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  • at the TED conference I spoke at four years ago

    四年前在同個TED論壇發表演講

  • and talked about the climate crisis.

    他那次談氣候危機

  • And I referenced that

    我上回有提到他的演講

  • at the end of my last talk.

    用來為我的演講作結

  • So I want to pick up from there

    所以我想從上回的結語說起

  • because I only had 18 minutes, frankly.

    畢竟我那時只有18分鐘的時間

  • So, as I was saying...

    好,我演講最後提到...

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • You see, he's right.

    的確,他說的沒錯

  • I mean, there is a major climate crisis, obviously,

    也就是說,氣候面臨相當大的危機

  • and I think if people don't believe it, they should get out more.

    那些不相信的人,應該多到戶外走走

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • But I believe there's a second climate crisis,

    但我認為還有另一個危機

  • which is as severe,

    跟氣候危機同樣嚴重

  • which has the same origins,

    有同樣的起因

  • and that we have to deal with with the same urgency.

    而且同樣需要我們立即因應

  • And I mean by this --

    我所謂的危機...

  • and you may say, by the way, "Look, I'm good.

    對了,各位可能會說「喂!可以了吧」

  • I have one climate crisis;

    「有一個氣候危機就夠了」

  • I don't really need the second one."

    「誰還想要另一個危機」

  • But this is a crisis of, not natural resources --

    但這個危機跟自然資源無關

  • though I believe that's true --

    雖然我相信自然資源也有危機

  • but a crisis of human resources.

    我要說的是人力資源的危機

  • I believe fundamentally,

    基本上我的看法

  • as many speakers have said during the past few days,

    跟過去幾天其他講者說的一樣

  • that we make very poor use

    就是我們並沒有善用

  • of our talents.

    自己的才能

  • Very many people go through their whole lives

    很多人終其一生

  • having no real sense of what their talents may be,

    都不太清楚自己潛在的才能

  • or if they have any to speak of.

    或不知道自己有沒有才能可言

  • I meet all kinds of people

    我碰過各式各樣的人

  • who don't think they're really good at anything.

    覺得自己沒什麼長處

  • Actually, I kind of divide the world into two groups now.

    其實我覺得全世界大概分為兩種人

  • Jeremy Bentham, the great utilitarian philosopher,

    功利主義哲學大師邊沁

  • once spiked this argument.

    詮釋得很有意思

  • He said, "There are two types of people in this world:

    他說:「全世界可分為兩種人」

  • those who divide the world into two types

    「把世界一分為二的人」

  • and those who do not."

    「和不把世界一分為二的人」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • Well, I do.

    我就是會分的那種

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • I meet all kinds of people

    我碰過各式各樣的人

  • who don't enjoy what they do.

    說自己不喜歡目前的工作

  • They simply go through their lives

    他們過著單調的生活

  • getting on with it.

    日復一日

  • They get no great pleasure from what they do.

    他們在工作上得不到快樂

  • They endure it rather than enjoy it

    只是在忍受,而不是在享受

  • and wait for the weekend.

    等待著週末來臨

  • But I also meet people

    但我也碰過一些人

  • who love what they do

    說自己熱愛現有的工作

  • and couldn't imagine doing anything else.

    對工作死心塌地

  • If you said to them, "Don't do this anymore," they'd wonder what you were talking about.

    叫他們不要做,他們會一臉納悶

  • Because it isn't what they do, it's who they are. They say,

    因為重點不是工作本身,而是天性如此

  • "But this is me, you know.

    他們會說:「但這就是我啊」

  • It would be foolish for me to abandon this, because

    「我才不會笨到放棄」

  • it speaks to my most authentic self."

    「因為這工作讓我找到真正的自己」

  • And it's not true of enough people.

    對大部份人來說,並非如此

  • In fact, on the contrary, I think

    我覺得正好相反

  • it's still true of a minority of people.

    熱愛工作的人絕對是少數

  • I think there are many

    我想有許多原因

  • possible explanations for it.

    可以用來解釋這件事

  • And high among them

    一大原因

  • is education,

    出在教育

  • because education, in a way,

    因為教育可說是

  • dislocates very many people

    剝奪了許多人

  • from their natural talents.

