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  • Probably a lot of you know the story of the two salesmen

    很多人可能聽過關於二個銷售員的故事,

  • who went down to Africa in the 1900s.

    他們在1900年代南下非洲。

  • They were sent down to find if there was any opportunity

    他們被派遣去調查那裡

  • for selling shoes,

    是否有賣鞋子商機。

  • and they wrote telegrams back to Manchester.

    在他們發回曼徹斯特的電報中,

  • And one of them wrote, "Situation hopeless. Stop.

    一個人寫著:"毫無商機,停止計畫。

  • They don't wear shoes."

    他們不穿鞋子。"

  • And the other one wrote, "Glorious opportunity.

    另一個人寫著:"大好商機!

  • They don't have any shoes yet."

    他們都沒穿鞋子!"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, there's a similar situation in the classical music world,

    在古典音樂的世界也有類似的情況,

  • because there are some people who think

    因為有人認為

  • that classical music is dying.

    古典音樂正在消逝。

  • And there are some of us who think you ain't seen nothing yet.

    有些人則認為最好的還沒出現呢。

  • And rather than go into statistics and trends,

    我不想引用統計數字、趨勢圖

  • and tell you about all the orchestras that are closing,

    來告訴你們哪些交響樂團將要結束,

  • and the record companies that are folding,

    還有哪些唱片公司快要關閉。

  • I thought we should do an experiment tonight -- an experiment.

    今晚我們要來做個實驗,一個實驗。

  • Actually, it's not really an experiment, because I know the outcome.

    事實上,也不算是個實驗,因為我已知道結果。

  • But it's like an experiment. Now, before we --

    但像是個實驗。在我們開始之前--

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • -- before we start, I need to do two things.

    -- 在我們開始之前,讓我們先做兩件事情。

  • One is I want to remind you of what a seven-year-old child

    第一,請回想一位七歲小孩

  • sounds like when he plays the piano.

    在彈鋼琴時的樣子。

  • Maybe you have this child at home.

    你家的小孩可能會像這樣。

  • He sounds something like this.

    就像這樣彈鋼琴。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • I see some of you recognize this child.

    有人看過這樣子彈琴的小孩。

  • Now, if he practices for a year and takes lessons, he's now eight

    如果他練習了一年,繼續上鋼琴課,現在他八歲了,

  • and he sounds like this.

    他會像我這樣彈鋼琴。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • Then he practices for another year and takes lessons -- now he's nine.

    然後又練習一年,繼續上課,現在他九歲了。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • Then he practices for another and takes lessons -- now he's 10.

    然後他再練習一年,繼續上課,現在他十歲了。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • At that point, they usually give up.

    然後他們就不練了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now, if you'd waited, if you'd waited for one more year,

    如果你再等等,再等一年。

  • you would have heard this.

    你會聽到這樣的鋼琴聲:

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • Now, what happened was not maybe what you thought,

    你可能想不到他會彈出這樣的音樂,

  • which is, he suddenly became passionate, engaged,

    突然間他變得有熱情、陶醉、

  • involved, got a new teacher, he hit puberty, or whatever it is.

    投入、有個新老師、步入青春期、或其他的各種可能。

  • What actually happened was the impulses were reduced.

    事實上只有減少律動的次數。

  • You see, the first time, he was playing

    你看,他第一次彈鋼琴時,

  • with an impulse on every note.

    每個音符動一下。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • And the second, with an impulse every other note.

    每二個音符動一下。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • You can see it by looking at my head.

    看著我的頭就知道了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The nine-year-old

    九歲的小孩,九歲的小孩

  • put an impulse on every four notes.

    每四個音符動一下。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴課)

  • And the 10-year-old, on every eight notes.

    十歲的孩子,每八個音符動一下。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • And the 11-year-old, one impulse on the whole phrase.

    十一歲的孩子,整個樂句動一下。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • I know -- I don't know how we got into this position.

    我也不知道我怎麼會變成這個姿勢。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I didn't say, "I'm going to move my shoulder over, move my body."

