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  • Almost everyone in today’s world is obsessed with  managing their weight; usually with trying to keep  

    當今世界,幾乎每個人都沉迷於管理自己的體重;通常是試圖保持自己的體重。

  • it off. The Freshman 15, post-pregnancy weight  gain, quarantine 15, the beer belly that won’t  

    它關閉。新生15號,懷孕後體重增加,檢疫15號,不會的啤酒肚。

  • go away after a certain age...almost all of us  are on the lookout for these extra pounds and  

    到了一定年齡就會消失......幾乎所有的人都在尋找這些額外的體重和。

  • trying to find ways to avoid them. Wouldn’t it be  great if we could just eat whatever we wanted and  

    試圖找到方法來避免他們。如果我們可以想吃什麼就吃什麼,而且... ...

  • never get fat instead? Well, if you were a beetle  or a cockroach, that’s exactly what would happen.  

    永遠不會變胖反而?好吧,如果你是一隻甲蟲或者蟑螂,那正是會發生的事情。

  • The rest of your short life scurrying through  sewers or frightening new tenants and leading  

    在你短暫的生命中,餘下的時間在下水道里亂竄,或者嚇唬新的房客,帶領你的人

  • to subsequent fights with landlords would probably  be pretty terrible, but you wouldn’t be fat! So we  

    以至於後來和房東打架,可能會很可怕,但你不會胖!所以我們

  • wanted to answer a question most people hadn’t  even thought of: why can’t insects get fat?

    想回答一個大多數人都沒有想到的問題:為什麼昆蟲不能變胖?

  • Let’s start by clarifying that this doesn’t  necessarily apply to all insects. After all,  

    首先要說明的是,這不一定適用於所有的昆蟲。畢竟。

  • there is a whole, wide, terrifying world out  there with over 900,000 different kinds of living  

    外面有一個寬廣而恐怖的世界,有超過90萬種不同的生物

  • breeds of insects on our planet. This represents  around 80% of the world’s total number of species.

    我們地球上的昆蟲品種。這約佔世界物種總數的80%。

  • So while most of them can’t get fat, at least  in the way we imaginefatto look and be, a  

    所以,雖然他們中的大多數人都不能發胖,至少是我們想象中的 "胖 "的樣子,而一個。

  • few can. For example, overweight dragonflies have  been found in the wild, and the extra weight seems  

    很少有人能做到。例如,在野外發現了超重的蜻蜓,額外的重量似乎是

  • to have the same negative health effects it has  on humans. Namely, reduced mobility and lifespan.

    對人類的健康產生同樣的負面影響。即減少了行動能力和壽命。

  • One scientist also overfed mosquitoes usinghand dropper to see if they would gain weight.  

    一位科學家還用滴手器過度餵養蚊子,看它們會不會增重。

  • No, we don’t know who funded this study. By  feeding mosquitoes the right combination of foods,  

    不,我們不知道誰資助這項研究。通過給蚊子餵食正確的食物組合。

  • scientists realized they could convert  half of mosquitoesbodies into fat.  

    科學家們意識到,他們可以將蚊子身體的一半轉化為脂肪。

  • As this probably decreases their ability to fly  around spreading disease, sucking peoplesblood,  

    因為這可能會降低它們四處飛舞傳播疾病、吸食人們血液的能力。

  • and ruining summer barbecues for everyoneno one really minds fat mosquitoes.

    並破壞了大家的夏季燒烤,沒有人真正介意胖蚊子。

  • However, other species, like academia’s  favorite bug to study and torment - the  

    然而,其他物種,比如學術界最喜歡研究和折磨的蟲子--the

  • fruit fly - don’t actually expand in  size when theyre fed extra calories.

    果蠅--當它們被餵食了額外的熱量後,其實並不會擴大體型。

  • Don’t get us wrong, fruit flies who take in excess  

    不要誤解我們,果蠅誰採取了過量的

  • food will store it as excess  lipid droplets in their cells.  

    食物會作為多餘的脂滴儲存在細胞中。

  • But why don’t those lipid droplets show up  as a little fly tummy or chubby fly thighs?

    但為什麼這些脂滴不出現小蒼蠅肚子或胖胖的蒼蠅大腿呢?

  • Well, mature fruit flies have a hard, chitin  exoskeleton. Meaning that no matter how much  

    好吧,成熟的果蠅有一個堅硬的甲殼素外骨骼。意思是說,不管有多少

  • fat”, a.k.a. lipid droplets they gaintheir bellies will never expand because  

    "脂肪",也就是他們獲得的脂滴,他們的肚子永遠不會膨脹,因為

  • they can’t stretch out the exoskeleton. The  fat simply ends up getting packed in tighter.

