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  • [HOST] 245 kilometers off the frigid coast of Antarctica is an island where populations of chinstrap  


  • penguins live in the thousands. But these penguins are more than just cute. The health of the Antarctic  


  • ecosystem relies on their well being. So the  scientists in this next documentary, count them  


  • yeah by hand in the freezing cold and walking  on steep cliffs. It's been years since this last  


  • happened, but the data collected will now inform  them of how one of the most remote places on earth  


  • is faring. If you want to know what  it took to film in such a hostile and  


  • rather crowded location, stick around after  the credits for a Q&A with the filmmakers.  


  • And now from, Greenpeace International, This is "Disappearing Penguins."

    而現在,國際綠色和平組織,這是 "消失的企鵝"。

  • [NARRATOR] On the far side of the planet, lies one of  the most remote and inhospitable places on Earth.


  • Elephant Islandsituated just off  the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula,  

  • is a rugged landscape of cliffs  and glaciers shaped by brutal  


  • winds. It's also home to vast colonies of  one of Antarctica's most iconic animals.  


  • Supported by environmental organizationGreenpeace, a team of scientists lands on  

    在環保組織 "綠色和平 "的支持下,一個科學家團隊登陸了 "綠色和平"。

  • Elephant Island. For the first time in 50 yearsthey will investigate how its penguins are faring.  


  • The health of the Antarctic ecosystem is  linked to the state of penguin populations.  


  • And the best way to measure  those is by counting the birds.


  • [FORREST] So we're counting penguins. And why do we count  penguins? Well, penguins are great bio-indicators.  


  • And they'll tell us what the health of the ocean  around Antarctica is because they krill krill eat  

    他們會告訴我們南極洲周圍海洋的健康狀況 因為他們吃的是磷脂蝦

  • phytoplankton. So we can tell indirectly, what  the productivity of the oceans around here,  


  • how it's responding to environmental changeAnd so we can't really adequately count the  

    它是如何應對環境變化的。 是以,我們不能真正充分地計算出它的數量

  • phytoplankton, it's really difficult to count  krill. But we can count penguins because they  


  • come ashore every year to the same places  to breed. And we're getting some idea about  


  • how the ocean is performing by how  penguin populations change over time.  


  • And we go nest by nest. We're  counting this because we want  


  • to know what the breeding population is. We're  not interested in all these penguins that are  


  • roaming around that you see kind of  wandering about here. A lot of those  


  • are non-breeders. They just come here because  there's a lot of penguins, a lot of activity.  


  • We want to know what the size of the breeding  population is, because that's what's going to make  


  • new penguins for the future. And those are  the most sensitive parts of this population.


  • [NARRATOR] There are multiple penguins  species on Elephant Island,  


  • such as the Gentoo with their distinctive  orange beak, the flamboyant Macaroni Penguin,  


  • and even these towering King penguinscarefully shuffling across the island.


  • [AMBIENT NOISE] Michael, Michael,

    [聲音] 邁克爾,邁克爾。

  • [NARRATOR]The researchers record all penguinsBut I'm mainly interested in chinstraps  

    研究人員記錄了所有的企鵝。 但我主要對下巴帶感興趣

  • so called for the narrow black band on the  underside of their heads. The chin straps are the  


  • noisiest and most numerous penguin on the islandAnd since weather conditions here are not always  

    島上最吵鬧、數量最多的企鵝。 由於這裡的天氣狀況並不總是

  • suitable for field work. The race is on to find  out exactly how numerous the chinstraps still are.


  • [STRYKER] There's four of us penguin counters. One person  says, "Okay, I'll take the high point up to the  


  • right" one person says, "I'll go up to the leftone person, that's me today, starts down low  

    一個人說:"我到左邊去。" 一個人,也就是今天的我,從低處開始。

  • and we'll work our way up and then we all  meet in the middle. And it's important to  


  • divide it up like that so that we can be sure  not to be counting the same penguins twice.


