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  • Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Mirjana Čutura

    轉錄者TED翻譯公司管理員 審稿人:Mirjana ČuturaMirjana Čutura

  • Concrete is the second most used substance on earth after water,

    混凝土是地球上僅次於水的第二大使用物質。

  • and for this reason,

    為此。

  • it has a significant environmental impact.

    它對環境有重大影響。

  • If it were a country, it would rank third for emissions after China and USA.

    如果是一個國家,它的排放量將僅次於中國和美國,排名第三。

  • But in fact, concrete is an intrinsically low-impact material

    但事實上,混凝土是一種本質上低衝擊的材料。

  • with much lower emissions of CO2 and energy per ton

    每噸二氧化碳和能源的排放量要低得多。

  • than other materials like iron and steel, even things like bricks.

    比鋼鐵等其他材料,甚至是磚頭這種東西。

  • But because of the enormous volumes we use overall,

    但由於我們整體使用的量巨大。

  • it contributes to about eight percent of man-made CO2 emissions.

    它占人為二氧化碳排放量的8%左右。

  • Concrete is an essential material.

    混凝土是一種必不可少的材料。

  • We need it to house people,

    我們需要它來安置人們。

  • to build roads, bridges and dams.

    修建道路、橋樑和水壩;

  • So we can't do without it,

    所以我們不能沒有它。

  • but we can significantly reduce its carbon footprint.

    但我們可以大大減少其碳足跡。

  • Concrete is held together by cement.

    混凝土是由水泥固定在一起的。

  • And cement we use today, called Portland cement,

    而我們今天使用的水泥,叫波特蘭水泥。

  • is made by heating together a combination of limestone and clay

    是由石灰石和粘土一起加熱製成的。

  • at a temperature of 1,450 degrees Celsius.

    在1,450攝氏度的溫度下。

  • But in fact, most of the CO2 emissions

    但事實上,大部分的二氧化碳排放

  • come not from the heating,

    不來自暖氣。

  • but from the breakdown of limestone, which is calcium carbonate,

    但來自石灰石的分解,即碳酸鈣。

  • into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide, or CO2.

    成氧化鈣和二氧化碳,即CO2。

  • Now we can't do without this component altogether,

    現在我們不能完全沒有這個組件。

  • because nothing else is so efficient at holding stuff together.

    因為沒有別的東西能如此有效地把東西粘在一起。

  • But we can replace a large proportion of it

    但我們可以將其中很大一部分替換掉

  • with other materials with lighter carbon footprints.

    與其他碳足跡較少的材料一起使用。

  • Many colleagues are looking for solutions.

    很多同事都在尋找解決辦法。

  • And here in Switzerland,

    而在瑞士這裡。

  • we have found that clays produce very reactive materials

    我們發現,粘土會產生反應性很強的材料。

  • when they're calcined,

    當他們被煅燒。

  • that's to say heated to around 800 degrees Celsius,

    也就是加熱到800攝氏度左右。

  • significantly lower than the 1,450 needed to produce cement.

    遠遠低於生產水泥所需的1,450噸。

  • But more importantly, there's no CO2 emissions

    但更重要的是,沒有二氧化碳的排放。

  • from the decomposition of limestone.

    由石灰石分解而成。

  • We then take this calcined clay,

    我們就把這些煅燒過的粘土。

  • and we add a bit of limestone --

    我們添加一點石灰石 -

  • but this time not heated, so no CO2 emissions --

    但這次沒有加熱,所以沒有二氧化碳排放----。

  • and some cement,

    和一些水泥。

  • and this combination of limestone, calcined clay and cement, we call LC3.

    而這種石灰石、煅燒粘土和水泥的組合,我們稱之為LC3。

  • Now this LC3 here

    現在這個LC3在這裡

  • has the same properties as Portland cement.

    具有與波特蘭水泥相同的性能。

  • It can be produced with the same equipment and processes

    它可以用同樣的設備和工藝生產。

  • and used in the same way,

    並以同樣的方式使用。

  • but has up to 40 percent lower CO2 emissions.

    但卻能降低40%的二氧化碳排放量。

  • And this was demonstrated in this house we built near Jhansi in India,

    而這一點在我們在印度詹西附近建造的這棟房子中得到了體現。

  • where we could save more than 15 tons of CO2,

    在那裡,我們可以節省15噸以上的二氧化碳。

  • which was 30 to 40 percent compared to existing materials.

    與現有的材料相比,提高了30%至40%。

  • So why isn't everybody already using LC3?

    那為什麼大家不是已經在用LC3了嗎?

  • Well, cement is a local material.

    嗯,水泥是當地的材料。

  • The reason Portland cement is so pervasive

    波特蘭水泥之所以如此氾濫?

  • is that it's produced from the most abundant materials on Earth

    因為它是由地球上最豐富的材料生產的。

  • and can be produced in India,

    並可在印度生產。

  • in the United States, in Ethiopia, almost anywhere.

    在美國,在衣索匹亞,幾乎在任何地方。

  • And we have to work with people locally

    而且我們要和當地人合作

  • to find the best combination of materials to make LC3.

    來尋找最佳的材料組合,製作LC3。

  • We have already done full-scale trials in India and Cuba.

    我們已經在印度和古巴進行了全面的試驗。

  • In Colombia, a product based on this technology

    在哥倫比亞,基於這一技術的產品

  • was commercialized a few months ago,

    幾個月前已實現商業化。

  • and in the Ivory Coast,

    和象牙海岸。

  • the full-scale plant is being commissioned to calcine clays.

    規模化的工廠正在投入使用,以煅燒粘土。

  • And many of the world's largest cement companies

    而世界上許多最大的水泥企業

  • are looking to introduce this in some of their plants soon.

    正在尋求儘快在他們的一些工廠中引入這種方法。

  • So the possibility to replace Portland cement

    所以,取代波特蘭水泥的可能性

  • with a different material --

    用另一種材料--

  • but with the same properties, produced in the same processes

    但具有相同的特性,在相同的過程中產生的。

  • and used in the same way,

    並以同樣的方式使用。

  • but with much lighter carbon footprint --

    但碳足跡更少

  • is really crucial to confront climate change

    是應對氣候變化的真正關鍵

  • because it can be done fast and it can be done on a very large scale

    因為它可以快速完成,而且它可以在非常大的範圍內完成。

  • with the possibility to eliminate

    有可能消除

  • more than 400 million tons of CO2 every year.

    每年超過4億噸二氧化碳。

  • So we can't do without concrete,

    所以,我們不能沒有混凝土。

  • but we can do without a significant amount of the emissions it produces.

    但我們可以不需要它產生的大量排放。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Mirjana Čutura

轉錄者TED翻譯公司管理員 審稿人:Mirjana ČuturaMirjana Čutura

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