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  • Fourteen Greenlands could fit in Africa,

    非洲可以容納14個格陵蘭島,

  • but you wouldn't guess it from most maps of the world.

    但這在世界地圖上看不出來。

  • The fact is, every world map humans have ever made is wrong.

    事實上,人類繪製的每一張世界地圖都是錯誤的。

  • Actually, it's impossible to make a map of the world 100% right.

    其實,想製作100%正確的世界地圖是不可能的。

  • No, not you, globe, we know you're accurate.

    不是說你,地球儀,我們知道你是準確的。

  • Not you, Google Earth, you're just a digital globe.

    不是你,谷歌地球,你只是一個數位地球儀。

  • We're talking about flat maps, which, let's face it, are way more convenient for a lot of things.

    我們說的是平面地圖,老實說,它們使用起來方便多了。

  • Anyway, as we were saying,

    總之,正如剛才所說,

  • it's impossible to make a 100% accurate flat map of a spherical planet.

    要做一張100%準確的球形星球平面圖是不可能的。

  • For a long time, people didn't even try.

    有很長一段時間,人們甚至不嘗試這麼做。

  • They just plonked places down in arbitrary locations without any consistent scale.

    他們只是任意標記某個地方的位置,並未使用一致的尺度。

  • Then in 150 AD, the Greek mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy systematically mapped the Earth on a grid

    隨後,在公元150年,希臘數學家和天文學家托勒密有系統地將地球繪製在網格上,

  • and placed locations on the grid according to coordinates,

    並根據座標在網格上標示位置,

  • so maps could be checked against others and replicated.

    以核對不同的地圖並進行複製。

  • Ptolemy built his grid out of lines we still use today:

    托勒密用我們今天仍在使用的線條構建了他的網格:

  • 180 lines of latitude and 360 lines of longitude.

    180條緯線和360條經線。

  • In spite of these advances, people kept getting lost.

    儘管有了進展,人們還是不斷地迷路。

  • Part of the problem was a, shall we say, incomplete understanding of the world's geography.

    應該說,部分原因在於我們對世界地理的理解不完整。

  • But it was also just really difficult to navigate using a map.

    但是用地圖導航真的很困難。

  • Because the Earth is round.

    因為地球是圓的。

  • The shortest route from one place to another is a path along a circle.

    個地點之間的最短的路線是一條圓形的路徑。

  • If we draw this route on a flat map,

    如果我們把這條路畫在平面圖上。

  • it passes through every line of longitude at a different angle.

    它會以不同的角度穿越每條經線。

  • To follow the route, you'd have to constantly shift the direction you're traveling.

    要想沿著這條路線走,你就得不斷地改變行進方向。

  • Any slight error would land you in the wrong place.

    稍有差錯就會迷路。

  • In 1569, Gerardus Mercator fixed this problem.

    1569年,麥卡托 (Gerardus Mercator) 解決了這個問題。

  • He created a world map proportioned

    他使用比例尺繪製了一個世界地圖,

  • so these curved navigational routes would be straight,

    讓圓形的航線變成直線,

  • passing through every line of longitude at the same angle

    以相同的角度穿過每一條經線,

  • and therefore allowing navigators to set a constant bearing.

    因此,導航員可以設定一個恆定的方位。

  • In other words, travel in one direction for a whole journey.

    換句話說,就是全程都朝著一個方向走。

  • There was just one tiny hitch:

    不過有一個小問題:

  • To do this, he had to distort land masses and bodies of water

    為了實現這一點,他不得不扭曲陸地和水體,

  • so those furthest from the equator got larger

    所以離赤道越遠看起來越大,

  • and those closest to the equator shrank.

    最靠近赤道的地方則縮水了。

  • In spite of its inaccuracies, Mercator's map was very useful.

    儘管有不準確的地方,麥卡托的地圖非常有用。

  • In fact, it's still widely used today, including in online maps.

