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  • Now this is a very un-TED-like thing to do,

    這實在很不TED

  • but let's kick off the afternoon

    但是讓我們用這個

  • with a message

    神秘贊助者的簡訊

  • from a mystery sponsor.

    來開始下午的節目。

  • Anonymous: Dear Fox News,

    匿名者:親愛的福斯新聞

  • it has come to our unfortunate attention

    很不幸地我們注意到了

  • that both the name and nature of Anonymous

    “匿名者”名聲和本體

  • has been ravaged.

    已遭到破壞

  • We are everyone. We are no one.

    我們既不存在也無所不在

  • We are anonymous. We are legion.

    我們是傳奇但也默默無名

  • We do not forgive. We do not forget.

    我們不原諒 我們也不會忘記

  • We are but the base of chaos.

    我們是一切混亂的根源

  • Misha Glenny: Anonymous, ladies and gentlemen --

    Misha Glenny:在座的各位,匿名者

  • a sophisticated group

    是一個因政治理念而成立的

  • of politically motivated hackers

    很複雜的團體

  • who have emerged in 2011.

    于2011年浮現抬面

  • And they're pretty scary.

    他們很可怕

  • You never know when they're going to attack next,

    你永遠不知道他們下一個攻擊目標是什麽

  • who or what the consequences will be.

    誰或什麽又會遭殃

  • But interestingly,

    但是很有趣的是

  • they have a sense of humor.

    他們很有幽默感

  • These guys hacked into Fox News' Twitter account

    他們侵入了福斯新聞的推特帳號

  • to announce President Obama's assassination.

    借此發表了歐巴馬遇刺的消息

  • Now you can imagine the panic that would have generated

    你現在可以想像當時在福斯新聞室裏

  • in the newsroom at Fox.

    造成的一片驚慌

  • "What do we do now?

    “我們現在該怎麽辦?

  • Put on a black armband, or crack open the champagne?"

    該帶黑臂帶致哀還是開香檳慶祝?”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And of course, who could escape the irony

    當然了 誰會放過

  • of a member of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp.

    輪到媒體大亨梅鐸新聞集團旗下的公司被駭

  • being a victim of hacking for a change.

    這個天大的諷刺呢

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Sometimes you turn on the news

    有時你打開新聞

  • and you say, "Is there anyone left to hack?"

    你會問“還有沒被駭的嗎?”

  • Sony Playstation Network -- done,

    索尼PS的網路- 被駭

  • the government of Turkey -- tick,

    土耳其政府網站 - 被駭

  • Britain's Serious Organized Crime Agency -- a breeze,

    英國重犯罪局 - 輕而易舉

  • the CIA -- falling off a log.

    中央情報局 - 輕而易舉

  • In fact, a friend of mine from the security industry

    事實上一個在資訊安全業界的朋友

  • told me the other day

    幾天前告訴我說

  • that there are two types of companies in the world:

    這世上只有兩種公司

  • those that know they've been hacked, and those that don't.

    已被駭和還沒被駭

  • I mean three companies

    連三家提供美國中情局

  • providing cybersecurity services to the FBI

    網路安全服務的公司

  • have been hacked.

    都全部被駭過了

  • Is nothing sacred anymore, for heaven's sake?

    那還有什麽是無可侵犯的?

  • Anyway, this mysterious group Anonymous --

    總之,這個叫匿名者的組織

  • and they would say this themselves --

    他們自己說

  • they are providing a service

    他們是幫大家驗證

  • by demonstrating how useless companies are

    這些保護資料的公司

  • at protecting our data.

    是多麽的沒用

  • But there is also a very serious aspect to Anonymous --

    但這組織背後有更嚴肅的一面

  • they are ideologically driven.

    他們是有意識形態的

  • They claim that they are battling

    他們說他們是在對抗

  • a dastardly conspiracy.

    欺善怕惡的陰謀

  • They say that governments are trying

    他們說各國政府

  • to take over the Internet and control it,

    要試著取下網際網路的控制權

  • and that they, Anonymous,

    而他們,匿名者

  • are the authentic voice of resistance --

    是與其對抗的正宗力量

  • be it against Middle Eastern dictatorships,

    無論是中東的獨裁政權

  • against global media corporations,

    或是對抗媒體巨人

  • or against intelligence agencies,

    或是對抗情報組織

  • or whoever it is.