    我也沒想到要去移動我的肩膀,移動我的身體。

  • No, the music pushed me over,

    不是我,是音樂推著我移動。

  • which is why I call it one-buttock playing.

    所以我叫它為半個屁股的演奏。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • It can be the other buttock.

    另一個半個屁股的演奏。

  • (Piano)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • You know, a gentleman was once watching a presentation I was doing,

    有一位男士曾看過我的演講

  • when I was working with a young pianist.

    當時我正在指導一位年青的鋼琴家。

  • He was the president of a corporation in Ohio.

    他是俄亥俄州一家公司的董事長。

  • And I was working with this young pianist

    當時我正在指導一位年青的鋼琴家

  • and I said, "The trouble with you is you're a two-buttock player.

    我告訴他,"你的問題在於你彈鋼琴時穩穩的坐在屁股上。

  • You should be a one-buttock player."

    你應該當個半個屁股的演奏家。"

  • And I moved his body like that, while he was playing.

    當他演奏時我這樣地移動他的身體。

  • And suddenly, the music took off. It took flight.

    突然間音樂飛了起來。音樂飛了起來。

  • There was a gasp in the audience when they heard the difference.

    當觀眾聽出變化時都非常驚呀。

  • And then I got a letter from this gentleman.

    接著我就收到這位男士的來信。

  • He said, "I was so moved.

    他說,"我深受感動。

  • I went back and I transformed my entire company

    我一回去就把整個公司

  • into a one-buttock company."

    變成半個屁股的公司。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, the other thing I wanted to do is to tell you about you.

    我還要說另一件與你們有關的事。

  • There are 1,600 people, I believe.

    這裡大約有1,600人。

  • My estimation is that probably 45 of you

    我預估其中大概有45位

  • are absolutely passionate about classical music.

    是非常熱愛古典樂。

  • You adore classical music. Your FM is always on that classical dial.

    你極為喜愛古典樂。你的收音機總是調到古典音樂頻道。

  • And you have CDs in your car, and you go to the symphony.

    你車上放的是古典樂CD,你會去聽音樂會。

  • And your children are playing instruments.

    你的孩子也會演奏樂器。

  • You can't imagine your life without classical music.

    你無法想像沒有古典樂的日子。

  • That's the first group; it's quite a small group.

    這是第一種類型;人數相當少的一種類型。

  • Then there's another group, bigger group.

    還有另一種類型,人數較多的一種類型。

  • These are the people who don't mind classical music.

    他們"不排斥"古典音樂。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You know, you've come home from a long day,

    在你忙了一天回到家時

  • and you take a glass of wine, and you put your feet up.

    倒一杯紅酒,翹起腿。

  • A little Vivaldi in the background doesn't do any harm.

    來點韋瓦弟當做背景音樂也無妨。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That's the second group.

    這是第二種類型。

  • Now comes the third group.

    再來是第三種類型。

  • These are the people who never listen to classical music.

    這些人從來不聽古典音樂。

  • It's just simply not part of your life.

    古典音樂從來不是你們生活的一部份。

  • You might hear it like second-hand smoke at the airport, but --

    你們可能像在機場吸二手煙一樣從別處聽到,但是--

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • -- and maybe a little bit of a march from "Aida"

    --可能聽到一些歌劇阿伊達中的進行曲

  • when you come into the hall. But otherwise, you never hear it.

    在你進入機場大廳時候。除此之外你就沒聽過古典樂。

  • That's probably the largest group of all.

    這一種類型人數應該最多。

  • And then there's a very small group.

    最後人數非常少的一種類型。

  • These are the people who think they're tone-deaf.

    他們自認是音痴。

  • Amazing number of people think they're tone-deaf.

    相當多的人自認是音痴。

  • Actually, I hear a lot, "My husband is tone-deaf."

    事實上我聽過很多人說,"我的先生是個音痴。"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Actually, you cannot be tone-deaf. Nobody is tone-deaf.

    其實你不可能是音痴。没有人是音痴。

  • If you were tone-deaf, you couldn't change the gears

    如果你是音痴,你就無法換檔開車,

  • on your car, in a stick shift car.

