Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • So it was the fall of 1902,

    1902 年秋天時,

  • and President Theodore Roosevelt

    狄奧多.羅斯福總統

  • needed a little break from the White House,

    想離開白宮去渡假,

  • so he took a train to Mississippi

    因此他搭上火車前往密西西比州,

  • to do a little black bear hunting outside of a town

    到城外去獵黑熊,

  • called Smedes.

    就在史密德鎮。

  • The first day of the hunt, they didn't see a single bear,

    打獵的第一天,他們一隻熊也沒看到,

  • so it was a big bummer for everyone,

    大家都覺得很掃興,

  • but the second day, the dogs cornered one

    但是第二天,

  • after a really long chase, but by that point,

    追逐好久之後,狗群圍住了一隻熊,

  • the president had given up

    但是那時總統已經放棄,

  • and gone back to camp for lunch,

    回到帳篷去吃午餐了。

  • so his hunting guide cracked the animal

    因此狩獵長用來福槍托

  • on the top of the head with the butt of his rifle,

    往那隻熊的頭上猛力一擊,

  • and then tied it up to a tree

    接著將牠綁在樹上,並開始吹號角,

  • and started tooting away on his bugle

    請羅斯福回來,

  • to call Roosevelt back so he could have the honor

    享有槍殺牠

  • of shooting it.

    的特權。

  • The bear was a female.

    那是隻母熊。

  • It was dazed, injured,

    牠頭暈眼花,遍體鱗傷,

  • severely underweight, a little mangy-looking,

    十分瘦弱,看起來有點骯髒,

  • and when Roosevelt saw this animal

    羅斯福一看到牠

  • tied up to the tree,

    被綁在樹上,

  • he just couldn't bring himself to fire at it.

    就是無法鼓起勇氣對牠開槍。

  • He felt like that would go against his code

    他覺得這麼做有違

  • as a sportsman.

    運動家精神。

  • A few days later, the scene was memorialized

    幾天後,這個場景被畫在

  • in a political cartoon back in Washington.

    華府的政治漫畫裡留念。

  • It was called "Drawing a Line in Mississippi,"

    稱為「在密西西比州劃界」,

  • and it showed Roosevelt with his gun down and his arm out,

    這幅畫展現了羅斯福放下槍並伸出手的樣子,

  • sparing the bear's life,

    留給熊一條活命。

  • and the bear was sitting on its hind legs

    那隻熊坐在後腳上,

  • with these two big, frightened, wide eyes

    有著圓滾滾的雙眼

  • and little ears pricked up at the top of its head.

    和頭頂上小巧、豎立的雙耳。

  • It looked really helpless, like you just wanted to

    看起來非常無助,讓你想將牠抱在懷裡安慰牠。

  • sweep it up into your arms

    讓你想將牠抱在懷裡

  • and reassure it.

    安慰牠。

  • It wouldn't have looked familiar at the time,

    當時那隻熊不太常見,

  • but if you go looking for the cartoon now,

    但現在若是在漫畫裡找,

  • you recognize the animal right away:

    你馬上就能認出這隻動物:

  • It's a teddy bear.

    泰迪熊。

  • And this is how the teddy bear was born.

    而這就是泰迪熊誕生的方式。

  • Essentially, toymakers took the bear from the cartoon,

    基本上,玩具商從漫畫採用這隻熊,

  • turned it into a plush toy, and then named it

    讓牠變成毛絨絨的玩具,

  • after President Roosevelt -- Teddy's bear.