    等等之類的

  • And their politics are not entirely unattractive.

    他們的政治理論倒也不乏吸引力

  • Okay, they're a little inchoate.

    好吧 他們是有一些不成熟

  • There's a strong whiff

    感覺起來像有些

  • of half-baked anarchism about them.

    類似無政府主義的味道在裏面

  • But one thing is true:

    但是有件事是確定的

  • we are at the beginning

    我們正站在

  • of a mighty struggle

    爭奪網際網路控制權的

  • for control of the Internet.

    巨大戰爭的起點

  • The Web links everything,

    網路連接一切

  • and very soon

    並且速度很快

  • it will mediate most human activity.

    網路將會居間斡旋人類大部分的活動

  • Because the Internet has fashioned

    因爲網路給一存在已久的兩難困境

  • a new and complicated environment

    帶來更新更複雜的背景條件

  • for an old-age dilemma

    這個進退兩難的困境就是

  • that pits the demands of security

    我們對安全的需求

  • with the desire for freedom.

    和同時對自由的渴望

  • Now this is a very complicated struggle.

    現在這變成了一個很複雜的抗爭

  • And unfortunately, for mortals like you and me,

    很不幸地像你我這樣的凡人

  • we probably can't understand it very well.

    我們大概很難去了解

  • Nonetheless,

    然而

  • in an unexpected attack of hubris

    在幾年前

  • a couple of years ago,

    一陣自傲的驅使下

  • I decided I would try and do that.

    我決定要來試著了解這個問題

  • And I sort of get it.

    我後來大概也懂了

  • These were the various things that I was looking at

    在試著了解這個問題的過程

  • as I was trying to understand it.

    我研究的是這些事

  • But in order to try and explain the whole thing,

    但是爲了將整個問題全盤解釋

  • I would need another 18 minutes or so to do it,

    我將會需要再多18分鐘

  • so you're just going to have to take it on trust from me on this occasion,

    所以今天你只好相信我在這裡所講的

  • and let me assure you that all of these issues

    我可以跟你保證 所有提到的問題

  • are involved in cybersecurity and control of the Internet

    都和網路犯罪和網路安全

  • one way or the other,

    有相當的關係

  • but in a configuration

    其範圍之大

  • that even Stephen Hawking would probably have difficulty

    連史蒂芬霍金教授

  • trying to get his head around.

    都恐怕有困難來全盤了解

  • So there you are.

    那麽我們就開始吧

  • And as you see, in the middle,

    在這張圖的中間

  • there is our old friend, the hacker.

    這是我們的老朋友,駭客

  • The hacker is absolutely central

    在網路上的很多問題 舉凡

  • to many of the political, social

    政治社會經濟議題

  • and economic issues affecting the Net.

    駭客都是問題的中心

  • And so I thought to myself,

    所以我就想

  • "Well, these are the guys who I want to talk to."

    那麽這些就是我想跟他們談談的人

  • And what do you know,

    大家都知道

  • nobody else does talk to the hackers.

    沒有其他的人跟駭客交談

  • They're completely anonymous, as it were.

    他們完全是無名的 跟過去一樣

  • So despite the fact

    所以 雖然

  • that we are beginning to pour billions,

    我們開始將十億

  • hundreds of billions of dollars,

    幾千億美元的金額

  • into cybersecurity --

    投入到網路安全上

  • for the most extraordinary technical solutions --

    使用最先進的科技

  • no one wants to talk

    但是仍然沒有人

  • to these guys, the hackers,

    想跟這些始作俑者

  • who are doing everything.

    跟這些駭客談一談

  • Instead, we prefer these really dazzling technological solutions,

    我們寧願將大筆大筆的錢

  • which cost a huge amount of money.

    花在眩目的科技上

  • And so nothing is going into the hackers.

    也不花半毛錢在駭客身上

  • Well, I say nothing,

    嗯 雖然我說沒半毛錢

  • but actually there is one teeny weeny little research unit

    事實上倒還是有一個很小的研究機構

  • in Turin, Italy

    在意大利的杜林

  • called the Hackers Profiling Project.