    它們無法伸展外骨骼。脂肪最後只是被擠得更緊。

  • While fat ends up as fat tissue in human  bodies, fat in fruit flies - and plenty of  

    脂肪最終成為人體的脂肪組織,而果蠅的脂肪--以及大量的。

  • other insects - ends up in a unique  insect organ called thefat body”,  

  • which among performing many other tasks, also  functions as the insect’s liver. This isn’t  

    在執行許多其他任務的同時,它也是昆蟲的肝臟。這不是

  • a contained, separate organ, but rather, is  situated throughout the insect’s whole body.

    一個包含的、獨立的器官,而是位於昆蟲的整個身體。

  • The fat body will push against the exoskeleton  from all sides, but it will never actually be  

    胖子的身體會從四面八方推到外骨骼上,但實際上永遠不會被

  • able to expand it, as adult insects don’t shed  their exoskeleton as babies do. It still sounds  

    能夠擴大它,因為成年昆蟲不會像嬰兒那樣脫落外骨骼。這聽起來還是

  • extremely uncomfortable, like trying to fit  back into your high school prom dress at 35.

    極度不舒服,就像要在35歲的時候穿回你的高中舞會禮服一樣。

  • Though too much fat stored in this organ  creates a problem, too little at can as well.

    雖然太多脂肪存儲在這個器官創建一個問題,太少在可以以及。

  • The fat body is great at detecting and using  nutrient reserves; that means that it uses  

    脂肪的身體是很善於檢測和利用營養儲備的,也就是說,它用的是

  • its inventory of stored nutrients to determine  everything from insect growth and reproduction  

    其儲存的養分庫存決定了昆蟲生長和繁殖的一切。

  • to when the appropriate time is for  metamorphosis. If the insects aren't  

    到什麼時候才是蛻變的合適時間。如果昆蟲沒有

  • getting enough [emphasis] fat, growth and  metamorphosis will be delayed or stunted.

    得到足夠的[強調]脂肪,生長和蛻變將被延後或受阻。

  • However, the fact that extra fat can’t be seen in  most insects doesn’t mean it’s not causing damage.  

    然而,在大多數昆蟲身上看不到多餘的脂肪,並不意味著它不會造成傷害。

  • Fruit flies who regularly overeat and  increase the fat in their bodies develop  

    經常暴飲暴食,增加體內脂肪的果蠅,會產生

  • something similar to diabetes, and tend  to die younger than their average-sized  

    類似於糖尿病,而且往往比一般體型的人死得更年輕。

  • friends. Keep in mind that a fruit  fly’s usual lifespan is about 30 days,  

    的朋友。要知道,一隻果蠅的一般壽命是30天左右。

  • so dying even a few daysearlier  is actually kind of a big deal.

    所以,早死幾天其實也是一件大事。

  • What does all this mean for  humans though? After all,  

    不過這一切對人類來說意味著什麼呢?畢竟。

  • growing an exoskeleton to prevent ourselves  from gaining weight seems...challenging.  

    長出外骨骼來防止自己發胖,似乎......很有挑戰性。

  • And clearly, cutting down on soda  and Taco Bell is out of the question.

    很明顯,減少喝汽水和吃塔可鍾是不可能的。

  • Are there other ways insects avoid  getting fat that we could mimic instead?  

    昆蟲有沒有其他避免發胖的方法,我們可以模仿來代替?

  • Actually, there are plenty! Which brings us to one  

    其實,有很多!這讓我們想到了一個

  • of the most ubiquitous and friendly insects  around: the friendly, hardworking old ant.

    身邊最普遍、最友好的昆蟲:友好、勤勞的老螞蟻。

  • Ants are easily able to take  on extra calories; however,  

    螞蟻很容易吸收額外的熱量;但是。

  • they don’t keep them for long. Being the  classically communist little workers they are,  

    他們不會留他們太久。作為階級共產主義的小工人,他們是。

  • they feel obliged to share them  with the rest of their nest.

    它們覺得有義務與其他巢穴分享它們。

  • You see, ants have two different types  ofstomachs”. One is the midgut,  

    你看,螞蟻的 "胃 "有兩種不同的類型。一種是中腸。

  • the ant’s digestive stomach, which the ant  uses to stock up on its own food and obtain  

    螞蟻的消化胃,螞蟻用它來儲備自己的食物,並獲得。

  • its energy. The other is  the social stomach or crop.  

    其能量。另一個是社會胃或作物。

  • This is an entirely separate food-storage  organ than the ant’s regular stomach.