    並以羅斯福總統之名,稱它為「泰迪熊」。

  • And I do feel a little ridiculous

    我覺得有點可笑,

  • that I'm up here on this stage

    因為我站在這舞台上

  • and I'm choosing to use my time

    把我的時間花在

  • to tell you about a 100-year-old story

    告訴大家一個百年前的老故事,

  • about the invention of a squishy kid's toy,

    關於一個軟綿綿童玩的誕生。

  • but I'd argue that the invention of the teddy bear,

    但我認為泰迪熊發明的故事裡頭

  • inside that story is a more important story,

    還有一個更重要的故事,

  • a story about how dramatically our ideas

    一個我們的想法能讓

  • about nature can change,

    自然大幅改變的故事,

  • and also about how, on the planet right now,

    同樣地,如今在地球上

  • the stories that we tell

    我們述說的故事

  • are dramatically changing nature.

    也大幅改變了自然。

  • Because think about the teddy bear.

    因為你想想泰迪熊。

  • For us, in retrospect, it feels like an obvious fit,

    試著回想,對我們來說那是再自然不過的事了,

  • because bears are so cute and cuddly,

    因為熊那麼可愛又討人喜歡,

  • and who wouldn't want to give one to their kids to play with,

    誰不會想拿隻熊給孩子玩?

  • but the truth is that in 1902,

    但事實是 1902 年時,

  • bears weren't cute and cuddly.

    熊並不可愛也不討喜。

  • I mean, they looked the same,

    牠們雖然長得一樣,

  • but no one thought of them that way.

    但沒人會有那種感覺。

  • In 1902, bears were monsters.

    1902 年時,熊是怪物。

  • Bears were something that frickin' terrified kids.

    熊是會嚇死小孩的東西。

  • For generations at that point,

    幾個世代以來,

  • the bear had been a shorthand for all the danger

    熊一直是危險的象徵,

  • that people were encountering on the frontier,

    大家會在荒郊野外碰到的那種,

  • and the federal government was actually

    聯邦政府其實有

  • systematically exterminating bears

    計畫地消滅熊,

  • and lots of other predators too,

    以及其他食肉動物,

  • like coyotes and wolves.

    像是土狼和野狼。。

  • These animals, they were being demonized.

    這些動物都被妖魔化了

  • They were called murderers

    牠們被被稱為兇手,

  • because they killed people's livestock.

    因為牠們會殺害人類的牲畜。

  • One government biologist, he explained this

    有位官方的生物學家說道,

  • war on animals like the bear by saying

    這場對動物,像是對熊的戰爭,

  • that they no longer had a place

    牠們已無容身之地,

  • in our advancing civilization,

    在文明社會之中

  • and so we were just clearing them out of the way.

    我們就能清光牠們。

  • In one 10-year period, close to half a million wolves

    在十年之間,將近五十萬隻野狼

  • had been slaughtered.

    被屠殺。

  • The grizzly would soon be wiped out

    95% 原生地的灰熊

  • from 95 percent of its original territory,

    即將被一掃而空,

  • and whereas once there had been 30 million bison

    然而,當地曾有三千萬隻犎牛橫跨平原,

  • moving across the plains, and you would have

    因此你聽過一些故事

  • these stories of trains having to stop

    提到火車需暫停

  • for four or five hours so that these thick,

    四、五個小時,

  • living rivers of the animals could pour over the tracks,

    讓這些洪流般的大批動物通過軌道,

  • now, by 1902, there were maybe less than 100 left in the wild.

    到了 1902 年,留現在在原野上的也許不到一百隻。

  • And so what I'm saying is, the teddy bear was born

    我想表達的是, 泰迪熊誕生在

  • into the middle of this great spasm of extermination,

    在大滅絕時期,

  • and you can see it as a sign that

    你可以將它視為徵兆,

  • maybe some people deep down

    也許有些人的內心深處

  • were starting to feel conflicted about all that killing.

    對那些殺戮行為已開始感到衝突。

  • America still hated the bear and feared it,

    當時美國還是討厭熊、害怕熊,

  • but all of a sudden, America also wanted

    但是一瞬間,美國也想

  • to give the bear a great big hug.

    給熊一個大大的擁抱。

  • So this is something that I've been really curious about in the last few years.

