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  • I don't know.

    我不知道。

  • Kyoto, Kyoto, everyone.

    京都,京都,大家。

  • I want to talk to you today about democracy, about the struggles that it's experiencing and the fact that all of us together in this room might be the solution.

    我今天想和你們談談民主,談談民主所經歷的鬥爭,以及我們大家一起在這個房間裡可能是解決辦法的事實。

  • But before I get onto that, I want to take a little detour into the past.

    但在我進入這個話題之前,我想先繞一下過去的事情。

  • This is a picture from Athens, or more specifically, it's a picture of a place called the pin ICS, which is we're about 2.5 1000 years ago, the ancient Greeks, ancient Athenians gathered to take away their major political decisions together.

    這是一張雅典的圖片,或者更具體的說,這是一張叫銷魂ICS的地方的圖片,就是我們大概在2.5千年前,古希臘人、古雅典人聚集在一起,共同帶走他們的重大政治決策。

  • I say the ancient Athenians, in fact, was only the men actually was only the free resident property owning men.

    我說古代雅典人,其實只是男人其實只是自由居民擁有財產的男人。

  • But with all those failings, it was still a revolutionary idea that ordinary people were capable of dealing with the biggest issues off the time and didn't need to rely on a single, supposedly superior ruler.

    但儘管有這些失敗,它仍然是一個革命性的想法,即普通人有能力處理當時最大的問題,不需要依靠一個所謂的高級統治者。

  • It waas.

    它是華斯。

  • It was a way of doing things.

    這是一種做事的方式。

  • It was a political system.

    這是一種政治制度。

  • It was, you could say, a democratic technology appropriate to the time fast forward to the 19th century, when democracy was having another flourishing moment, and the democratic technology that they were using them was representative Democracy Theo idea that you have to elect a bunch of people.

    可以說,這是一種適合於時代的民主技術快進到19世紀,當時民主又有了一個蓬勃發展的時刻,而他們使用的民主技術是代議制民主﹁的思想,你要選出一堆人。

  • Uh, gentlemen, in the picture here.

    呃,先生們,在這裡的圖片,

  • Well, gentlemen, at the time, of course you had to elect them to look after your best interests.

    好吧,先生們,在當時,你們當然要選舉他們來照顧你們的最佳利益。

  • And if you think about the conditions of the time, the fact that it was impossible to gather everybody together physically and of course, they didn't have the means together, everyone together virtually it was again, a kind of democratic technology appropriate to the time fast forward again to the 21st century.

    如果你想想當時的條件,事實上,不可能把所有人都聚集在一起,當然,他們也沒有辦法聚集在一起,大家虛擬地聚集在一起,這又是一種適合當時的民主技術,再快進到21世紀。

  • And we're living through what's internationally known as the crisis of democracy.

    而我們正經歷著國際上所謂的民主危機。

  • What I would call the crisis of representative democracy, the sense that people are falling out of love with us as a way of getting things done, that it's not fundamentally working.

    我稱之為代議制民主的危機,人們對我們這種完成任務的方式已經不愛了,這種感覺從根本上來說是行不通的。

  • And we see this crisis state many forms in many different countries.

    我們看到這種危機狀態在許多不同的國家有許多形式。

  • So in the UK, you see a country that now at times looks almost ungovernable in places like Hungary and Turkey.

    所以在英國,你看到一個國家,現在在匈牙利和土耳其這樣的地方,有時候看起來幾乎無法治理。

  • You see very frighteningly authoritarian leaders being elected in places like New Zealand.

    在紐西蘭這樣的地方,你會看到非常可怕的專制領導人被選舉出來。

  • We see it in the nearly one million people who could have voted at the last general election.

    我們從上次大選中可以投票的近百萬人身上看到了這一點。

  • But who chose not to.

    但誰選擇了不。

  • Now these kinds of struggles thes sort of crisis of democracy have many roots, of course.

    現在這些鬥爭... ...民主的危機當然有很多根源。

  • But for me, one of the biggest ones is that we haven't upgraded our democratic technology.

    但對我來說,其中最大的一個就是我們沒有提升我們的民主技術。

  • We're still far too reliant on the systems that we inherited from the 19th from the 20th century on.

    我們還是太過依賴從20世紀開始繼承的19世紀的制度。

  • We know this because in survey after survey, people tell us, they say, We don't think that we're getting a fear share off decision making power decisions happen somewhere else.

    我們知道這一點,因為在一次又一次的調查中,人們告訴我們,他們說,我們不認為我們得到的恐懼份額從決策權決定發生在其他地方。

  • They say We don't think the current systems allow government to genuinely deliver on the common good.

    他們說,我們不認為現行的制度能讓政府真正實現共同利益。

  • The interests that we share is citizens.

    我們共同的利益是公民。

  • They say we're much less differential than ever before and we expect more than ever before.