    事實上,它至今仍被廣泛使用,包括線上地圖。

  • But it's still wrong!

    但它仍然是錯的!

  • In 1925, the Goode Homolosine Projection was created as, get this,

    1925年,古氏分瓣投影法被誕生,

  • an interrupted pseudo-cylindrical equal area projection.

    這是一種拼接的等積偽圓柱投影。

  • What does that mean? Not important.

    那是什麼意思?不重要。

  • The point was to minimize distortion for the entire world.

    重點在於盡量減少對世界的扭曲。

  • The map can be land-oriented or ocean-oriented.

    地圖可以陸地或海洋為基準。

  • Either way, the so-called orange peel map isn't very easy to read.

    無論如何,這個所謂的橘皮地圖很難被看懂。

  • The Dymaxion Projection by American architect Buckminster Fuller in the 1940s is even better.

    美國建築師巴克敏斯特富勒於1940年代發明的戴美克森氏地圖投影法比較好。

  • Sorry, did we say better?

    不好意思,我剛才是說比較好嗎?

  • It's not better if you want to understand where things are in the world.

    如果你想了解事物在世界上的位置,它並非更好的選擇。

  • It is better in the sense that there are no visibly evident distortions of the land masses.

    但它較好的地方在於陸塊沒有被明顯扭曲。

  • Though if you wanted to know, say, how far Brazil is from Nigeria,

    但如果你是想知道巴西離奈及利亞有多遠,

  • you won't get any sense of that from this map.

    你不會在這張地圖上找到答案。

  • The most accurate projection to date is the AuthaGraph World Map

    AuthaGraph世界地圖是目前為止最精確的地圖投影法,

  • designed by Japanese architect Hajime Narukawa in 1999.

    由日本建築師鳴川肇於1999年所設計。

  • The continents and oceans are almost completely in proportion,

    大陸和海洋幾乎完全成正比,

  • and the map is rectangular, just how we like it.

    地圖呈長方形,正如我們所願。

  • Could this be the perfect map?

    這就是完美的地圖嗎?

  • Well... no.

    嗯... 不是。

  • Since the Mercator works for navigation and reads clearly,

    既然麥卡托投影適用於導航且容易理解,

  • why bother with all these whacky maps?

    那為什麼還要使用其他古怪的地圖呢?

  • Arno Peters argued that by enlarging European and North American countries,

    亞諾彼得斯(Arno Peters)認為,透過擴大歐洲和北美國家,

  • the Mercator projection gives white nations a sense of supremacy over non-white nations closer to the equator.

    麥卡托投影法賦予白人國家一種高於赤道附近非白人國家的優越感。

  • He adapted the Gall-Peters Projection, which counteracts that particular problem,

    他調整了高爾彼得斯投影法以解決這個問題。

  • but the continents are still... stretched.

    但陸地還是被拉長了。

  • Today, we rely on maps less and less for navigation,

    如今,我們對地圖導航的依賴性越來越小,

  • but they still play a vital role in education.

    但是它們在教育中仍然扮演重要的角色。

  • Peters was definitely on to something:

    彼得斯完全抓到了重點:

  • No matter what map we're looking at,

    不管我們在看什麼地圖,

  • it's a story told from the perspective of the map's creator

    它都是從地圖創造者的角度所講述的故事,

  • that in turn shapes, perhaps unduly, our perception of our world.

    而這反過來塑造了我們對世界的片面認知。

  • Simple changes in map design, even changes that have nothing to do with how we transfer a round Earth to a flat surface,

    地圖設計的簡單變更,即使這個變化與我們如何將圓形地球轉變成平面無關,

  • can completely shift our point of view.

    都可以完全地改變我們的觀點。

Fourteen Greenlands could fit in Africa,

非洲可以容納14個格陵蘭島,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 地圖 投影 赤道 路線 世界

為什麼所有的世界地圖都是錯的--凱拉-沃爾夫。 (Why every world map is wrong - Kayla Wolf)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 19 日
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