    如果你開的是一台手排車。

  • You couldn't tell the difference between

    你就無法分辦

  • somebody from Texas and somebody from Rome.

    那人是德州來的還是羅馬來的

  • And the telephone. The telephone. If your mother calls

    在你聽電話時。聽電話時。所以當你媽媽打電話給你時

  • on the miserable telephone, she calls and says, "Hello,"

    透過那老舊的話筒,當她說"哈囉"時,

  • you not only know who it is, you know what mood she's in.

    你不僅知道她是誰,你還知道她當時的心情如何。

  • You have a fantastic ear. Everybody has a fantastic ear.

    你有神奇的耳。每個人都有神奇的耳朵。

  • So nobody is tone-deaf.

    沒有人是音癡。

  • But I tell you what. It doesn't work for me to go on with this thing,

    但我要告訴你。我無法再忍受下去

  • with such a wide gulf between those who understand,

    竟然有如此巨大的差距介於

  • love and [are] passionate about classical music,

    熱愛古典音樂的人,

  • and those who have no relationship to it at all.

    以及與古典音樂毫無關係的人之間。

  • The tone-deaf people, they're no longer here.

    被當成音痴的人,現在起再也不是音痴。

  • But even between those three categories, it's too wide a gulf.

    即使這三種類型之間的差距是這麼的大。

  • So I'm not going to go on until every single person in this room,

    我絶不罷手,除非在這個房間的每個人,

  • downstairs and in Aspen, and everybody else looking,

    樓下的每個人,Aspen的每個人,以及其他所有正在觀看的人,

  • will come to love and understand classical music.

    都能熱愛古典音樂並懂得古典音樂。

  • So that's what we're going to do.

    這就是我們想達成的目標。

  • Now, you notice that there is not the slightest doubt in my mind

    你們可以感受到在我心中没有絲毫的懷疑,

  • that this is going to work if you look at my face, right?

    你們可以從我的臉上看出我確信這一定會成功。

  • It's one of the characteristics of a leader that he not doubt

    領導者的特質之一

  • for one moment the capacity of the people he's leading

    是他永遠確信他所帶領的人

  • to realize whatever he's dreaming.

    有能力去實行他的理想。

  • Imagine if Martin Luther King had said, "I have a dream.

    試想馬丁路德說,"我有一個夢。

  • Of course, I'm not sure they'll be up to it."

    不過,我懷疑他們做得到。"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • All right. So I'm going to take a piece of Chopin.

    我要彈一首蕭邦的曲子。

  • This is a beautiful prelude by Chopin. Some of you will know it.

    這是一首蕭邦美麗的序曲。應該有人聽過。

  • (Music)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • Do you know what I think probably happened in this room?

    猜猜接下來會發生甚麼事?

  • When I started, you thought, "How beautiful that sounds."

    當我剛開始彈時,你們心想,"這音樂多美啊。"

  • (Music)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • "I don't think we should go to the same place

    明年夏天我不想

  • for our summer holidays next year."

    再到相同的地點渡假。"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's funny, isn't it? It's funny how those thoughts

    很好玩,是不是?看看這些思緒是如何

  • kind of waft into your head.

    飄進你的腦袋。

  • And of course --

    當然--

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • -- and of course, if the piece is long and you've had a long day,

    --當然,首子如果太長而你又忙了一天,

  • you might actually drift off.

    你可能會真的睡著了。

  • Then your companion will dig you in the ribs

    你的同伴會戳你

  • and say, "Wake up! It's culture!" And then you feel even worse.

    說,"起來!有點文化修養!"這會使你覺得更糟。

  • But has it ever occurred to you that the reason you feel sleepy

    但你有没有想過聽古典音樂會讓你想睡的原因

  • in classical music is not because of you, but because of us?

    不在於你,而在於我們?

  • Did anybody think while I was playing,

    當我在演奏時,有沒有人在想,

  • "Why is he using so many impulses?"

    "為什麼他要一直動來動去?"

  • If I'd done this with my head you certainly would have thought it.

