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  • Thousands of years ago, the Romans invented a material

    幾千年前,羅馬人發明了一種材料。

  • that allowed them to build much of their sprawling civilization.

    使他們能夠建立起許多龐大的文明。

  • Pliny the Elder praised an imposing sea wall made from the stuff

    老普林尼讚美了用這種材料製成的氣勢磅礴的海牆。

  • asimpregnable to the waves and every day stronger.”

    作為 "堅不可摧的海浪和每天更強大"。

  • He was right: much of this construction still stands,

    他是對的:這種建築的大部分仍然存在。

  • having survived millennia of battering by environmental forces

    飽經滄桑

  • that would topple modern buildings.

    這將推翻現代建築。

  • Today, our roads, sidewalks, bridges, and skyscrapers

    今天,我們的道路、人行道、橋樑和摩天大樓。

  • are made of a similar, though less durable, material called concrete.

    是由一種類似的,但不太耐用的,稱為混凝土的材料製成。

  • There's three tons of it for every person on Earth.

    地球上每個人都有三噸。

  • And over the next 40 years, we'll use enough of it

    而在接下來的40年裡,我們會使用足夠多的錢。

  • to build the equivalent of New York City every single month.

    來建造相當於紐約市每個月的。

  • Concrete has shaped our skylines,

    混凝土塑造了我們的天際線。

  • but that's not the only way it's changed our world.

    但這不是它改變我們世界的唯一方式。

  • It's also played a surprisingly large role in rising global temperatures

    它對全球氣溫上升也起到了驚人的作用。

  • over the last century,

    上世紀以來,。

  • a trend that has already changed the world,

    一種已經改變世界的趨勢。

  • and threatens to even more drastically in the coming decades.

    並有可能在未來幾十年內更加劇烈地。

  • To be fair to concrete, basically everything humanity does

    具體來說,基本上人類所做的一切事情,都是公平的

  • contributes to the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming.

    導致全球變暖的溫室氣體排放。

  • Most of those emissions come from industrial processes

    這些排放大部分來自工業過程

  • we often aren't aware of, but touch every aspect of our lives.

    我們往往不知道,但卻觸及到我們生活的方方面面。

  • Look around your home.

    看看你的家。

  • Refrigerationalong with other heating and cooling

    製冷--以及其他加熱和冷卻--的問題。

  • makes up about 6% of total emissions.

    佔總排放量的6%左右。

  • Agriculture, which produces our food, accounts for 18%.

    農業生產我們的食物,佔18%。

  • Electricity is responsible for 27%.

    電力佔27%。

  • Walk outside, and the cars zipping past, planes overhead,

    走到外面,汽車飛馳而過,飛機在頭頂飛過。

  • trains ferrying commuters to work

    上班族列車

  • transportation, including shipping,

    運輸,包括航運。

  • contributes 16% of greenhouse gas emissions.

    佔溫室氣體排放量的16%。

  • Even before we use any of these things, making them produces emissions

    甚至在我們使用這些東西之前,製造它們就會產生排放----------。

  • a lot of emissions.

    大量排放。

  • Making materials

    製作材料-

  • concrete, steel, plastic, glass, aluminum and everything else

    混凝土、鋼材、塑膠、玻璃、鋁材和其他一切----------。

  • accounts for 31% of greenhouse gas emissions.

    佔溫室氣體排放量的31%。

  • Concrete alone is responsible for 8% of all carbon emissions worldwide.

    僅混凝土就佔全球碳排放總量的8%。

  • And it's much more difficult to reduce the emissions from concrete

    而要減少混凝土的排放,難度就更大了

  • than from other building materials.

    比其他建築材料。

  • The problem is cement, one of the four ingredients in concrete.

    問題是水泥,是混凝土的四種成分之一。

  • It holds the other three ingredientsgravel, sand, and watertogether.

    它將其他三種成分--礫石、沙子和水--固定在一起。

  • Unfortunately, it's impossible to make cement without generating carbon dioxide.

    不幸的是,製造水泥不可能不產生二氧化碳。

  • The essential ingredient in cement is calcium oxide, CaO.

