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  • Across the globe, countries are locked in both a race against time

    在全球範圍內,各國都在與時間賽跑。

  • and against one another as they battle over vaccine supply.

    並在爭奪疫苗供應的過程中相互對立。

  • While Canada has purchased enough shots to vaccinate their population five times over,

    雖然加拿大已經購買了足夠的疫苗,為他們的人口接種五次以上的疫苗。

  • low-income nations, such as Nigeria, Cameroon and Ghana

    尼日利亞、喀麥隆和加納等低收入國家。

  • are struggling to get even just a small share of the pie.

    正在努力爭取哪怕只是一小塊餅的份額。

  • These nations face a lack of supplies, but also huge logistical challenges with distribution.

    這些國家不僅面臨著物資匱乏,而且在配送方面也面臨著巨大的後勤挑戰。

  • So, what can be done to make the Covid-19 vaccine rollout more equitable?

    那麼,怎樣才能讓可威19疫苗的推廣更加公平呢?

  • After months of lockdowns, fear and spiralling death tolls,

    經過幾個月的封鎖、恐懼和不斷上升的死亡人數。

  • the world began to see the light at the end of the tunnel when pharmaceutical firms announced

    世界開始看到隧道盡頭的光亮,當製藥公司宣佈......。

  • the success of their vaccine candidates against Covid-19 in November 2020.

    2020年11月,其候選疫苗針對Covid-19的成功。

  • This paved the way for the first regulator-approved Covid-19 vaccinations in December.

    這為12月首批監管部門準許的Covid-19疫苗接種鋪平了道路。

  • Although more vaccines have been approved since, the reality is that the shots

    雖然此後有更多的疫苗被準許,但現實是,這些疫苗

  • are not being rolled out everywhere at the same pace.

    沒有以同樣的速度在各地推廣。

  • In low-income nations, the vaccine rollout has been slow,

    在低收入國家,疫苗的推廣一直很緩慢。

  • among the doses we have distributed so far, 75% have been used in just 10 nations.

    在我們迄今分發的劑量中,75%的劑量僅在10個國家使用。

  • There are a few low- and middle-income countries among those, most notably India,

    其中有幾個中低收入國家,最值得注意的是印度。

  • but by and large we are talking about wealthy nations.

    但大體上我們說的是富裕國家。

  • On the other side of the spectrum there are 80 countries in the world,

    另一方面,世界上有80個國家。

  • representing 1.5 billion people, who have yet to administer a single dose.

    代表著15億人,他們還沒有服用一劑。

  • So, the early vaccine rollout has been characterized by this inequity.

    所以,早期的疫苗推廣就出現了這種不公平的現象。

  • When looking at the vaccine rollout so far, it is clear that many countries

    從目前的疫苗推廣情況來看,很多國家顯然是在

  • in Africa, South America and Asia have vaccinated only a tiny fraction of their populations.

    非洲、南美和亞洲的疫苗接種率只佔其人口的極小部分。

  • In comparison, Israel, the U.K. and the United States are a long way ahead in this race.

    相比之下,以色列、英國和美國在這場比賽中遙遙領先。

  • Why is it so hard to see vaccinations picking up in these countries?

    為什麼很難看到這些國家的疫苗接種率有所提高?

  • So, it has been primarily an issue of supply. Right now we have too little of it,

    所以,這主要是一個供應的問題。現在我們的供應量太少了。

  • doses are scarce and most of that supply has been purchased in advance

    劑量稀少,大部分供應量都是提前購買的

  • by a handful of nations which are now using those doses.

    由少數幾個國家使用這些劑量。

  • The U.S. and the U.K., which have had high vaccination rates

    疫苗接種率較高的美國和英國。

  • through the early months of 2021, were quick to sign deals with pharmaceutical firms

    到2021年年初的幾個月,迅速與製藥企業簽訂協議。

  • even before they knew whether the scientific work was going to be successful.

    甚至在他們還不知道科研工作是否會成功的情況下。

  • These two countries were the first to reach vaccine supply agreements back in May 2020.

    這兩個國家早在2020年5月就率先達成疫苗供應協議。

  • Japan followed suit in July while most of Europe, Canada,

    7月日本也跟著漲,而歐洲大部分地區、加拿大。

  • and a few other countries struck their first deals in August.

    和其他一些國家在8月份達成了第一批交易。

  • These advance agreements secured their place in line to be among the first recipients of Covid-19 vaccines.