    這是一個比螞蟻的普通胃完全獨立的食物儲存器官。

  • When the ant has filled up her caloric needs  in her midgut - all worker and soldier ants  

    當螞蟻在中腸中填滿了它的熱量需求時--所有的工蟻和阿兵哥蟻

  • are female, soheris accurate - the rest of  the calories go to the crop. If the ant gets  

    是雌性的,所以 "她 "是準確的--其餘的熱量都給了作物。如果螞蟻得到

  • hungry later and hasn’t yet emptied her cropsome of that food might move to the midgut.

    餓了以後,還沒有清空它的嗉囊,有些食物可能會轉移到中腸。

  • However, it’s more common for the food to  be passed onto a fellow hangry worker ant.  

    不過,更常見的是將食物傳遞給同為宿敵的工蟻。

  • A hungry ant will use her antennae to  tap the overfed ant using a special code.  

    飢餓的螞蟻會用它的天線用特殊的代碼敲打吃得過飽的螞蟻。

  • This signals the overfed ant to feed her  workmate. At which point, the overfed  

    這就給吃得過飽的螞蟻發出信號,讓它給自己的工作夥伴餵食。這時,吃得過飽的

  • ant…[pause]...vomits up the food  so the hungry ant can get it.

    螞蟻......[停頓]......把食物吐出來,讓飢餓的螞蟻得到食物。

  • Yeah, turns out there’s no pretty way to  pass food on from one organism’s stomach  

    是啊,事實證明,沒有什麼漂亮的方法可以把食物從一個生物體的胃裡傳出去。

  • to another’s mouth. It’s exactly  as gross as you were thinking.

    到別人的嘴裡。這和你想的一樣噁心。

  • At this point you might be wondering, why should  we even care if insects can get fat or not?  

    這時你可能會想,為什麼我們還要關心昆蟲能不能變胖呢?

  • What difference does it make for usIs there a juice cleanse or a keto  

    這對我們來說有什麼不同呢? 有沒有果汁清潔法或酮體法

  • diet plan we are testing on insects  that can work on humans as well?

    我們在昆蟲身上測試的飲食計劃,也能在人類身上發揮作用?

  • First of all, no there isn’t, mostly  because juice cleanses are BS.

    首先,沒有,主要是因為果汁清潔是BS。

  • Second of all, some of the observations about  fat in insects are helping scientists understand  

    其次,關於昆蟲體內脂肪的一些觀察有助於科學家瞭解

  • the role of diet and genetics in human obesitywhich is currently a rapidly-spreading epidemic.

    飲食和遺傳學在目前迅速蔓延的人類肥胖症中的作用;

  • Caterpillars are one of the species  used to test the role of carbohydrates  

    毛毛蟲是用來測試碳水化合物作用的物種之一。

  • and proteins in fat accumulationTo the average human, the round,  

    和蛋白質在脂肪堆積。 對普通人來說,圓。

  • squishy body of a caterpillar may already look  fat, but that’s actually just the caterpillars  

    毛毛蟲扁扁的身子可能看起來已經很胖了,但其實那只是毛毛蟲的

  • acquiring the nutrient storage they need to  eventually turn into a stunning butterfly.

    獲得它們所需的營養儲存,最終變成一隻只驚豔的蝴蝶。

  • In reality, it’s pretty hard to make  a caterpillar fat. Scientists - and we  

    實際上,要想讓毛毛蟲變胖是相當困難的。科學家們--還有我們

  • continue to be confused as to who exactly  is funding these studies - fed two groups  

    繼續困惑,到底是誰在資助這些研究--餵了兩個群體

  • of caterpillars radically different dietsOne was low in carbs and high in protein,  

    毛毛蟲完全不同的飲食。 一種是低碳水化合物和高蛋白質。

  • and the other diet was high  in carbs and low in protein.

    而另一種飲食則是高碳水化合物,低蛋白質。

  • Researchers found that over several  generations, around eight to be exact,  

    研究人員發現,在幾代人的時間裡,準確的說是八代人左右。

  • caterpillars used to a high-carb diet developed  the ability to eat all the carbs they wanted  

    習慣於高碳水化合物飲食的毛毛蟲發展出了吃下所有碳水化合物的能力。

  • without gaining extra weight. Whereas  caterpillars used to a low-carb diet  

    而不會增加額外的體重。而習慣於低碳水化合物飲食的毛蟲

  • stored almost all carbs as fatto protect their health and body.