    如果演奏時動著我的頭,你肯定會理解。

  • (Music)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • And for the rest of your life, every time you hear classical music,

    從此以後,你每次聽到古典音樂

  • you'll always be able to know if you hear those impulses.

    就能知道是否有聽到那些顫動。

  • So let's see what's really going on here.

    讓我們來看看這到底是怎麼回事。

  • We have a B. This is a B. The next note is a C.

    我彈的是B。這是個B。下一個音符是C。

  • And the job of the C is to make the B sad. And it does, doesn't it?

    C的任務就是讓B聽起來悲傷。C做到了,不是嗎?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Composers know that. If they want sad music,

    作曲家都知道這個。如果想要作首悲傷的曲子

  • they just play those two notes.

    他們只需彈奏這兩個音符。

  • (Music)

    (鋼琴聲)

  • But basically, it's just a B, with four sads.

    基本上就是只是一個B,和四個悲傷的音符。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, it goes down to A. Now to G. And then to F.

    降到A。降到G,再降到F。

  • So we have B, A, G, F. And if we have B, A, G, F,

    我彈了B, A, G, F。如果我彈了B, A, G, F,

  • what do we expect next? Oh, that might have been a fluke.

    你猜下一個音符是什麼?可能只是僥倖猜到。

  • Let's try it again. Ooh, the TED choir.

    再試一下。哇,TED合唱圑。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And you notice nobody is tone-deaf, right? Nobody is.

    你有沒有注意到沒有人是音痴,對不對?沒有人是音痴。

  • You know, every village in Bangladesh

    孟加拉的每個村莊,

  • and every hamlet in China -- everybody knows:

    以及中國的每個小村子。每個人都知道:

  • da, da, da, da -- da. Everybody knows, who's expecting that E.

    嗒,嗒,嗒,嗒-嗒。每個人都知道接下來是E。

  • Now, Chopin didn't want to reach the E there,

    可是蕭邦還不想彈到E,

  • because what will have happened? It will be over, like Hamlet.

    接下來會如何?曲子就會結束,就像哈姆雷特一樣。

  • Do you remember Hamlet? Act one, scene three,

    你記不記得哈姆雷特的劇情?在第一幕,第三場:

  • he finds out that his uncle killed his father.

    他發現是他的叔父殺了他的父親。

  • You remember, he keeps on going up to his uncle

    你記得他一而再三的走近他的叔父

  • and almost killing him. And then he backs away,

    幾乎就要殺了他。然後他又退卻

  • and he goes up to him again and almost kills him.

    再走近他,幾乎要殺了他。

  • And the critics, all of whom are sitting in the back row there,

    坐在後排的所有劇評家,

  • they have to have an opinion, so they say, "Hamlet is a procrastinator."

    他們的一致評論,"哈姆雷特是個猶豫不決的人"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Or they say, "Hamlet has an Oedipus complex."

    或者評論,"哈姆雷特有戀母情結。"

  • No, otherwise the play would be over, stupid.

    笨蛋,要不這樣寫戲劇馬上就會結束。

  • That's why Shakespeare puts all that stuff in Hamlet --

    這就是為什麼莎士比亞要在哈姆雷特劇中放入這些情節。

  • you know, Ophelia going mad and the play within the play,

    像是奧菲莉亞的發瘋,劇中劇,

  • and Yorick's skull, and the gravediggers.

    約力克的頭髏,以及盜墓者。

  • That's in order to delay -- until act five, he can kill him.

    都是為了拖延--直到第五幕哈姆雷特才可以殺了他的叔父。

  • It's the same with the Chopin. He's just about to reach the E,

    蕭邦利用同樣的方法。他快要彈到E,

  • and he says, "Oops, better go back up and do it again."

    他說,"喔,最好退回去再來一遍。"

  • So he does it again.

    於是他再來一遍。

  • Now, he gets excited. (Piano) That's excitement,

    他開始變得激昂--這是激昂的段落,

  • you don't have to worry about it.