    近年來,我對這件事深感好奇。

  • How do we imagine animals,

    我們對如何想像動物,

  • how do we think and feel about them,

    我們如何看待、感受牠們,

  • and how do their reputations get written

    以及牠們的名聲

  • and then rewritten in our minds?

    如何在我們的心中被寫下,然後改寫?

  • We're here living in the eye of a great storm

    我們正生活在滅絕的颱風眼之中,

  • of extinction where half the species on the planet

    地球上,超過半數的物種

  • could be gone by the end of the century,

    有可能在本世紀末就會消失,

  • and so why is it that we come to care about

    為什麼我們在乎的是某些物種,

  • some of those species and not others?

    而非其他的物種?

  • Well, there's a new field, a relatively new field

    有一個在社會科學界較新的領域

  • of social science that started looking at

    開始研究這些問題,

  • these questions and trying to unpack the powerful

    並試著卸下我們對動物那強大且

  • and sometimes pretty schizophrenic relationships

    時常頗為反覆無常的關係,

  • that we have to animals,

  • and I spent a lot of time looking through

    我花很多時間翻閱

  • their academic journals,

    他們的學術期刊,

  • and all I can really say is that their findings

    我能說的只有他們的發現

  • are astonishingly wide-ranging.

    還真是廣泛的嚇人。

  • So some of my favorites include that

    當中我最喜歡的包括

  • the more television a person watches in Upstate New York,

    紐約上州的居民如果越常看電視,

  • the more he or she is afraid

    他或她會越害怕

  • of being attacked by a black bear.

    被黑熊攻擊

  • If you show a tiger to an American,

    如果你讓美國人看老虎,

  • they're much more likely to assume that it's female

    他們多半會認為那是母的,

  • and not male.

    而非公的。

  • In a study where a fake snake

    一份研究指出,如果路邊有假蛇

  • and a fake turtle were put on the side of the road,

    和假烏龜,

  • drivers hit the snake much more often than the turtle,

    駕駛輾過蛇的機率大於烏龜,

  • and about three percent of drivers who hit the fake animals

    大約有 3% 的駕駛似乎是

  • seemed to do it on purpose.

    故意輾過假動物。

  • Women are more likely than men to get a

    女性在浪上看到海豚時,比男性更

  • "magical feeling" when they see dolphins in the surf.

    可能有「神奇的感覺」。

  • Sixty-eight percent of mothers with

    68% 的媽媽

  • "high feelings of entitlement and self-esteem"

    會有「強烈自尊心和權利的感受」。

  • identified with the dancing cats

    在買飼料時

  • in a commercial for Purina. (Laughter)

    看到跳舞的貓咪,

  • Americans consider lobsters

    美國人認為龍蝦

  • more important than pigeons

    比企鵝還重要,

  • but also much, much stupider.

    但也認為龍蝦較遲鈍。

  • Wild turkeys are seen as only slightly more dangerous than sea otters,

    野生火雞只比海獺還危險一點而已

  • and pandas are twice as lovable as ladybugs.

    熊貓可愛的程度比瓢蟲高兩倍。

  • So some of this is physical, right?

    這和外表有點關係吧?

  • We tend to sympathize more with animals that look like us,

    我們傾向較同情長得像人的動物,

  • and especially that resemble human babies,

    尤其是長得像小嬰兒的動物,

  • so with big, forward-facing eyes

    有較大的前視眼睛

  • and circular faces,

    和圓圓的臉,

  • kind of a roly-poly posture.

    圓滾滾的樣子。

  • This is why, if you get a Christmas card from, like,

    這就是為什麼,如果你收到聖誕卡,

  • your great aunt in Minnesota,

    像明尼蘇達州姨媽寄的,

  • there's usually a fuzzy penguin chick on it,

    上面常會有毛絨絨的企鵝寶寶,

  • and not something like a Glacier Bay wolf spider.

    而不是冰河灣的狼蛛在上面。

  • But it's not all physical, right?

    也不全是外表吧?