  • [NARRATOR] It's January, which means the  height of Antarctic summer  


  • with one or two chicks to each nest. The colonies  are dense packs of shrieking and pecking birds,  


  • which makes moving around a delicate affair.


  • [STRYKER] Normally, we don't try to walk through the colony  because it's so dense, but here there's just no  


  • free space in between the thing right and so  very carefully. You try to step on the highest  


  • stones between the birds and obviously not  getting too close to their nests, if you can.


  • [STRYKER] Counting penguins at its core is pretty basicIt really is "1, 2, 3" we actually count them all three  

    數企鵝的核心是非常基本的。真的是 "1, 2, 3",我們實際上是把它們都數到了三隻

  • times to try to get a count that's within 5% errorIt kind of looks crazy. Sometimes we're standing  

    次,試圖讓計數誤差在5%以內。 這看起來有點瘋狂。有時我們站在

  • on a rock gazing over a penguin colony. Very  still with our arms out And it looks like we're  


  • conducting a symphony of penguins or something  like that, because we're out there, really looking  

    指揮一個企鵝交響曲或類似的東西, 因為我們在那裡,真正的尋找。

  • at every single individual penguin, and literally  counting heads. And if there's only 10 penguins in  


  • a colony, it's pretty easy. If there's 100, you  can get through them. If you're surrounded by  


  • 1000 penguins in one big blob. That's what  I would call "Advanced Penguin Counting"

    1000只企鵝在一個大團子裡。這就是我所說的 "高級企鵝數"。

  • [NARRATOR] But some colonies are over 10,000 individuals,  


  • and Chinstraps love to nest on steep and  exposed cliffs that are hard to reach on foot.  


  • So to count all of these flightless birdsyour best bet is to take to the air.


  • [SHAH] So when we get to colonies that are so big  that it's almost infeasible to count by hand,  


  • we use aerial surveys, the idea is to capture  all colonies with aerial images, so that we  


  • can either use a manual count or machine  learning algorithm to do the counts for us.  


  • When we arrive at a site, we do a quick lay  of the land where the different colonies are.  


  • And then we pick out a system where we can make  sure that we we don't miss any of the colonies.  

    然後我們選擇一個系統,我們可以確保 我們不會錯過任何一個殖民地。

  • So we started a logical point, and set up a grid  survey with GPS locations of the boundaries of the  


  • colonies. And then we launched the drone, and have  it run the grid patterns. And then at that point,  

    殖民地然後我們發射了無人機 讓它運行網格模式 And then we launched the drone, and have it run the grid patterns.然後在那個時候 And then at that point,

  • it's pretty hands off, it flies to the first  point and heads to the series of waypoints.  


  • And the drone is able to take photos every two  seconds. And that's how we can get a set of  


  • images with a decent amount of overlap that can  be used in the next step, which is photo mosaic.  


  • Once it finishes the whole  whole survey, we retrieve it.  


  • And that's how we can finish a site and  then walk over to the next area. And so on.


  • [STRYKER] For a bird nerd like me being in the  middle of a penguin colony here and  

    對於像我這樣的鳥類愛好者來說,在企鵝群的中間... ...

  • practically unexplored Island in Antarctica  is like the ultimate experience. I can't  


  • even describe it makes my skin tingle around the  Zodiac. And we're coming into the beat is seeing  

    甚至描述它讓我的皮膚刺痛 十二生肖周圍。而我們即將進入的節拍是看到。

  • all these birds waiting for us to arrive.


  • [STRYKER] I love penguins, they're just, they're  so easy to empathize with, because  

    我喜歡企鵝,它們很容易讓人產生共鳴,因為... ...

  • they act like people in so many ways. They have  all these curious behaviors they run around,  

    他們的行為像人在很多方面。他們有所有這些好奇的行為 他們跑來跑去。

  • they're always on a mission up to something  they're very energetic, they're charismatic.