    不用擔心。

  • Now, he gets to F-sharp, and finally he goes down to E,

    他來到升F,最後降到E,

  • but it's the wrong chord -- because the chord he's looking for

    但和弦不對。因為他所要的和弦

  • is this one, (Piano) and instead he does ...

    是這個和弦,可是他卻用了...

  • (Piano) Now, we call that a deceptive cadence, because it deceives us.

    我們稱它為騙人曲調因為它欺騙了我們。

  • I always tell my students, "If you have a deceptive cadence,

    我總是告訴我的學生,"如果你彈到騙人曲調

  • be sure to raise your eyebrows. Then everybody will know."

    抬高你的眉毛讓大家知道。"

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Right. So, he gets to E, but it's the wrong chord.

    好的。他彈到E,但是個錯的和弦。

  • Now, he tries E again. That chord doesn't work.

    這次他試著再彈到E。這個和弦也不行。

  • Now, he tries the E again. That chord doesn't work.

    這次他試著再彈到E。這個和弦也不行。

  • Now, he tries E again, and that doesn't work.

    這次他試著再彈到E,這個和弦也不行。

  • And then finally ... (Piano)

    終於...

  • There was a gentleman in the front row who went, "Mmm."

    前排有位男士發出"嗯"的聲音。

  • It's the same gesture he makes when he comes home

    這是當他回到家時所做相同的動作

  • after a long day, turns off the key in his car and says,

    在他忙了一天之後,車子熄好火,

  • "Aah, I'm home." Because we all know where home is.

    "啊,我到家了。"因為我們都知道那裡是家。

  • So this is a piece which goes from away to home.

    這是一首把你從遠遠的地方帶回家的曲子。

  • And I'm going to play it all the way through

    我要整首演奏一遍

  • and you're going to follow. B, C, B, C, B, C, B --

    你跟著琴聲。B,C,B,C,B,C,B--

  • down to A, down to G, down to F.

    降到A,降到G,降到F。

  • Almost goes to E, but otherwise the play would be over.

    快要到E,可是這樣曲子就結束了。

  • He goes back up to B. He gets very excited. Goes to F-sharp. Goes to E.

    他回升到B。音樂變得很激昂。來到升F。來到E。

  • It's the wrong chord. It's the wrong chord. It's the wrong chord.

    和弦不對。和弦不對。和弦不對。

  • And finally goes to E, and it's home.

    終於彈到E,到家了。

  • And what you're going to see is one-buttock playing.

    你看到的是半個屁股的演奏。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because for me, to join the B to the E,

    因為對我來說,要從B連到E,

  • I have to stop thinking about every single note along the way,

    我不能去想中間的每一個音符

  • and start thinking about the long, long line from B to E.

    而是去想從B到E那長長的一條線。

  • You know, we were just in South Africa, and you can't go to South Africa

    我們剛到過南非,你到南非

  • without thinking of Mandela in jail for 27 years.

    一定會想到被關在牢裡27年的曼德拉。

  • What was he thinking about? Lunch?

    他在想什麼?午餐?

  • No, he was thinking about the vision for South Africa

    不是的,他想的是南非的願景

  • and for human beings. That's what kept --

    以及人類的願景。大家會記得的是--

  • this is about vision. This is about the long line.

    願景;那長長的一條線。

  • Like the bird who flies over the field

    就像鳥兒飛越草原

  • and doesn't care about the fences underneath, all right?

    不會去在乎下面的籬芭,對不對?

  • So now, you're going to follow the line all the way from B to E.

    你跟著這條線從B到E。

  • And I've one last request before I play this piece all the way through.

    在我彈完整首曲子之前,我有最後一個要求。

  • Would you think of somebody who you adore, who's no longer there?

    請你回想一位你曾深愛,卻已永遠不在的人...

  • A beloved grandmother, a lover --

    你心愛的祖母,你的愛人,

  • somebody in your life who you love with all your heart,

    在你此生中真心喜愛的人,

  • but that person is no longer with you.

    但這個人已永遠不在你身邊。

  • Bring that person into your mind, and at the same time

    把他帶入你的心中,同時

  • follow the line all the way from B to E,

    一直跟著這條線從B到E,