    這些預付款協議確保了他們在首批Covid-19疫苗接受者中的地位。

  • As a result, high-income countries had rights to 4.6 billion doses

    是以,高收入國家有權獲得46億劑量的劑量

  • of Covid-19 vaccines by the first quarter of 2021.

    到2021年第一季度,Covid-19疫苗的。

  • On the other hand, lower middle-income countries have secured 614 million doses,

    另一方面,中低收入國家獲得了6.14億劑量。

  • while low-income countries are due to receive just 670 million shots.

    而低收入國家將只接受6.7億次注射。

  • To overcome supply issues, middle-income nations such as India and Brazil

    為了克服供應問題,印度和巴西等中等收入國家。

  • used their manufacturing capacities to negotiate large agreements with the pharmaceutical firms.

    利用其生產能力與製藥公司談判大額協議。

  • Others, such as Peru, leveraged their infrastructure to host clinical trials to negotiate purchase deals.

    其他國家,如祕魯,則利用其基礎設施來主持臨床試驗,以談判購買交易。

  • But low-income countries are at a disadvantage here, too.

    但低收入國家在這裡也處於不利地位。

  • They generally lack large pharmaceutical maufacturing capacity and testing infrastructure.

    它們普遍缺乏大規模的製藥能力和檢測基礎設施。

  • They are therefore more reliant on multilateral agreements.

    是以,它們更依賴多邊協定。

  • The African Union, a group of more than 50 nations,

    非洲聯盟,是一個由50多個國家組成的集團。

  • has collectively bought 670 million vaccines on behalf of its members.

    已為會員集體購買了6.7億支疫苗。

  • And COVAX, a coalition of international organizations including the World Health Organization and UNICEF,

    以及包括世界衛生組織和兒童基金會在內的國際組織聯盟COVAX。

  • has secured another 600 million doses for the continent.

    為非洲大陸又爭取到了6億劑量。

  • In Nigeria, the current pace of vaccinations means that it will be some time

    在尼日利亞,目前的疫苗接種速度意味著還需要一段時間。

  • before the population is protected against the virus.

    前,民眾對病毒的防護。

  • Our target is to vaccinate 100% of the eligible population.

    我們的目標是為100%的合格人群接種疫苗。

  • We plan that within the first year, we should be able to vaccinate up to 70% of that population

    我們計劃,在第一年內,我們應該能夠為70%的人口接種疫苗。

  • and then by the second year we should be able to vaccinate the remaining 30% of the population.

    然後到第二年,我們應該能夠為剩下的30%的人口接種疫苗。

  • So overall, we are looking at being able to vaccinate 112 million Nigerians.

    是以,總的來說,我們希望能夠為1.12億尼日利亞人接種疫苗。

  • And just to be clear about that timeline that you just shared,

    我只想說清楚你剛才分享的時間線。

  • two years would mean that you would probably finish

    兩年,意味著你可能會完成

  • the vaccination rollout in 2023. Is that right?

    在2023年推出疫苗接種。是這樣嗎?

  • Yes, that is what we are looking at. All of these preparations, all of the rollout

    是的,這正是我們所關注的。所有的這些準備工作,所有的推廣工作。

  • will be predicated on the availability of vaccines, so that’s exactly what we are doing,

    將以疫苗的供應為前提,所以這正是我們正在做的事情。

  • pacing it along the lines of the availability of the vaccines.

    按照疫苗的供應情況來安排。

  • I was just wondering if you could describe as well the challenges of getting the vaccines

    我只是想知道你能不能好好描述一下打疫苗的挑戰。

  • and then distributing them across the population?

    然後將其分配到各個人群中?

  • As you will have observed in the last few months, low- and middle-income countries have had

    正如你在過去幾個月中所觀察到的那樣,中低收入國家的經濟發展有了很大的進步。

  • the challenge of getting vaccines because of the phenomenon of vaccine nationalism.

    由於疫苗民族主義現象,打疫苗的挑戰。

  • Most of the developed countries have mopped up a lot of the vaccines.

    大多數發達國家已經把很多的疫苗給拖垮了。

  • This is where the COVAX facility has been very helpful,

    這就是COVAX設施非常有用的地方。

  • they have been able to make some vaccines available to low- and middle-income countries.

    他們已經能夠向低收入和中等收入國家提供一些疫苗。

  • But simply being able to purchase vaccines isn’t enough.