  • There's a cultural dimension to how we think about animals,

    文化層面也影響我們怎麼看待動物,

  • and we're telling stories about these animals,

    以及如何說這些動物的故事,

  • and like all stories,

    像所有故事一樣,

  • they are shaped by the times and the places

    我們述說動物

  • in which we're telling them.

    的時間和地點也會改變牠們的形象。

  • So think about that moment

    想想時代背景

  • back in 1902 again where a ferocious bear

    回想 1902 年的那一刻,

  • became a teddy bear.

    一隻兇猛的熊變成泰迪熊。

  • What was the context? Well, America was urbanizing.

    背景是什麼?美國正在都市化階段。

  • For the first time, nearly a majority of people lived in cities,

    首次,超過半數的人住在城市,

  • so there was a growing distance between us and nature.

    因此我們和自然的距離越來越遠。

  • There was a safe space where we could

    有個安全地帶讓我們能重新思考熊,

  • reconsider the bear and romanticize it.

    讓牠的形象變得浪漫。

  • Nature could only start to seem this pure and adorable

    自然要開始變得如此純淨、討喜,

  • because we didn't have to be afraid of it anymore.

    得要我們不再害怕自然才行。

  • And you can see that cycle playing out

    你會看到這種循環不斷重覆上演,

  • again and again with all kinds of animals.

    發生在各種動物身上。

  • It seems like we're always stuck between

    似乎我們總是陷在

  • demonizing a species and wanting to wipe it out,

    妖魔化物種、想要毀滅牠們,

  • and then when we get very close to doing that,

    然後在我們快這麼做的時候,

  • empathizing with it as an underdog

    就會同情牠們像隻敗犬,

  • and wanting to show it compassion.

    想對牠們展現憐憫之情。

  • So we exert our power,

    因此我們運用權力,

  • but then we're unsettled

    但我們又因

  • by how powerful we are.

    擁有強大的力量而感到不安。

  • So for example, this is one of

    例如,這是小朋友寄給布希政府

  • probably thousands of letters and drawings

    數千封信和畫之中的一件,

  • that kids sent to the Bush administration,

    請求政府

  • begging it to protect the polar bear

    保護北極熊,

  • under the Endangered Species Act,

    依據瀕危物種法案

  • and these were sent back in the mid-2000s,

    這些信在 2005 年左右被寄出,

  • when awareness of climate change was suddenly surging.

    當時氣候變遷的意識突然高漲。

  • We kept seeing that image of a polar bear

    我們不斷看到北極熊被

  • stranded on a little ice floe

    困在小浮冰上的圖像,

  • looking really morose.

    看起來鬱鬱寡歡。

  • I spent days looking through these files.

    我花了幾天查閱這些資料,

  • I really love them. This one's my favorite.

    非常喜愛,這是我最喜歡的一張。

  • If you can see, it's a polar bear that's drowning

    你可以看到北極熊快淹死了,

  • and then it's also being eaten simultaneously

    同時龍蝦和鯊魚

  • by a lobster and a shark.

    正要將牠吃下肚。

  • This one came from a kid named Fritz,

    這張是法瑞茲小朋友寫的,

  • and he's actually got a solution to climate change.

    他真的找到氣候變遷的解方。

  • He's got it all worked out to an ethanol-based solution.

    他運用乙醇方案來解決一切。

  • He says, "I feel bad about the polar bears.

    他說:「我覺得北極熊好可憐。

  • I like polar bears.

    我喜歡北極熊。

  • Everyone can use corn juice for cars. From Fritz."

    每個人都可以用玉米汁幫汽車加油。法蘭茲敬上。」

  • So 200 years ago, you would have Arctic explorers

    200 年前,我們有北極探險家

  • writing about polar bears leaping into their boats

    會寫下北極熊跳到船上,

  • and trying to devour them,

    試圖活吞他們的故事,

  • even if they lit the bear on fire,

    即使放火燒熊也難保命,

  • but these kids don't see the polar bear that way,

    但這些孩子不這樣看北極熊,

  • and actually they don't even see the polar bear

    其實他們看待北極熊的方式甚至和

  • the way that I did back in the '80s.

