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  • I think we have a lot of preconceptions

    我覺得我們有很多先入為主的觀念。

  • about what race really is.

    關於種族到底是什麼。

  • What is race has changed dramatically through time.

    什麼是種族,隨著時間的推移發生了巨大的變化。

  • There is no official scientific definition of race.

    對種族沒有正式的科學定義。

  • We're all different.

    我們都是不同的。

  • I was aware that I wasn't white.

    我知道我不是白人。

  • The teacher said, "No, no, Tess is something else."

    老師說:"不,不,苔絲是別的東西。"

  • And everybody's eyes are on me, and I'm a really shy person.

    每個人的目光都集中在我身上,而我是一個非常害羞的人。

  • She said, "But what are you, Tessa?"

    她說:"但你是什麼人,泰莎?"

  • A lot of people imagine that there is some biological tangibility to race,

    很多人想象,種族有一些生物上的唐突。

  • because we use it so much.

    因為我們經常使用它。

  • Race really is a social construct,

    種族確實是一種社會構造。

  • but just because something is a social construct,

    但僅僅因為某件事情是社會構造。

  • that doesn't mean it doesn't have meaning in peoples' lives

    不代表它對人們的生活沒有意義

  • like money, or the nation state, or democracy,

    如金錢,或民族國家,或民主。

  • or all these other things that define how we live,

    或所有這些其他的東西,定義我們如何生活。

  • but are also constructed.

    但也被構造。

  • It influences what you're eating,

    它影響了你的飲食。

  • it influences the type of healthcare

    它影響著醫療保健的類型

  • you have access to,

    你有機會獲得。

  • the type of schooling you have access to,

    你能獲得的學校教育類型;

  • how people feel about you.

    人們對你的感覺。

  • I mean, it's a powerful marker for all of these things

    我的意思是,它是一個強大的標誌 所有這些事情。

  • that we care about when we're trying to run a society.

    我們關心的,當我們試圖運行一個社會。

  • Race has never been something that I don't have to think about.

    種族從來都是我不需要考慮的事情。

  • It's put on to us.

    這是放在我們身上的。

  • When you look at the history and origins of this idea,

    當你看到這個想法的歷史和起源。

  • you start to see it for what it really is,

    你開始看到它的真實面目。

  • which is the manifestation of power.

    這就是權力的體現。

  • People imagine that people have always thought about skin colour

    人們想象中,人們一直在考慮膚色問題

  • in this racialised way, and we really haven't.

    以這種種族化的方式,我們真的沒有。

  • That idea is no more than a few hundred years old.

    這種想法不過幾百年的歷史。

  • It's not really until the age of colonialism, in the 17th Century,

    直到17世紀的殖民主義時代,才真正意義上的。

  • that you start getting the idea that

    你開始有了這樣的想法

  • each continent has its own individual kind of people.

    每個大陸都有自己獨特的人種。

  • It arose at a very specific moment in history.

    它產生在一個非常特殊的歷史時刻。

  • In the 17th Century, you're taking long trips by ship,

    在17世紀,你要乘船長途旅行。

  • and you're struck by how different people look

    你會被不同的人的表情所打動。

  • than you remember them when you got on.

    比你上場時還記得他們。

  • So this is the first edition of Systema Naturae,

    所以這是《系統自然》的第一版。

  • so the Systems of Nature.

    所以《自然》系統。

  • And for man, Linnaeus distinguishes four varieties,

    而對於人,林奈區分了四種。

  • these varieties correspond to the four continents.

    這些品種對應四大洲。

  • Where it really changes is in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

    真正發生變化的地方是在Systema Naturae的第十版。

  • This is the foundation of scientific racism.

    這就是科學種族主義的基礎。

  • He brings in moral character,

    他帶來的是道德品質。

  • so the American is "red and choleric,"

    所以,美國人是 "紅色的,耐寒的,"

  • and stands up straight.

    並站直了身子。

  • The European, "white, sanguine, and muscular"

    歐洲人,"白皙、風度翩翩、肌肉發達"。

  • The Asian, "sallow, melancholic and stiff"

    亞洲人,"黧黑、憂鬱、僵硬"。

  • The African, "black, phlegmatic and lazy"

    非洲人,"黑、痰、懶"。

  • So these stereotypes have endured through the ages.

    所以,這些刻板印象歷久彌新。

  • If you're going to take a group of people,

    如果你要帶一群人。

  • and you're going to decide that they're not people anymore,

    你就會決定他們不再是人了。

  • then you need something to justify that.

    那麼你需要一些東西來證明這一點。

  • You can be defined very differently

    你可以有非常不同的定義

  • depending on the country that you're in,

    取決於你所在的國家。

  • or the time that you're in.

    或你所處的時代。

  • And that's how these categories have always been used.

    而這些類別一直都是這樣使用的。

  • They are political tools

    他們是政治工具

  • that change depending on their usefulness

    視其用途而改變

  • to whoever is doing the categorisation.