    但僅僅能夠購買疫苗是不夠的。

  • Local networks to distribute Covid-19 shots also need to be improved.

    還需要改進分發Covid-19注射液的地方網絡。

  • Some of the most common challenges include a lack of trained medical personnel to administer shots,

    一些最常見的挑戰包括缺乏訓練有素的醫務人員進行注射。

  • insufficient facilities for disposal of biohazard waste,

    處理生物危險廢物的設施不足;

  • and the need for some vaccines to be stored at incredibly low temperatures.

    以及一些疫苗需要在難以置信的低溫下儲存。

  • There are important differences, which is the ability to get super-cold freezers

    有重要的區別,那就是能夠獲得超低溫冰櫃。

  • in a poorer country is going to be far less, I mean they cost money and there is a limited supply,

    在一個比較貧窮的國家裡要少得多,我的意思是他們要花錢,而且供應有限。

  • and I do think the logistical burden is significant, and the cost burden is significant.

    而且我確實認為後勤負擔很重,成本負擔也很重。

  • And then there is vaccination hesitancy and a growing tide of misinformation too.

    還有就是對疫苗接種的猶豫不決,以及錯誤信息也越來越多。

  • The challenges of vaccine hesitancy will be challenges for all countries.

    疫苗猶豫不決的挑戰將是對所有國家的挑戰。

  • We haven’t seen it yet because we are still in early phases

    我們還沒有看到它,因為我們還在早期階段。

  • where the people who want the vaccine still can’t get it.

    在那裡,想打疫苗的人還是打不到。

  • We know that vaccine hesitancy is not fixed, it’s not something that cannot be changed,

    我們知道,疫苗猶豫不決不是固定的,不是不能改變的。

  • we do see that levels of willingness to get vaccinated go up and down.

    我們確實看到,接種疫苗的意願水準有升有降。

  • To me that’s actually an encouraging thing to recognize

    對我來說,這其實是一件值得鼓勵的事情,要認識到這一點。

  • because it means that public health authorities can take action to try to build that trust.

    因為這意味著公共衛生當局可以採取行動,試圖建立這種信任。

  • These challenges will be difficult to overcome, especially if there is little international cooperation.

    這些挑戰將難以克服,特別是在國際合作很少的情況下。

  • But it is not an impossible task if world leaders have the will

    但是,如果世界各國領導人有意願,這並非是一項不可能完成的任務。

  • to end the global health emergency as soon as possible.

    儘快結束全球衛生緊急情況;

  • If we are going to eradicate Covid-19 as one global community

    如果我們要作為一個全球共同體來消除Covid-19的話

  • then it is important that every community has access to these vaccines.

    那麼重要的是,每個社區都能獲得這些疫苗。

  • The virus doesn’t know any borders, right, so even if developed countries are able to eradicate it,

    病毒是不分國界的吧,所以即使發達國家能夠消滅它。

  • as long as low- and middle-income countries don’t have access to the vaccines

    只要低收入和中等收入國家得不到疫苗;

  • then the disease will continue to circulate in these countries.

    那麼這種疾病就會繼續在這些國家流傳。

  • After the first reports of infections emerged in China in late 2019,

    2019年底中國出現首批感染報告後。

  • European countries began imposing strict lockdowns and the U.S. was closing its borders in March 2020.

    歐洲國家開始實施嚴格的封鎖,美國也在2020年3月關閉邊境。

  • With the emergence of new variants, some of which are more infectious or evade immunity,

    隨著新的變種的出現,有些變種的傳染性較強或逃避免疫力。

  • protecting populations against mutated forms of the virus will be crucial in moving on from the pandemic.

    保護人口不受變異形式的病毒感染,對於擺脫這種大流行病至關重要。

  • This is also true from an economic perspective.

    從經濟角度看也是如此。

  • The International Monetary Fund had initially forecast a 3.4% rise in global output for 2020.

    國際貨幣基金組織最初預測2020年全球產出將增長3.4%。

  • But shortly after the pandemic hit, early in the year, the IMF cut its projection to a contraction of 3%,

    但在疫情發生後不久,年初,國際貨幣基金組織將預測值下調至收縮3%。

  • predicting it would be the worst economic shock since the 1930s.