    他們說,我們比以前少了很多差別,我們比以前更期待。

  • And we want more than ever before to be engaged in the big political decisions that affect us.

    而且我們比以往任何時候都更希望參與影響我們的重大政治決策。

  • And they know that our systems of democracy have just not kept pace with either the expectations or the potential of the 21st century.

    他們知道,我們的民主制度只是沒有跟上21世紀的期望或潛力。

  • And for me, what that suggests is that we need a really significant upgrade of our systems of democracy.

    對我來說,這表明我們需要對我們的民主制度進行真正的重大升級。

  • That doesn't mean we throw out everything that's working about the current system because we'll always need representatives to carry out some of the complex work of running the modern world.

    這並不意味著我們要拋棄現行制度的一切運作方式,因為我們總是需要代表來進行一些複雜的工作,來管理現代世界。

  • But it does mean a bit more Ethan's and a bit this Victorian England, and it also means a big shift towards what's generally called everyday democracy.

    但這確實意味著多了一點伊森的,多了一點這個維多利亞時代的英國,也意味著向一般所說的日常民主的大轉變。

  • And it gets this name because it's about finding ways of bring democracy closer to people, giving us more meaningful opportunities to be involved in it, giving us a sense that we're not just part of government on one day every few years when we vote.

    而它之所以有這個名字,是因為它是要找到讓民主更接近人民的方法,讓我們有更多有意義的機會參與其中,讓我們感覺到,我們不僅僅是每幾年某一天投票時政府的一部分。

  • But we're part of it every other day of the year.

    但我們一年中的每一天都是它的一部分。

  • Now that everyday democracy has two key qualities that I've seen proved their worth time and again in the research that I've done.

    現在,日常民主有兩個關鍵的品質,我看到在我所做的研究中,它們的價值一再被證明。

  • The first is participation because it's only if we as citizens, as much as possible, get involved in the decisions that affect us.

    第一是參與,因為只有我們作為公民,儘可能地參與到影響我們的決策中去,才會有參與。

  • That will actually get the kind of politics that we need that will actually get our common good served.

    這樣才能真正得到我們所需要的政治,才能真正為我們的共同利益服務。

  • The second important quality is deliberation, and that's just a fancy way of saying high quality public discussion because all very well people participating.

    第二個重要的素質是商議,這只是一種花哨的說法,高質量的公共討論,因為都是很好的人参與。

  • But it's only when we come together and we listen to each other.

    但只有當我們走到一起,我們才會互相傾聽。

  • We engage with the evidence and reflect on our own views that we genuinely bring to the surface the wisdom and the ideas that would otherwise remain scattered and isolated amongst us as a group.

    我們與證據接觸,反思自己的觀點,我們真正把智慧和思想帶到了表面,否則這些智慧和思想就會散落在我們這個群體中,孤立無援。

  • It's only then that the crowd really become smarter than the individual.

    只有這樣,人群才會真正變得比個人更聰明。

  • So if we asked, what could this abstract idea this everyday democracy actually look like and practice?

    那麼,如果我們問,這個抽象的理念這個日常的民主到底能是什麼樣的,實踐起來又是什麼樣的?

  • The great thing is, we don't even have to use our imaginations because thes things are already happening in pockets around the world.

    最棒的是,我們甚至不用發揮想象力,因為這些事情已經在世界各地的口袋裡發生了。

  • One of my favorite quotes comes from the science fiction writer William Gibson, who once said, The future is already here.

    我最喜歡的一句話來自科幻小說家威廉-吉布森,他曾經說過:未來已經到來。

  • It's just unevenly spread.

    只是分佈不均。

  • So what I want to do is share with you three things from this unevenly spread future that I'm really excited about in terms of upgrading the system of democracy that we work with three components of that potential democratic upgrade on the first of them is the citizens Assembly.

    所以,我想做的是與你分享三件事,從這個不均勻的傳播未來,我真的很興奮,在升級的民主制度,我們與三個組成部分的工作,潛在的民主升級上的第一個是公民大會。

  • The idea here is that a polling company is contracted by government to draw up, say, 100 citizens who are perfectly representative of the country as a whole, so perfectly represented in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, income level and so on.

    這裡的想法是,政府與一家民調公司簽訂合同,擬定100名公民,這些公民在年齡、性別、民族、收入水平等方面完全可以代表整個國家,所以具有完美的代表性。

  • These people are brought together over a period of weekends or a week paid for their time and asked to discuss an issue of crucial public importance.

    這些人在週末或一週的時間裡聚集在一起,並被要求討論一個對公眾至關重要的問題。

  • They're given training on how to discuss this.

    他們接受了如何討論這個問題的培訓。

  • She's well with each other, which will all know, of course, from our experiences valuing online, if nowhere else is not an ability that we're all born with.