    與生俱來的才能

  • And human resources are like natural resources;

    而且人力資源跟天然資源一樣

  • they're often buried deep.

    往往「深藏不露」

  • You have to go looking for them,

    我們必須去挖掘

  • they're not just lying around on the surface.

    不是光看表面就會發現

  • You have to create the circumstances where they show themselves.

    我們必須營造良好的環境,幫助他們發展

  • And you might imagine

    各位可能覺得

  • education would be the way that happens,

    只有教育可以做到這件事

  • but too often it's not.

    但往往並非如此

  • Every education system in the world

    世界各國的教育體制

  • is being reformed at the moment

    目前都處於改革的階段

  • and it's not enough.

    但光這樣是不夠的

  • Reform is no use anymore,

    改革是沒有用的

  • because that's simply improving a broken model.

    因為那只是改良舊有的制度

  • What we need --

    我們需要的...

  • and the word's been used many times during the course of the past few days --

    其實這幾天一直都有提到...

  • is not evolution,

    不是緩慢的教改

  • but a revolution in education.

    是教育根本的革命

  • This has to be transformed

    教育一定要轉型

  • into something else.

    完完全全的改變

  • (Applause)

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • One of the real challenges

    當前一大難題

  • is to innovate fundamentally

    就是要徹底

  • in education.

    創新教育

  • Innovation is hard

    創新是很困難的

  • because it means doing something

    因為創新所要做的事

  • that people don't find very easy, for the most part.

    都相當的不容易

  • It means challenging what we take for granted,

    創新是要去挑戰我們固有的思維

  • things that we think are obvious.

    那些我們視為理所當然的事

  • The great problem for reform

    改革的一大問題

  • or transformation

    或是轉型

  • is the tyranny of common sense;

    是常識的宰制

  • things that people think,

    就像一般人常會覺得

  • "Well, it can't be done any other way because that's the way it's done."

    做事不按規矩來是會失敗的

  • I came across a great quote recently from Abraham Lincoln,

    最近讀到一句林肯的話,我覺得很有道理

  • who I thought you'd be pleased to have quoted at this point.

    這時候想必各位很高興聽到林肯的話

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • He said this in December 1862

    1862年的12月

  • to the second annual meeting of Congress.

    他向國會致詞時說了這句話

  • I ought to explain that I have no idea what was happening at the time.

    我該先跟各位說明,我完全不知那年有什麼大事

  • We don't teach American history in Britain.

    畢竟我們在英國是不學美國歷史的

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • We suppress it. You know, this is our policy.

    我們向來都加以打壓,政策就是這樣

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • So, no doubt, something fascinating was happening in December 1862,

    反正那年12月一定有發生什麼有趣的事

  • which the Americans among us

    在座的美國人

  • will be aware of.

    想必知道

  • But he said this:

    總之林肯說

  • "The dogmas

    「那些屬於」

  • of the quiet past

    「寧靜往日的教條」

  • are inadequate to the stormy present.

    「已不足以因應今日的風雨」

  • The occasion

    「情勢」

  • is piled high with difficulty,

    「已然升高,愈發困難」

  • and we must rise with the occasion."

    「我們得順勢而起」

  • I love that.

    說的真好

  • Not rise to it, rise with it.

    不是加以抗衡,是順勢而起

  • "As our case is new,

    「由於我們面臨新的問題」

  • so we must think anew

    「故得有新的思維」

  • and act anew.

    「新的作為」

  • We must disenthrall ourselves,

    「我們得掙脫自身的枷鎖」

  • and then we shall save our country."

    「才能拯救我們的國家」

  • I love that word, "disenthrall."

    我很喜歡「掙脫枷鎖」這概念

  • You know what it means?

    各位知道什麼意思嗎?

  • That there are ideas that all of us are enthralled to,

    我們被很多觀念的枷鎖綁住

  • which we simply take for granted

    覺得這些觀念理應如此

  • as the natural order of things, the way things are.