    水泥的基本成分是氧化鈣,即CaO。

  • We get that calcium oxide from limestone,

    我們從石灰石中獲取氧化鈣。

  • which is mostly made of calcium carbonate: CaCO3.

    它主要由碳酸鈣組成。CaCO3.

  • We extract CaO from CaCO3 by heating limestone.

    我們通過加熱石灰石從CaCO3中提取CaO。

  • What's left is CO2— carbon dioxide.

    剩下的是二氧化碳--二氧化碳。

  • So for every ton of cement we produce, we release one ton of carbon dioxide.

    所以我們每生產一噸水泥,就會釋放一噸二氧化碳。

  • As tricky as this problem is,

    就像這個問題一樣棘手。

  • it means concrete could help us change the world a third time:

    這意味著混凝土可以幫助我們第三次改變世界。

  • by eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and stabilizing our climate.

    通過消除溫室氣體排放和穩定我們的氣候。

  • Right now, there's no 100% clean concrete,

    現在,還沒有100%乾淨的混凝土。

  • but there are some great ideas to help us get there.

    但也有一些很好的想法來幫助我們達到目的。

  • Cement manufacturing also produces greenhouse gas emissions

    水泥生產也會產生溫室氣體排放

  • by burning fossil fuels to heat the limestone.

    通過燃燒化石燃料來加熱石灰石。

  • Heating the limestone with clean electricity or alternative fuels instead

    用清潔電力或替代燃料加熱石灰石。

  • would eliminate those emissions.

    將消除這些排放。

  • For the carbon dioxide from the limestone itself,

    對於石灰石本身的二氧化碳。

  • our best bet is carbon capture:

    我們最好的選擇是碳捕捉。

  • specifically, capturing the carbon right where it's produced,

    具體來說,就是在碳的產生地捕捉碳。

  • before it enters the atmosphere.

    在它進入大氣層之前。

  • Devices that do this already exist,

    能做到這一點的設備已經存在。

  • but they aren't widely used because there's no economic incentive.

    但因為沒有經濟激勵,所以沒有廣泛使用。

  • Transporting and then storing the captured carbon can be expensive.

    運輸和儲存被捕獲的碳可能很昂貴。

  • To solve these problems,

    為了解決這些問題。

  • one company has found a way to store captured CO2 permanently

    有一家公司已經找到了一種永久儲存二氧化碳的方法。

  • in the concrete itself.

    在混凝土本身。

  • Other innovators are tinkering with the fundamental chemistry of concrete.

    其他的創新者正在對混凝土的基本化學成分進行修補。

  • Some are investigating ways to reduce emissions

    一些人正在研究減少排放的方法

  • by decreasing the cement in concrete.

    通過減少混凝土中的水泥。

  • Still others have been working to uncover and replicate

    還有一些人一直在努力發現和複製。

  • the secrets of Roman concrete.

    羅馬混凝土的祕密。

  • They found that Pliny's remark is literally true.

    他們發現,普林尼的這句話從字面上看是真的。

  • The Romans used volcanic ash in their cement.

    羅馬人在水泥中使用火山灰。

  • When the ash interacted with seawater, the seawater strengthened it

    當灰燼與海水相互作用時,海水加強了灰燼的強度--。

  • making their concrete stronger and more long-lasting than any we use today.

    使他們的混凝土比我們今天使用的任何混凝土都要堅固耐用。

  • By adding these findings to an arsenal of modern innovations,

    通過將這些發現加入到現代創新的武器庫中。

  • hopefully we can replicate their success

    希望我們能複製他們的成功------。

  • both by making long lasting structures,

    都是通過製作長久的結構。

  • and ensuring our descendants can admire them thousands of years from now.

    並確保我們的後人可以在幾千年後欣賞他們。

Thousands of years ago, the Romans invented a material

幾千年前,羅馬人發明了一種材料。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 混凝土 排放 水泥 二氧化碳 溫室

可以改變世界的材料... 第三次了 (The material that could change the world... for a third time)

  • 20 3
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 01 日
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