    她和對方的關係很好,當然,從我們在網上重視的經歷中,大家都會知道,如果沒有其他地方不是我們天生的能力。

  • Innate Lee more's the pity, um in the citizens assembly, people are also put in front of evidence and the experts, and they're given time to discuss the issue deeply with their fellow citizens and come to a sort of consensus recommendations.

    李先天更多的是遺憾,嗯在市民大會上,人們也會被放在證據和專家面前,他們會有時間和同胞們深入討論這個問題,得出一種共識性的建議。

  • So these kinds of assemblies have been used in places like Canada, where they were used to draw up a new National Action Plan on mental health for the whole country.

    所以這類集會在加拿大等地已經被使用,加拿大利用這些集會制定了新的全國精神衛生行動計劃。

  • Assistant Assembly was used recently in Melbourne to basically lay the foundation off a new 10 year financial plan for the whole city so these assemblies can have real teeth.

    最近在墨爾本使用了助理大會,基本奠定了整個城市新的10年財務計劃的基礎,所以這些大會可以有真正的牙齒。

  • Riel Wait.

    瑞爾 等等

  • The second key element of the Democratic upgrade participatory budgeting.

    民主升級參與式預算編制的第二個關鍵要素。

  • The idea here is that a local council or a city council takes its budget for spending on new buildings, new services and says, We're going to put a chunk of this up for the public to decide, but only after you've argued the issues over carefully with each other.

    這裡的想法是,地方議會或市議會將其預算用於新建築、新服務的開支,然後說,我們將把其中的一部分拿出來讓公眾來決定,但必須在你們彼此仔細爭論過這些問題之後。

  • And so the process starts at the neighborhood level.

    所以這個過程是從鄰里層面開始的。

  • You have people meeting together in community halls, in basketball courts, making the trade offs, saying, Well, are we going to spend that money on a new health center?

    你讓人們在社區大廳、籃球場一起開會,進行交易,說,我們要不要把錢花在一個新的健康中心上?

  • Or are we going to spend it on safety improvements to a local road, people using their expertise in their own lives?

    還是要用在改善當地道路的安全問題上,人們用自己的專業知識來改善自己的生活?

  • Those discussions and then sort of pushed up to the suburb award level and then again, to the city level and in full view of the public, the public themselves makes the final allocation of that budget.

    這些討論,然後算是推到了郊區獎的層面,再推到市裡,在公眾充分看到的情況下,由公眾自己來做這個預算的最終分配。

  • And in the city where this all originated Porto Alegre and Brazil, a place with about a million inhabitants, as many as 50,000 people get engaged in that process every year, the third element of the upgrade online consensus forming in Taiwan.

    而在這一切起源的城市阿雷格里港和巴西,一個擁有約100萬居民的地方,每年有多達5萬人參與到這一過程中來,升級在線共識形成的第三要素在臺灣。

  • A few years ago, when uber arrived on their shores, the government immediately launched a new online discussion process, using a piece of software called Palace, which is also coincidentally, we're not coincidently what the ancient Athenians call themselves when they're making their collective decisions, and the way Polish works is it groups people together in the in using machine learning and a bunch of other techniques.

    幾年前,當uber來到他們的海岸時,政府立即啟動了一個新的在線討論過程,使用了一個名為Palace的軟件,我們也不約而同地認為這是古代雅典人在進行集體決策時對自己的稱呼,波蘭的工作方式是它將人們聚集在一起,在使用機器學習和其他一堆技術。

  • It encourages good discussion amongst those participating.

    它鼓勵參與者之間進行良好的討論。

  • It allows them to put up proposals which have been discussed, knocked back refined until they reach something like 80% consensus.

    它允許他們提出已經討論過的建議,並加以改進,直到他們達到類似80%的共識。

  • And in the Taiwanese case, within about four weeks, this process had yielded six recommendations for how people wanted to see uber regulated, and those almost all of them were immediately picked up by the government and accepted by uber.

    而在臺灣的案例中,在大約四周內,這個過程已經產生了六條人們希望看到uber如何監管的建議,而這些建議幾乎都被政府立即採納,並被uber接受。

  • Now I find these examples really inspiring.

    現在我覺得這些例子真的很有啟發。

  • People sometimes ask me why I'm an optimist, and a large part of the answer is these kinds of innovations, because I think they really show us that we can have a kind of politics which is deeply responsive to our needs, their citizens, but which avoids the peril off the threats to human liberties, the threats to civil liberties that authoritarian populism descends into.

    人們有時會問我為什麼是個樂觀主義者,很大一部分的答案是這些創新,因為我認為它們確實向我們展示了一種政治,它能深刻地迴應我們的需求,他們的公民,但它避免了對人類自由的威脅,對公民自由的威脅,專制民粹主義陷入的危險。

  • They show us that even though we live in what looks like quite a dark time.

