry or fearful is the right response.

    有時,情緒是合理的;有時,感到憤怒或恐懼才是正確的反應。

  • Other times, people feel these emotions when they shouldn't.

    其他時候,人們會在不應該的時候感受到這些情緒。

  • The master persuader will know how to excite these emotions when they are justified and

    高手的說服者會知道如何在這些情緒有理有據的情況下激發這些情緒,並且

  • calm them when they are not.

    時安撫他們。

  • Now, let's move on to the next method.

    現在,我們繼續下一個方法。

  • The last of the three methods is persuasion by logic.

    三種方法中的最後一種是用邏輯說服。

  • A good logical argument will put forth a series of premises: statements that are either true

    一個好的邏輯論證會提出一系列的前提:陳述要麼是真的,要麼是假的。

  • or false.

    或假的。

  • Based on these premises, a conclusion must be made.

    根據這些前提,必須做出結論。

  • If the conclusion would be true if all of the premises were true then the argument is

    如果所有的前提都是真的,那麼結論就是真的,那麼這個論點就是

  • said to be valid.

    說是有效的。

  • If, in fact, all of the premises are true and the argument is valid then it's also

    如果事實上,所有的前提都是真實的,論點也是成立的,那麼它也是

  • sound.

    聲音:

  • This is known as a deductive argument.

    這就是所謂的演繹論證。

  • Sound deductive arguments are very persuasive because they are true and they are built using

    健全的演繹論證是非常有說服力的,因為它們是真實的,而且它們是用下列方法建立起來的

  • logic that is easy to follow.

    易的邏輯。

  • If we take a set of premises and derive a conclusion that is not necessarily but likely

    如果我們從一組前提出發,得出的結論不是必然的,而是可能的

  • to be true then we are making an inductive argument.

    為真,那麼我們就是在進行歸納論證。

  • The strength of an inductive argument is based upon how likely the conclusion is to follow

    歸納論證的強度是基於結論的可能性有多大。

  • from the premises.

    從該處所。

  • An inductive argument is said to be cogent when all of its premises are actually true.

    當一個歸納論證的所有前提實際上都是真的時,就可以說它是有說服力的。

  • Finally, we have the abductive argument.

    最後,我們還要進行歸納論證。

  • This is when you collect a set of data and then determine a conclusion that best explains

    這時你要收集一組數據,然後確定一個最能解釋的結論。

  • the set of data.

    的數據集。

  • By using one of these three arguments, you can become more persuasive because people

    通過使用這三個論點中的一個,你可以變得更有說服力,因為人

  • are often convinced by strong logic that is easy to follow.

    往往會被強大的邏輯性所折服,容易上手。

  • In conclusion, rhetoric is important because it helps truth prevail.

    最後,修辭之所以重要,是因為它有助於真理的勝利。

  • Some people can't be convinced by facts alone and so it's important to know how

    有些人光靠事實是無法說服人的,所以要知道如何進行

  • to persuade them.

    來說服他們。

  • By knowing how to leverage character, emotion, and logic you can help bring the change you

    通過了解如何利用性格、情感和邏輯,你可以幫助你帶來改變。

  • want to see

    想看

  • into

    變成

  • the world.

    世界上。

Human beings are always in search of truth; we want to know things.

人類總是在追求真理,我們想了解事物。

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三種說服方法|修辭學-亞里士多德 (The 3 Methods of Persuasion | Rhetoric - Aristotle)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 09 日
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