    他們總是在一個使命的東西 他們是非常有活力的,他們是有魅力的。

  • penguins are really amazing creatures, they  are hardcore. And they have some pretty amazing  


  • adaptations to survive. Here. They have the  densest packed feathers of any bird in the world,  


  • it's something like 90 feathers per square inch  that gives them their waterproof parka and down  


  • jacket all in one. They spend a lot of their time  swimming, they can swim for months at a stretch  


  • without stopping, they sleep on the ocean, the  only reason they ever come to land at all is to  


  • build a nest. And then they go and spend the rest  of their lives actually in the ocean offshore. And  

    搭建一個巢穴然後它們去度過它們的餘生 其實是在近海的海洋裡。而

  • to be an animal that only exists in the Southern  Ocean for months at a time just swimming around  

    是一種只存在於南大洋的動物 每次都要游上幾個月的時間

  • finding the fish and krill that they need to eatThat is hard for us to imagine and comprehend. And  

    尋找它們所需的魚和磷蝦。 這對我們來說是很難想象和理解的。而且

  • that I think is partly why it's so  fascinating for us to see penguins down here.


  • [STRYKER] I think that we can learn a lot by watching  birds, because birds at their core need  

    我認為我們可以通過觀察鳥類學到很多東西,因為鳥類的核心是需要... ...

  • most of the same things that we do they  need a place to live, they need food,  


  • they need to find a mate and leave a legacy. I  think that also birds experience all kinds of  


  • similar emotions and thoughts and feelings. Sothink by coming out here and doing these studies,  


  • it's almost like we're looking at our own behavior  through the prism of another species. And that  

    這幾乎就像我們在看我們自己的行為 通過另一個物種的稜鏡。而這

  • gives us a license to take a step back and sayOh, yeah, okay, that's what's really happening.

    給了我們一個許可,讓我們退一步說, 哦,是的,好吧,這就是真正發生的事情。

  • [NARRATOR] Penguin colonies may remain in place for  centuries and Chinstraps, even though they  


  • venture out to sea for hundreds of milesalways return to the same colony to breed.  


  • The last and only time elephant islands penguin  population was properly surveyed, was in 1971.  


  • The maps and data from that  British joint services expedition  


  • are now being used by the present day researchers.


  • [FORREST] So we've got some great data from 50 years ago  about what the p-penguin populations looked  


  • like. So we'll compare our counts to thatthat historic data and we'll get some idea about  

    像。是以,我們將比較我們的計數, 歷史數據,我們會得到一些關於的想法。

  • whether things are changing or not.


  • penguins are extremely well adapted to live in  Antarctica in these conditions. But when those  


  • conditions then start to change, that's when  we start getting worried about them because  


  • they've evolved over so many eons to live in this  place as it is, and then as it starts to change,  


  • then we'll see how adaptable the penguins can be.


  • [NARRATOR] The Antarctic is witnessing vast changes. Over the  past 50 years, temperatures have risen by around  


  • three degrees centigrade, one of  the fastest increases in the world.  


  • Among other things, the  warming affects ice formation.  


  • And the underside of sea ice is a critical  habitat for krill, the shrimp like creatures  

    而海冰的底部是磷蝦的重要棲息地 這種蝦類的生物

  • which are food for many of Antarctica's  animals, including Chinstrap penguins.


  • [FORREST] The climate change losers here are chinstrap  penguins. Every year where else we go on the  


  • peninsula. We're seeing chinstrap declines over  the last 50 years, and it's been dramatic. Some  


  • of those populations have declined as much as 50%  we've seen chinstrap colonies completely vanish.

    這些種群的數量已經下降了50% 我們已經看到Chinstrap殖民地完全消失了。

  • [NARRATOR] A changing climate is not the  only threat to Chinstraps.  


  • In recent years, krill fishing has  caused competition for their food,  


  • creating additional pressure on the penguins  in ways we are yet to fully understand.  


  • After 10 days of counting and covering  98% of the colonies surveyed in 1971,  


  • it's time for the researchers  to add up the results


  • [AMBIENT FORREST] 44...45....45....16, three times.