    好像是天經地義、自然法則

  • And many of our ideas

    我們有很多觀念

  • have been formed, not to meet the circumstances of this century,

    之所以形成,不是要符合當今態勢

  • but to cope with the circumstances of previous centuries.

    而是為了因應過去的狀況

  • But our minds are still hypnotized by them,

    但我們仍然對這些觀念深信不疑

  • and we have to disenthrall ourselves of some of them.

    而我們必須要掙脫這些枷鎖

  • Now, doing this is easier said than done.

    這事說來容易

  • It's very hard to know, by the way, what it is you take for granted. (Laughter)

    但要釐清何謂理所當然的事,實在很難

  • And the reason is that you take it for granted.

    正是因為理所當然,所以不會察覺

  • So let me ask you something you may take for granted.

    我來問些各位可能視為理所當然的事

  • How many of you here are over the age of 25?

    在場有多少人超過25歲?

  • That's not what I think you take for granted,

    這跟「理所當然」扯不上關係啦

  • I'm sure you're familiar with that already.

    我相信各位都清楚自己幾歲

  • Are there any people here under the age of 25?

    那在場不到25歲的人呢?

  • Great. Now, those over 25,

    很好,現在25歲以上的人

  • could you put your hands up if you're wearing your wristwatch?

    如果戴著手錶的話,請把手舉起來

  • Now that's a great deal of us, isn't it?

    看到有很多人舉手對吧?

  • Ask a room full of teenagers the same thing.

    如果在場都是青少年,問一樣的問題

  • Teenagers do not wear wristwatches.

    結果會發現青少年不戴手錶

  • I don't mean they can't or they're not allowed to,

    並不是他們不會戴或不准戴

  • they just often choose not to.

    他們只是往往選擇不戴

  • And the reason is, you see, that we were brought up

    因為各位也知道,我們成長過程中

  • in a pre-digital culture, those of us over 25.

    一切都還沒數位化...我指25歲以上的人

  • And so for us, if you want to know the time

    對我們來說,想知道現在幾點

  • you have to wear something to tell it.

    一定要戴著手錶才行

  • Kids now live in a world which is digitized,

    現在的孩子活在數位化的世界

  • and the time, for them, is everywhere.

    對他們來說,到處都看得到時間

  • They see no reason to do this.

    何必還戴手錶

  • And by the way, you don't need to do it either;

    而且其實我們也不需要戴錶

  • it's just that you've always done it and you carry on doing it.

    只是長期以來都有戴錶,習慣成自然

  • My daughter never wears a watch, my daughter Kate, who's 20.

    我女兒從來不戴錶,她叫凱特,今年20歲

  • She doesn't see the point.

    她覺得戴錶很沒意義

  • As she says, "It's a single function device."

    她說:「錶只有單一功能耶」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • "Like, how lame is that?"

    「吼,這會不會太瞎了?」

  • And I say, "No, no, it tells the date as well."

    我跟她說:「不會呀,錶還會顯示日期耶」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • "It has multiple functions."

    「應該是多功能才對」

  • But, you see, there are things we're enthralled to in education.

    就教育來說,我們也有許多枷鎖

  • Let me give you a couple of examples.

    給各位幾個例子

  • One of them is the idea of linearity:

    一個是線性思維

  • that it starts here and you go through a track

    從起點開始,沿著既定的道路

  • and if you do everything right, you will end up

    只要一切都按部就班

  • set for the rest of your life.

    就能穩穩當當過完後半輩子

  • Everybody who's spoken at TED has told us implicitly,

    TED請來的講者都用或間接

  • or sometimes explicitly, a different story:

    或直接的方式,分享新奇的故事

  • that life is not linear; it's organic.

    告訴我們生命並非直線,而是富有變化

  • We create our lives symbiotically

    生命掌握在自己手中

  • as we explore our talents

    我們探索自己天賦的同時

  • in relation to the circumstances they help to create for us.

    天賦也引領我們找到自己的一片天

  • But, you know, we have become obsessed

    但我們一心相信

  • with this linear narrative.

    線性思維的論述

  • And probably the pinnacle for education

    還有相信教育的最高成就

  • is getting you to college.

    就是上大學

  • I think we are obsessed with getting people to college.