    幾乎所有的碳水化合物都以脂肪的形式儲存起來,以保護自己的健康和身體。

  • This might go some way towards explaining  why carbohydrates are generally considered  

    這可能會在一定程度上解釋為什麼碳水化合物通常被認為是

  • a poor food choice for humans looking to  lose weight. High-carb diets are a fairly  

    對於想要減肥的人類來說,是一種糟糕的食物選擇。高碳水化合物飲食是一種相當

  • recent development in human evolutionas they only came about after the advent  

    人類進化的最新發展,因為它們是在人類出現之後才出現的。

  • of agriculture. Our cavemen ancestors’  diet was much more protein and fat heavy.

    農業的。我們穴居人祖先的飲食更多的是蛋白質和脂肪的含量。

  • Since we consider humans to be a tiny  bit more complex than caterpillars,  

    既然我們認為人類比毛毛蟲複雜一點。

  • it would logically take way more generations  for humans to adapt to this carb-intensive diet  

    從邏輯上講,人類需要更多的世代才能適應這種碳水化合物密集型的飲食。

  • that is radically different than that of  Stone Age humans. So no matter how long we  

    與石器時代的人類有著天壤之別。所以無論我們多久

  • feel like weve been scarfing down breadrice, French fries, and delicious pasta,  

    感覺就像我們一直在吃麵包、米飯、薯條和美味的意大利麵。

  • all these foods are still a relatively  new experience for the human race.

    這些食物對人類來說都還是比較新鮮的體驗。

  • Insects aficionados have also found genetic links  to obesity in insects that are shared by humans.

    昆蟲愛好者還發現了人類共有的昆蟲肥胖的基因聯繫。

  • In the 1960s, entomologist Winifred Doane  found a really fat group of flies in Nigeria.  

    20世紀60年代,昆蟲學家威尼弗裡德-杜恩在尼日利亞發現了一群非常肥胖的蒼蠅。

  • We don’t even want to think about the amount  of time one must spend looking at flies to  

    我們甚至不願意去想一個人必須花多少時間去看蒼蠅,才能。

  • automatically clock one buzzing by you as obesebut Doane was apparently on top of her fly game.

    自動時鐘一個嗡嗡由你作為肥胖,但Doane顯然是在她的飛行遊戲的頂部。

  • When she examined the critters closelyshe found they were deficient in the WTDC1  

    當她仔細檢查這些小動物時,發現它們缺乏WTDC1。

  • protein. This protein turns off the path  that leads to excess fat accumulation.  

    蛋白質。這種蛋白質能關閉導致脂肪過度堆積的路徑。

  • Therefore, the flies that didn’t have it  simply could not stop putting on the pounds.

    是以,沒有它的蒼蠅根本停不下來的增重。

  • Or more likely, since they were flies, micrograms.

    或者更有可能,因為他們是蒼蠅,微克。

  • The interesting part of this  finding is that humans have a  

    這一發現的有趣之處在於,人類有一個

  • gene that controls WTDC1 protein  levels as well. And it turns out,  

    基因,也控制著WTDC1蛋白水準。而事實證明。

  • low levels of this protein are linked  to problems with weight gain in people.

    這種蛋白質的低水平與人們的體重增加問題有關。

  • So weve covered two of the three big  factors related to human weight, in insects:  

    所以,我們已經介紹了與人體體重有關的三大因素中的兩個,在昆蟲。

  • diet and genetics. What about  exercise? Do insects even lift,  

    飲食和遺傳。那運動呢?昆蟲連舉。

  • bro? Turns out, most insects  can put any gym rat to shame.

    兄弟?事實證明,大多數昆蟲可以把任何健身房的老鼠羞辱。

  • You might have heard that ants are able to lift  many times their own weight. You might not know  

    你可能聽說過,螞蟻能夠舉起很多倍於自身重量的東西。你可能不知道

  • exactly how much more though; turns out ants  can carry up to 50 times their own body weight!

    不過到底有多大,原來螞蟻的體重可以達到自己體重的50倍!

  • To get an idea of how impressive  this is, magine a 200-pound human  

    為了瞭解這有多厲害,請想象一個200磅重的人。

  • weightlifter benching 10,000 pounds, a.k.a.  approximately the weight of a small elephant!

    舉重運動員長凳10000磅,也就是大約一頭小象的重量!

  • And ants aren’t even the strongest insects  around. That honor goes to the dung beetle,  

    而螞蟻甚至不是最強壯的昆蟲。這個榮譽屬於蜣螂。

  • which really needs to work on its branding.  

    這真的需要在品牌上下功夫。

  • Dung beetles are able to lift 1,141 times their  own body weight. Yes, you heard that correctly.

    蜣螂能夠舉起自己體重的1141倍。是的,你沒聽錯。

  • Remember our elephant-lifting bro from beforeWell, if he had a dung beetle’s strength,  

    還記得我們以前那個舉象的兄弟嗎? 如果他有蜣螂的力氣的話。

  • he would now be lifting a blue whalethe LARGEST [emphasis] animal on earth.