    [AMBIENT FORREST] 44... 45.... 45.... 16,三次。

  • [NARRATOR] All of Elephant Island's 32  colonies show declines. And overall,  


  • the chinstrap population has  fallen by almost 60% in 50 years,


  • [AMBIENT FORREST] 11, three times


  • [FORREST] we try to keep an impartial look at this in terms of our emotional response to the data.


  • It's It's disturbing from the standpoint of the amount of change is happening so rapidly.


  • We just don't see this kind of stuffAnd other ecosystems generally. Have  

    我們只是沒有看到這種東西。 而其他生態系統一般。有

  • you seen this with say any terrestrial mammal  species over a 50 year period people would be  


  • certainly concerned. It suggests the amount of  change that's happening herehow rapid it's it is.  


  • It remains to be seen what the  what the ultimate consequences are.  


  • Not just for Chinstrap penguinsbut for the ecosystem as a whole.


  • [STRYKER] If you removed all the penguins  from Antarctica, what would happen?  


  • I don't want to do that experiment. As  a scientist or as a person who loves  

    我不想做那個實驗。作為一個科學家或者作為一個熱愛的人 As a scientist or as a person who loves

  • birds. The penguins are a keystone in  Antarctica, there's something like 90% of  


  • the avian biomass in this region is penguinsAnd there are millions and millions of them.  

    這個地區的鳥類生物量是企鵝。 有數百萬只企鵝。

  • We are seeing some worrying  declines in their populations.  


  • So right now I'm not so much worried that  the chinstrap penguin is gonna go extinct  


  • as that they're telling us that  something in their larger ecosystem  


  • is broken in some way and that the changes  in their populations are reflecting that.


  • [FORREST] I've been coming down here for 25 years, and I've  seen some pretty remarkable changes been seeing  


  • penguin populations crash, literally, climates  changing more rapidly in the Antarctic Peninsula,  


  • probably any place on the planet. It's very  likely that when we experience these things in our  


  • temperate climates, where we all live, we're  also going to have to adapt just as the  


  • chinstrap penguins are doing right now. So it's  a lesson for us because we've, we're either going to  


  • heed this example that we're seeing down here  in the Antarctic, or we won't, and we'll suffer  


  • the consequences just as Unfortunately, the  chinstrap penguins seem to be doing down here.  


  • They don't have a chance to control their  environment. They're stuck with whatever we  


  • hand them, but we have the ability to change  and we should take serious measures to do so.


  • [NARRATOR] Antarctica has always been a continent that  has challenged us. Now its challenge is for  


  • us to leave it unharmed, and established large  scale protection for those living on the edge.


  • Now, let's hear from the ground team  on their experience of elephant Island  


  • and its special occupants.


  • [BENSON] So I'm Frida Benson, and I was expedition leader  for the expedition where this film was made.


  • [VAN ROUVEROY] And my name is Maartin Van Rouveroy. And  I was the onboard camera man, filmmaker,  

    我的名字是Maartin Van Rouveroy。我是船上的攝像師,電影製作人。 And I was the onboard camera man, filmmaker,

  • for this project that the film resulted from.


  • [BENSON] Greenpeace is one of the oldest environmental  organization and is truly global. So it was  


  • started 50 years ago, turning 50  years, actually, today with a sort of  


  • aim of a greener, peaceful world.


  • [VAN ROUVEROY] Yes, Elephant Island where we did most of the filming. It's very inhospitable, and it's been  


  • visited by very few people. But famously, this  is where Ernest Shackleton the British explorer,  


  • stranded with his men, and they had to  survive in the Antarctic winter. For us,  

    他和他的部下被困在一起 他們必須在南極的冬天生存下來。對我們來說

  • it was a bit more comfortable, because we were  based on a ship and we did these landings from  

    這是更舒服一點,因為我們是以船為基地的 我們做了這些登陸從... ...