    叫做駭客檔案計劃

  • And they are doing some fantastic research

    他們在做一些很棒的研究

  • into the characteristics,

    在研究駭客的特性

  • into the abilities

    能力

  • and the socialization of hackers.

    和社會性

  • But because they're a U.N. operation,

    或許因爲他們是聯合國的機構

  • maybe that's why governments and corporations

    所以政府和企業

  • are not that interested in them.

    對他們都不感興趣

  • Because it's a U.N. operation,

    也正因爲他們是聯合國的機構

  • of course, it lacks funding.

    也就理所當然地欠缺經費

  • But I think they're doing very important work.

    但是我覺得他們的研究是很重要的

  • Because where we have a surplus of technology

    因爲在網路安全的領域裏我們在科技的發展上

  • in the cybersecurity industry,

    有著很多的領先

  • we have a definite lack of --

    那麽我們一定 -

  • call me old-fashioned --

    你可以說我是老古板 -

  • human intelligence.

    在人類智慧的發展上尚有不足

  • Now, so far I've mentioned

    到此我已經提到了

  • the hackers Anonymous

    匿名者

  • who are a politically motivated hacking group.

    這個有政治訴求的駭客團體

  • Of course, the criminal justice system

    當然犯罪司法系統

  • treats them as common old garden criminals.

    把他們當一般的犯人來看

  • But interestingly,

    有趣的是

  • Anonymous does not make use of its hacked information

    匿名者並沒有利用他們駭來的資訊

  • for financial gain.

    在商業上牟利

  • But what about the real cybercriminals?

    那麽真正的網路犯罪也是這樣嗎?

  • Well real organized crime on the Internet

    真正的有組織的網路犯罪

  • goes back about 10 years

    起源于10年前

  • when a group of gifted Ukrainian hackers

    由一群烏克蘭的駭客

  • developed a website,

    設計了一個網站

  • which led to the industrialization

    而繼而導致了網路犯罪的

  • of cybercrime.

    普遍化

  • Welcome to the now forgotten realm of CarderPlanet.

    歡迎來到現已被遺忘的CarderPlanet(卡友星球)

  • This is how they were advertising themselves

    這是十年前在網路上

  • a decade ago on the Net.

    他們為自己打廣告的方式

  • Now CarderPlanet was very interesting.

    卡友星球在當時很有趣

  • Cybercriminals would go there

    網路罪犯會去那個網站

  • to buy and sell stolen credit card details,

    買賣偷來的信用卡資料

  • to exchange information

    還有在那裏交換

  • about new malware that was out there.

    有關malware(惡意程式)的資訊

  • And remember, this is a time

    我們要記得

  • when we're seeing for the first time

    這是我們第一次看到

  • so-called off-the-shelf malware.

    所謂現成的惡意程式

  • This is ready for use, out-of-the-box stuff,

    這是馬上可以使用的現成產品

  • which you can deploy

    即使你不是厲害的駭客

  • even if you're not a terribly sophisticated hacker.

    你也可以輕易使用這些程式

  • And so CarderPlanet became a sort of supermarket

    所以卡友星球變成了

  • for cybercriminals.

    網路罪犯的超級市場

  • And its creators

    而網站的設計者

  • were incredibly smart and entrepreneurial,

    是一群很聰明的創業家

  • because they were faced

    因爲他們面對的是

  • with one enormous challenge as cybercriminals.

    網路犯罪的一個巨大的挑戰

  • And that challenge is:

    這個挑戰就是

  • How do you do business,

    你如何在網路上做生意

  • how do you trust

    你如何能信賴客戶

  • somebody on the Web who you want to do business with

    當你知道你的客戶

  • when you know that they're a criminal?

    全部都是罪犯?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's axiomatic that they're dodgy,

    欺騙對他們來説是正常的

  • and they're going to want to try and rip you off.

    他們會想盡辦法來把你騙得精光

  • So the family, as the inner core of CarderPlanet was known,

    所以卡友星球的核心成員

  • came up with this brilliant idea

    想出了這麽一個天才的主意

  • called the escrow system.

    叫做抵押系統

  • They appointed an officer

    他們指定一個中介管理者

  • who would mediate between the vendor and the purchaser.