    他現在將舉起一頭藍鯨--地球上最大的[強調]動物。

  • However, does lifting these crazy weights actually  help consume that much energy for insects?  

    然而,舉起這些瘋狂的重物真的有助於消耗昆蟲的那麼多能量嗎?

  • There is evidence to suggest so, as insects  that are relatively immobile and don’t carry  

    有證據表明是這樣的,因為相對不動的昆蟲,不會帶著。

  • weights seem to bloat up. This is especially  obvious when it comes to certain honeypot  

    砝碼似乎膨脹起來。這一點在涉及到某些蜜罐的時候尤其明顯。

  • ants calledrepletes”, who  almost never leave the nest.

    被稱為 "紅螞蟻 "的螞蟻,它們幾乎從不離開巢穴。

  • These ants eat a huge amount of food  and hardly ever lift or move anything,  

    這些螞蟻吃了大量的食物,幾乎不搬動或移動任何東西。

  • thus basically becoming giant balls of sugary  nectar. Their only job is to eat as much as  

    從而基本成為巨大的糖蜜球。它們唯一的工作就是儘可能多的吃

  • possible, and give all the leftover energy to  the rest of the ants in the colony who need it.  

    儘可能的,把剩餘的能量都給蟻群中其他需要能量的螞蟻。

  • Just in case you needed a reminder  of how that particular process works,  

    以防你需要提醒你這個特殊的過程是如何運作的。

  • the calories are transferred by  throwing them up. Youre welcome.

    熱量是通過拋出它們來轉移的。不客氣

  • In addition to lifting superhumansuperinsect? - loads, many insects  

    除了舉起超人、超級昆蟲?- 負荷,許多昆蟲

  • have to expend an incredible amount of  energy to do something humans can’t: fly.

    必須消耗大量的能量來做一些人類做不到的事情:飛行。

  • When people fly, they sit almost motionless  for several hours while snacking on soda and  

    當人們坐飛機時,他們幾乎一動不動地坐了幾個小時,同時吃著蘇打水和零食。

  • cookies and crying atCoco”, thus expending  very little actual energy. When insects fly,  

    餅乾,對著 "可可 "哭泣,是以實際消耗的能量很少。當昆蟲飛。

  • they have to increase their metabolic energy by  a factor of 50 to 100 just to stay in the air.

    它們必須增加新陳代謝的能量 50到100倍才能保持在空中。

  • For long-term fliers, like mosquitoes and locuststhe fat body circulates a substance called  

    對於長期飛行者,如蚊子和蝗蟲,脂肪體會循環一種叫做

  • trehalose, as well as lipids, to help keep the  insects in flight. All this activity means that  

    還有脂質,以幫助昆蟲保持飛行狀態。所有這些活動意味著

  • energy stores are burned up pretty constantly  for insects; way more easily than in humans.

    昆蟲的能量儲存被不斷地消耗掉,比人類更容易。

  • In a nutshell, most insects are incapable of  getting fat, either because they share excess  

    總而言之,大多數昆蟲是無法發胖的,要麼是因為它們分享了多餘的

  • calories with their insect communities or burn  them up during constant flight and load-bearing  

    卡路里與它們的昆蟲群落,或在不斷的飛行和負重過程中消耗掉它們的熱量

  • activities. And the insects that are [emphasiscapable of gaining weight don’t usually show it  

    活動。而能夠增重的昆蟲[強調]一般不會表現出來的。

  • thanks to their exoskeleton, which basically  functions like the tightest corset ever.

    多虧了它們的外骨骼,它的功能基本上就像最緊身的胸衣。

  • Now that you know why most insects aren’t  fat, and are still wondering if it’s harder  

    現在你知道為什麼大多數昆蟲都不胖了,還在想是不是更難吃了

  • to create your own exoskeleton or swear off  KFC, check out this video, or another video  

    創建你自己的外骨骼或發誓關閉肯德基,檢查出這個視頻,或另一個視頻。

  • right here to learn more incredible facts  from the team at The Infographics Show!

    在這裡,您可以從資訊圖表展的團隊那裡瞭解到更多不可思議的事實。

Almost everyone in today’s world is obsessed with  managing their weight; usually with trying to keep  

當今世界,幾乎每個人都沉迷於管理自己的體重;通常是試圖保持自己的體重。

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B2 中高級 中文 昆蟲 螞蟻 脂肪 體重 飲食 毛毛蟲

昆蟲不能發胖的真正原因。 (REAL Reason Why Insects Can't Get FAT)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 04 日
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