    我覺得我們太執著上大學這件事

  • Certain sorts of college.

    還要特定幾所好大學

  • I don't mean you shouldn't go to college, but not everybody needs to go

    不是說不該上大學,而是不用每個人都上大學

  • and not everybody needs to go now.

    也不用每個人都一畢業就上大學

  • Maybe they go later, not right away.

    有些人可能想緩一緩,不想那麼急

  • And I was up in San Francisco a while ago

    我不久前在舊金山

  • doing a book signing.

    辦了場簽書會

  • There was this guy buying a book, he was in his 30s.

    有個男的買了書,他大約30多歲

  • And I said, "What do you do?"

    我問他:「你是做什麼的?」

  • And he said, "I'm a fireman."

    他說:「我是消防員」

  • And I said, "How long have you been a fireman?"

    我問:「那你從事這行多久了?」

  • He said, "Always. I've always been a fireman."

    他說:「好久了,我一直都是消防員」

  • And I said, "Well, when did you decide?"

    我又問:「那你什麼時候決定當消防員的?」

  • He said, "As a kid." He said, "Actually, it was a problem for me at school,

    他說:「小時候就想了,但這在學校就成了問題」

  • because at school, everybody wanted to be a fireman."

    「因為每個同學都想當消防員」

  • He said, "But I wanted to be a fireman."

    「但我真的想當消防員」

  • And he said, "When I got to the senior year of school,

    「升上高年級的時候」

  • my teachers didn't take it seriously.

    「老師都不當一回事」

  • This one teacher didn't take it seriously.

    「有個老師更是這樣」

  • He said I was throwing my life away

    「他說我這樣只是浪費生命」

  • if that's all I chose to do with it;

    「最好不要想當消防員」

  • that I should go to college, I should become a professional person,

    「說我該讀大學,成為專業人士」

  • that I had great potential

    「說我很有潛力」

  • and I was wasting my talent to do that."

    「不要白白浪費資質」

  • And he said, "It was humiliating because

    「那時我覺得自己好丟臉」

  • he said it in front of the whole class and I really felt dreadful.

    「因為他在全班面前講我,讓人實在很難受」

  • But it's what I wanted, and as soon as I left school,

    「但這是我的夢想,」

  • I applied to the fire service and I was accepted."

    「便申請當消防員,後來就錄取了」

  • And he said, "You know, I was thinking about that guy recently,

    他接著說:「你知道嗎?我剛剛又想到那個老師」

  • just a few minutes ago when you were speaking, about this teacher,"

    「剛剛你還在演講的時候,我正好想到他」

  • he said, "because six months ago,

    「因為半年前」

  • I saved his life."

    「我救了他一命」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • He said, "He was in a car wreck,

    「他那時出了車禍」

  • and I pulled him out, gave him CPR,

    「是我把他從車中拖出來,幫他人工呼吸」

  • and I saved his wife's life as well."

    「我還救了他太太一命」

  • He said, "I think he thinks better of me now."

    「他現在應該對我刮目相看了吧」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • (Applause)

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • You know, to me,

    對我來說

  • human communities depend upon

    社會靠的是

  • a diversity of talent,

    多元的才能

  • not a singular conception of ability.

    不是單一的能力

  • And at the heart of our challenges --

    我們當前最大難關

  • (Applause)

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • At the heart of the challenge

    最大的難關

  • is to reconstitute our sense of ability

    就是重塑我們對才能的看法

  • and of intelligence.

    還有對智能的看法

  • This linearity thing is a problem.

    線性思維是個大問題

  • When I arrived in L.A.

    我到洛杉磯的時候

  • about nine years ago,

    也就是大概九年前

  • I came across a policy statement --

    那時有個政策口號

  • very well-intentioned --

    出發點很好

  • which said, "College begins in kindergarten."

    「大學從幼稚園開始」

  • No, it doesn't.

    才怪

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • It doesn't.

    本來就不是

  • If we had time, I could go into this, but we don't.

    如果有時間我可以細講,但時間很趕

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • Kindergarten begins in kindergarten.

    幼稚園從幼稚園開始才對

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]