    我在 80 年代還小

  • I mean, we thought of these animals

    的時候不同。

  • as mysterious and terrifying lords of the Arctic.

    我們認為這些動物 就像是北極圈裡謎樣又嚇人的領主。

  • But look now how quickly that climate change

    但是現在氣候變遷

  • has flipped the image of the animal in our minds.

    已飛快轉變這種動物在我們心目中的形象。

  • It's gone from that bloodthirsty man-killer

    北極熊從嗜血的殺人兇手

  • to this delicate, drowning victim,

    到變成這種脆弱、快溺死的被害者,

  • and when you think about it, that's kind of

    而當你認真思考

  • the conclusion to the story

    那個故事的結局,

  • that the teddy bear started telling back in 1902,

    那個 1902 年開始傳說的泰迪熊故事,

  • because back then, America had more or less

    那時候,美國已或多或少

  • conquered its share of the continent.

    征服了那塊大陸。

  • We were just getting around to

    我們只是找時間去

  • polishing off these last wild predators.

    快速處理最後一批野生食肉動物。

  • Now, society's reach has expanded

    現在,社會已一路擴展到

  • all the way to the top of the world,

    世界之巔,

  • and it's made even these, the most remote,

    甚至讓這些遠在天邊、

  • the most powerful bears on the planet,

    世上最強壯的熊都變成可愛

  • seem like adorable and blameless victims.

    又無辜的受害者。

  • But you know, there's also a postscript to the teddy bear story

    其實泰迪熊故事還有後續發展,

  • that not a lot of people talk about.

    但卻沒什麼人討論。

  • We're going to talk about it,

    我們可以稍做討論,

  • because even though it didn't really take long

    因為即使在

  • after Roosevelt's hunt in 1902

    1902 年羅斯福打獵後不久,

  • for the toy to become a full-blown craze,

    這玩具開始蔚為風潮,

  • most people figured it was a fad,

    大多數人都把它看做是一時的流行,

  • it was a sort of silly political novelty item

    只是某種愚蠢的政治噱頭,

  • and it would go away once the president left office,

    總統卸任就會煙消雲散。

  • and so by 1909, when Roosevelt's successor,

    因此羅斯福在 1909 年的接班人

  • William Howard Taft,

    威廉.霍華德.塔虎脫

  • was getting ready to be inaugurated,

    準備好要就職時,

  • the toy industry was on the hunt

    玩具業等著搜尋

  • for the next big thing.

    下一個大事件。

  • They didn't do too well.

    結果成效不彰。

  • That January, Taft was the guest of honor

    那年一月,塔虎脫是

  • at a banquet in Atlanta,

    亞特蘭大一場宴會的座上佳賓,

  • and for days in advance,

    在會前幾天,

  • the big news was the menu.

    菜單是新聞重點。

  • They were going to be serving him

    他們打算招待塔虎脫一道南方菜,

  • a Southern specialty, a delicacy, really,

    非常美味,

  • called possum and taters.

    稱為「負鼠佐香薯」。

  • So you would have a whole opossum

    所以他會拿到一隻完整的烤負鼠,

  • roasted on a bed of sweet potatoes,

    躺在蕃薯上,

  • and then sometimes they'd leave

    有時會留著負鼠的大尾巴,

  • the big tail on it like a big, meaty noodle.

    就像是很粗的肉麵條。

  • The one brought to Taft's table

    送到塔虎脫桌上的

  • weighed 18 pounds.

    那隻大約 18 磅。

  • So after dinner, the orchestra started to play,

    晚餐後,管弦樂團開始演奏,

  • and the guests burst into song,

    賓客被音樂環繞,

  • and all of a sudden, Taft was surprised

    突然間,塔虎脫收到驚喜,