    給正在進行分類的人。

  • We are one of the most homogeneous species on the planet.

    我們是地球上最單一的物種之一。

  • Humans have far less genetic variation than chimpanzees do.

    人類的遺傳變異遠比黑猩猩少。

  • And yet, those chimpanzees look the same to me.

    然而,那些黑猩猩在我看來是一樣的。

  • There were never any "pure" races,

    從來沒有什麼 "純正 "的種族。

  • there is no gene that exists in all the members of one race

    無獨有偶

  • and not another.

    而不是其他。

  • There is no black gene, there is no white gene.

    沒有黑色基因,也沒有白色基因。

  • Human groups overlap completely in their genetic variation.

    人類群體的遺傳變異完全重疊。

  • In the same way that you're related to your family,

    就像你和家人的關係一樣。

  • you can get a kind of fuzzy genetic similarity.

    你可以得到一種模糊的遺傳相似性。

  • But when you get to the continental level,

    但當你到了大陸層面。

  • which is really where we're talking about race,

    這是真正的地方 我們談論的種族。

  • that genetic similarity is so fuzzy,

    遺傳相似性是如此模糊。

  • and so statistically weak, as to be almost meaningless.

    而且在統計學上非常薄弱,幾乎毫無意義。

  • We have this envy of fields where things are hyper-simplistic.

    我們對事物超簡單化的領域有這種羨慕。

  • We want to be able to look at a genome and say

    我們希望能夠看到一個基因組,並說:

  • that people are these kind of concrete immutable things,

    人是這些具體的不可改變的東西。

  • that cannot be changed.

    不能改變的。

  • Genetics doesn't work that way, it's the product of many genes

    遺傳學不是這樣的,它是許多基因的產物。

  • interacting with each other and their environments.

    彼此之間及其環境之間的互動。

  • To fully answer the question about what a living thing is

    要全面回答什麼是生物的問題。

  • it's going to be about much more than genes.

    這將是更多的 比基因。

  • If I were to go out on to the street today

    如果我今天要上街的話

  • and find someone of Indian heritage like myself,

    並找到像我這樣的印度血統的人。

  • and randomly then pick someone who is not of Indian heritage,

    然後隨便挑一個不是印度裔的人。

  • it is perfectly statistically possible

    從統計學上看,完全有可能

  • for my genome to have more in common with that person

    讓我的基因組與那個人有更多的共同點

  • who isn't of Indian heritage than that person who is.

    誰不是印度血統的人比誰是。

  • Even though race itself is a construct,

    儘管種族本身就是一種構造。

  • racism is real and we are not in a post-racial society.

    種族主義是真實存在的,我們不是在一個後種族社會。

  • Race keeps making itself and power keeps making race.

    種族不斷製造自己,權力不斷製造種族。

  • Even though we know that race isn't biological,

    儘管我們知道種族不是生物的。

  • we've been living with this idea of it being real

    我們一直生活在這個想法 它是真實的。

  • for so long that it means that people who do have a shared racial identity

    長久以來,這意味著有共同種族身份的人都會有共同的種族身份。

  • have now cultural similarities

    文脈相通

  • which has been born out of hardship,

    這是從困難中誕生的。

  • but it's still beautiful and important.

    但它仍然是美麗而重要的。

  • The biology of race is not a useful concept.

    種族的生物學不是一個有用的概念。

  • I have a different historical trajectory,

    我有不同的歷史軌跡。

  • I love the African American tradition,

    我喜歡非洲裔美國人的傳統。

  • but it's not better than anybody else's,

    但它不比任何人的更好。

  • it's just the one that I'm a part of.

    這只是一個我的一部分。

  • I don't think we're going to stop classifying people,

    我不認為我們會停止對人進行分類。

  • because I think that's how we make sense of the world.

    因為我覺得我們就是這樣理解這個世界的。

  • I think every generation is going to classify people

    我想每一代人都會對人進行分類。

  • according to the criteria that are politically important to them.

    根據在政治上對他們重要的標準。

  • I don't think we need to find new boxes to put people in,

    我覺得我們不需要找新的盒子來放人。

  • I think we now have the opportunity to say,

    我想我們現在有機會說。

  • we understand that all of these things are a spectrum,

    我們明白,這些東西都是一個譜。

  • in a way that we hadn't considered before.

    以一種我們以前沒有考慮過的方式。

  • So instead of finding new ways to categorise people

    是以,與其尋找新的方法來對人進行分類

  • we can just find new ways to exist better together.

    我們可以找到新的方式來更好地共存。

  • Race is a story that's handed down and handed around.

    種族是一個流傳下來的故事,流傳下來的故事。

  • But we can choose the stories that we tell.

    但我們可以選擇我們所講的故事。

I think we have a lot of preconceptions

我覺得我們有很多先入為主的觀念。

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B1 中級 中文 種族 分類 基因 社會 生物 定義

種族的神話|BBC思想 (The myth of race | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 25 日
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