    來協調買方和賣方

  • The vendor, say, had stolen credit card details;

    譬如說賣方有一筆偷來的信用卡的資料

  • the purchaser wanted to get a hold of them.

    而買方想來買

  • The purchaser would send the administrative officer

    買方會先用電子錢包

  • some dollars digitally,

    送一些美元給這個中介管理者

  • and the vendor would sell the stolen credit card details.

    賣方也將信用卡資料賣給這個管理者

  • And the officer would then verify

    中介管理者則去確認

  • if the stolen credit card worked.

    信用卡資料是不是真的有效

  • And if they did,

    如果是真的

  • he then passed on the money to the vendor

    他就把錢送給賣方

  • and the stolen credit card details to the purchaser.

    並把信用卡資料轉送給買方

  • And it was this

    就這樣

  • which completely revolutionized cybercrime on the Web.

    徹底地給網路犯罪帶來全面的革新

  • And after that, it just went wild.

    在這以後更是一發不可收拾

  • We had a champagne decade

    對卡友星球的成員來説

  • for people who we know as Carders.

    接下來的十年是天天開香檳

  • Now I spoke to one of these Carders

    現在是我跟一個卡友星球的成員談話

  • who we'll call RedBrigade --

    我們叫他RedBrigade(紅兵團)

  • although that wasn't even his proper nickname --

    這並不是他真正的綽號

  • but I promised I wouldn't reveal who he was.

    但是我答應為他保密

  • And he explained to me how in 2003 and 2004

    他跟我解釋了在2003和2004年之間

  • he would go on sprees in New York,

    他如何在紐約狂歡

  • taking out $10,000 from an ATM here,

    從這個提款機提一萬美元

  • $30,000 from an ATM there,

    再到下個提款機提三萬美元

  • using cloned credit cards.

    靠的只是一張僞造的信用卡

  • He was making, on average a week,

    他每個禮拜平均

  • $150,000 --

    賺15萬美元

  • tax free of course.

    當然還不用繳稅

  • And he said

    他還說有一次

  • that he had so much money

    實在是有太多錢

  • stashed in his upper-East side apartment at one point

    堆在他在上東區的公寓裏

  • that he just didn't know what to do with it

    他實在不知道該怎麽辦

  • and actually fell into a depression.

    還因此引發了他的憂鬱症

  • But that's a slightly different story,

    這算是題外話

  • which I won't go into now.

    我就不詳談這一部分了

  • Now the interesting thing about RedBrigade

    有趣的是

  • is that he wasn't an advanced hacker.

    紅兵團並不是高階的駭客

  • He sort of understood the technology,

    技術方面他大概了解

  • and he realized that security was very important

    他也知道如果想成爲卡友星球的一分子

  • if you were going to be a Carder,

    網路安全的技術是很重要的

  • but he didn't spend his days and nights

    但他並沒有日日夜夜

  • bent over a computer, eating pizza,

    坐在電腦前

  • drinking coke and that sort of thing.

    吃比薩喝可樂和掛網

  • He was out there on the town

    他倒是常跑趴

  • having a fab time enjoying the high life.

    找樂子享受人生

  • And this is because

    這是因爲

  • hackers are only one element

    駭客只是整個網路犯罪

  • in a cybercriminal enterprise.

    裏面的一環罷了

  • And often they're the most vulnerable element of all.

    而且通常他們是最脆弱的一環

  • And I want to explain this to you

    我想藉由介紹以下六個人

  • by introducing you to six characters

    來跟大家説明這點

  • who I met

    這六個人

  • while I was doing this research.

    是我在做這研究時所認識的

  • Dimitry Golubov, aka SCRIPT --

    Dimitry Golubov 又叫SCRIPT

  • born in Odessa, Ukraine in 1982.

    1982年在烏克蘭的奧蒂塞出生

  • Now he developed his social and moral compass

    在1990年代他在這黑海港都的生活

  • on the Black Sea port during the 1990s.

    養成了他人生的社會和道德觀

  • This was a sink-or-swim environment

    那是一個人吃人狗咬狗的社會

  • where involvement in criminal or corrupt activities

    參與犯罪和貪腐活動

  • was entirely necessary

    是完全必要的