    他們向我們展示,即使我們生活在一個看起來相當黑暗的時代。

  • There are things that act a bit like emergency lighting, guiding us towards something better.

    有些東西的作用有點像應急燈,指引我們走向更好的東西。

  • And although these air all ideas from the Western tradition, they can also be combined with adapted by indigenous traditions that also value turn.

    而這些空氣雖然都是來自西方傳統的理念,但也可以結合同樣重視轉向的本土傳統進行改造。

  • Taking in speech and consensus decision making and the thread that binds all these traditions together is essentially a faith in other people of faith, in people's ability to handle difficult decisions of faith in people's ability to come together and make political decisions intelligently.

    以言語和共識決策,而將所有這些傳統捆綁在一起的線,本質上是對其他信仰的人的信仰,對人們處理困難決策的能力的信仰,對人們聚集在一起並明智地做出政治決策的能力的信仰。

  • In the policy example, we'll see that government can be agile and nimble in the face of tech disruption.

    在政策的例子中,我們會看到政府在面對科技顛覆時,可以敏捷靈活的。

  • In the participatory budgeting, we see that we can build systems that are disproportionately used by poor people, in which deliver infrastructure that is a basic quality than the traditional systems in citizens assemblies.

    在參與式預算編制中,我們看到,我們可以建立窮人不成比例地使用的系統,其中提供的基礎設施比傳統的公民大會系統具有基本品質。

  • The experts who observe from time and again say that in those good conditions, people's ability to listen to others to engage with the evidence and to shift from their entrenched views is consistently astounding.

    屢屢觀察的專家說,在那些良好的條件下,人們傾聽別人參與證據的能力,以及改變自己根深蒂固的觀點的能力,始終是驚人的。

  • And that's a really, really hopeful finding because, you know, I think we live at a time where you see right around the world huge suspicion of other people of other citizens huge doubts about whether people are really able to bear the burden of decision making that democracy places on them.

    這是一個非常,非常有希望的發現,因為,你知道,我認為我們生活在一個時代,你看到世界各地的人對其他人的巨大懷疑,對其他公民的巨大懷疑,人們是否真的能夠承擔決策的重任,民主賦予他們。

  • But if you're worried, for instance, about whether a lot of people out there, uh, you know, I miss informed we're fallen prey to online propaganda What better way to push back against that thin?

    但是,如果你擔心,例如, 關於是否有很多人在那裡, 呃,你知道,我錯過了通知 我們落入網上宣傳的獵物 有什麼更好的方式來回擊,薄?

  • By ensuring that they're placed in forums.

    通過確保放在論壇中。

  • Forums like the New England Town Hall meetings shown here forms where they have to come face to face with other people, or at least being close virtual contact where they have to justify their opinions, have to deal with the evidence and are encouraged to step away from their prejudices.

    像這裡展示的新英格蘭市政廳會議這樣的論壇形式,他們必須與其他人面對面,或者至少是近距離的虛擬接觸,在那裡他們必須證明自己的觀點,必須處理證據,並鼓勵他們走出自己的偏見。

  • The Canadian philosopher Joseph Heath says that rationality, our ability to make good decisions isn't something that we achieve as individuals.

    加拿大哲學家約瑟夫-希斯說,理性,我們做出正確決定的能力,並不是我們個人所能達到的。

  • If we achieve it at all or something we achieve in groups, our best hope of rationality is each other or to put the thing a different way.

    如果我們根本沒有實現,或者說我們在群體中實現的東西,我們對理性的最大希望就是彼此或者把這個東西換一種方式。

  • The problem with democracy is not other people.

    民主的問題不在於別人。

  • It's no other citizens.

    這不是其他公民。

  • The problem is theme, the situations in which they in which we all have been asked to do our democratic work The problem is the outdated democratic technology that we've all been forced to use, and so what the's examples show to me, The reason I find them inspiring is that I think they demonstrate that if you get the situations right, if you get the technology upgraded than actually the things that we do when we come together as citizens can be astounding and together we really can build a form of democracy that's genuinely fit for the 21st century.

    問題是主題,我們都被要求做我們的民主工作的情況問題是我們都被迫使用的過時的民主技術,所以這些例子向我展示了,我發現他們鼓舞人心的原因是,我認為他們證明了如果你把情況弄好,如果你把技術升級,實際上當我們作為公民走到一起時,我們所做的事情可以是驚人的,我們真的可以一起建立一種真正適合21世紀的民主形式。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常感謝你。

I don't know.

我不知道。

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B1 中級 中文 TED 民主 決策 公民 制度 升級

21世紀提升民主的3個方法|馬克斯-拉什布魯克 (Max Rashbrooke) (3 ways to upgrade democracy for the 21st century | Max Rashbrooke)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 25 日
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