  • inflatable boats on the shore, then it's pretty  rocky shore. So you'd basically almost be launched  


  • onto the shore like a penguin. And then you'd have  to bring all your equipment on board and clamber  


  • onto these pretty slippery rocks. And then the scientists would go off and find the penguin  


  • colonies, the photographer and I, and some of  the other people from Greenpeace, were basically  

    殖民地,攝影師和我, 和其他一些人 從綠色和平組織,基本上是

  • following the scientists with the caveat that  the scientists can actually go into the penguin  


  • colonies, and we have to stay on the outside  not to cause too much disturbance to the colony.


  • [BENSON] It's very weather dependent. And everything shifts  very, very quickly in Antarctica. So it's a it's a  

    它非常依賴於天氣。在南極洲,一切都變化得非常非常快.所以這是個... ...這是個...

  • matter of safety, really, like how safely can we get  people ashore and safe? And if something happens,  


  • can we get them off in time. So, I think the key  thing for us doing this was to have enough time  


  • really to give dedicated time for the scientists  to account because normally they have a very short  


  • period of time. So counting Elephant Island  took 11 days in total, that counting takes  


  • a substantial amount of time, actually, because  every single penguin is counted three times. So  


  • they don't count the grown up penguins, they count  the penguin chicks. So the little young ones, and  


  • it's also quite interesting, because you have to  do that when they when they're still in the nest.  

    這也是相當有趣的, 因為你必須這樣做,當他們 當他們仍然在巢中。

  • Because once they get a bit older, they start  moving around. And then this task is basically  


  • impossible, but they were very, very quick. So  when I actually tried once to help them to count  


  • some, some penguins, and I counted very few and  they counted very many, I was not very correct.  


  • And they were very correct. It's a very special  skill that they have learned over the years.  


  • [BENSON] So elephant Island belongs to a distinct planning  area of Antarctica and our face divided into  


  • two separate planning areas. And this  is what is referred to to the main one  


  • planning area, there are  ongoing conversations about  


  • establishing a very protected area in that  area, which encompasses elephant Island,  


  • and there are conversations ongoing on sort  of what does it mean, what we have found  

    有對話正在進行的排序 這意味著什麼,我們已經發現,

  • so that decline of chinstrap penguins elephant Island, and what kind of management  


  • consequences should that have. So even if there's  nothing that has happened more than that, we've  


  • seen more scientific evidence that like change is  happening in Antarctica, and it's happening fast.


  • [VAN ROUVEROY] I guess, one piece of advice, which is a bit  of a cliche, but I mean, in this day and age,  


  • when technology is so accessible, and it's  easier, it's become easier to shoot film,  


  • shoot, what's really king in more now than in  the past is a story that we were lucky here  


  • that there was a very clear and very good storyThe other thing I always tell people is to really  

    有一個非常清晰和非常好的故事。 我經常告訴人們的另一件事是,真正的

  • think about the target audience because I thinkyou know, we're with environmental filmmaking  


  • with wildlife filmmaking with I think beyond  the stage of just raising awareness. I think  

    與野生動物電影製作與我認為 超越了只是提高意識的階段。我想

  • most people on this planet are aware of  what's happening, maybe we're in


  • the next phase really where we need to act, because  it's really 5 to 12, well past 12 now, and in order  


  • to be effective with a film, you really need to  think about where your films going to be seen.  


  • And that that may be a massive audience. That  always helps. But it could also just be a very  


  • targeted group of politicians, policymakers or  other people who can influence the situation.


  • [BENSON] Yeah, I think anyone who watches this film is  that of other films about the environment. I  


  • think what's important to take with you is like  everything you do counts. Because sometimes we  


  • think that we have to do so much but I like from  from my side, but I said, you know, it's like  

    認為,我們必須做這麼多 但我喜歡從我身邊,但我說,你知道,這就像... ...

  • having, like, everything from you know, a couple  of thousands to millions of people that have signed a  


  • petition for example, it's the world of difference  when you go into a political negotiation,  


  • or you're negotiating with a company, like, people  just sort of say like, oh, but like just filing  

    或者你正在談判 與公司一樣,人們只是有點說喜歡, 哦,但像只是備案,

  • a petition doesn't really mean anything. Andwould say that it does. Like it's sort of coming