    預測這將是1930年代以來最嚴重的經濟衝擊。

  • In more recent calculations, the IMF estimated that global economic activity in fact fell by 3.3% over the year,

    在最近的計算中,國際貨幣基金組織估計,全球經濟活動實際上在這一年中下降了3.3%。

  • with the chances of an immediate recovery in 2021 threatened by renewed waves of infections and virus mutations.

    在2021年立即恢復的機會受到新一輪感染和病毒變異的威脅。

  • Vaccinations will be critical in enabling economic activity to pick up after this severe global recession.

    疫苗接種對於使經濟活動在這一嚴重的全球經濟衰退後得以恢復至關重要。

  • The assumption is that for advanced economies and for some emerging markets,

    假設對發達經濟體和一些新興市場來說,。

  • they will get to widespread vaccinations by this summer,

    他們將在今年夏天得到廣泛的疫苗接種。

  • and for the rest of the world by the end of 2022.

    並在2022年底前為世界其他地區。

  • So as long as we don’t see any virus variants that evade the effectiveness of vaccines,

    所以只要我們沒有看到任何逃避疫苗效力的病毒變種。

  • we hope that there will be a vaccine-powered recovery in many countries, especially in the second half of this year.

    我們希望在許多國家,特別是在今年下半年,將出現疫苗推動的復甦。

  • Why is it so important to vaccinate the whole world?

    為什麼給全世界接種疫苗如此重要?

  • If we get to much faster vaccination, the cumulative effect will be $9 trillion over 4 to 5 years.

    如果我們的疫苗接種速度大大加快,4到5年內累計效果將達到9萬億。

  • Around 40% of that $9 trillion is benefit to advanced economies,

    在這9萬億美元中,約有40%是發達經濟體的利益。

  • the remaining to emerging and developing economies.

    剩餘的資金用於新興和發展中經濟體。

  • We are seeing virus mutations happening and as long as many parts of the world remain unvaccinated,

    我們看到病毒變異的發生,只要世界上很多地方還沒有接種疫苗。

  • you are going to see many more of these mutations and that is a big concern for the global economy.

    你會看到更多的這些突變,這對全球經濟來說是一個很大的擔憂。

  • If we see vaccinations going at a much slower paces or if we see new virus variants

    如果我們看到疫苗接種的速度慢了很多,或者我們看到新的病毒變種。

  • that evade the vaccine that would have a very sharp downgrade to the outlook.

    逃避疫苗的,將對前景有非常急劇的下調。

  • Helping low-income nations in their vaccination efforts

    幫助低收入國家開展疫苗接種工作。

  • is a critical test for international cooperation, especially among wealthier countries.

    是對國際合作,特別是較富裕國家之間合作的一個重要考驗。

  • If we are unable, in the midst of a global crisis,

    如果我們不能,在全球危機中。

  • to share a vaccine that it is in every nation’s interest to share,

    來分享一種符合每個國家利益的疫苗。

  • because it is the fastest way to bring the pandemic under control,

    因為這是控制疫情的最快方法。

  • what are the prospects of us cooperating on preventing future pandemics,

    我們合作預防未來大流行病的前景如何;

  • what are the chances of us cooperating on climate change,

    我們在氣候變化問題上合作的機會有多大。

  • on nuclear non-proliferation, anything that requires the nations of the world

    在核不擴散問題上,任何要求世界各國採取的措施都是一樣的。

  • to trust one another and work together to make us all safer.

    彼此信任,共同努力,使我們大家更加安全。

  • If we cannot do it in this crisis, we have little hope in doing it

    如果我們在這次危機中不能做到這一點,我們就沒有希望做到這一點。

  • in the many other areas where we need to see that cooperation.

    在許多其他領域,我們需要看到這種合作。

  • Hi everyone. Thank you for watching.

    嗨,大家好。謝謝大家的觀看。

  • How has the vaccination program been going in your home country?

    在您的祖國,疫苗接種計劃進展如何?

  • Let us know in the comments section, and don’t forget to subscribe.

    請在評論區告訴我們,別忘了訂閱。

  • I’ll see you soon.

    我很快就會看到你。

Across the globe, countries are locked in both a race against time

在全球範圍內,各國都在與時間賽跑。

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B1 中級 中文 疫苗 接種 國家 劑量 供應 推廣

為什麼較貧窮的國家在疫苗推廣中落後了? (Why poorer countries are being left behind in the vaccine rollout | CNBC Reports)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 08 日
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