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  • I've got a little challenge for you this week. If you're able to, stand on one foot

    這周我給你們準備了一個小挑戰。如果你有能力的話,單腳站立

  • with your hands on your hips for 30 seconds. Keep your feet and hands as still as possible.

    雙手放在臀部,持續30秒。雙腳和雙手儘量保持不動。

  • If your hands lift off your hips, you lose a point. If your toes come off the ground,

    如果你的手從臀部抬起來,你就會失去一分。如果你的腳趾離地。

  • you lose a point. If that's too easy, close your eyes. That should've made it harder,

    你失去了一個點。如果太簡單,就閉上眼睛。這應該讓它更難。

  • but not impossible. With your eyes still closed, put your hands

    但並非不可能。閉上你的眼睛,把你的手

  • hands over your ears. That should've made it harder, but why?

    手捂住耳朵這應該會讓你更難受,但為什麼?

  • Yes, you changed your balance point to be more top heavy, but you also changed

    是的,你改變了你的平衡點,使其更加上重下輕,但你也改變了。

  • one of your primary ways of establishing balanceyour ears. While balancing on one foot

    你建立平衡的主要方式之一--你的耳朵。當單腳平衡時

  • makes for a fun little challenge, this phenomenon also explains the sensation of vertigo. So

    使得一個有趣的小挑戰,這種現象也解釋了眩暈的感覺。所以

  • in this video, we'll go over the delicate anatomy that gives us our sense of balance.

    在這段視頻中,我們將走過微妙的解剖學,給我們的平衡感。

  • To understand how our ears influence balance, we'll need some background anatomy. Anatomists

    為了瞭解我們的耳朵如何影響平衡,我們需要一些背景解剖學。解剖學家

  • typically divide the ear into three main sections: the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer

    通常將耳朵分為三大部分:外耳、中耳、內耳。外耳

  • ear includes everything you see on the surface plus the ear canalmostly elastic cartilage

    耳朵包括你所看到的一切,加上耳道--主要是彈性軟骨。

  • wrapped in skin that's rich with sebaceous oil glands and ear wax glands. At this point,

    包裹在皮脂腺和耳蠟腺豐富的皮膚中。此時。

  • the purpose of the ear is just to collect sound waves, kind of like how a satellite

    耳朵的作用只是收集聲波,有點像衛星的作用

  • dish is concave to collect radio wavesThose sound waves rattle the eardrum, or tympanic

    碟子是凹的,用來收集無線電波。這些聲波敲擊耳膜,或鼓膜。

  • membrane, an extremely thin membrane that amplifies and transmits sound waves to the

    膜,是一種極薄的膜,可以將聲波放大並傳遞到

  • three smallest bones in our bodiesthe hammer, anvil, and stirrup or malleus, incus,

    我們身體裡最小的三塊骨頭--錘子、鐵砧和馬鐙或馬蹄鐵,incus。

  • and stapes if you want to use Latin. Then those vibrations wiggle the cochlea in the

    和stapes,如果你想用拉丁語。然後,這些振動晃動耳蝸在。

  • inner ear, which transforms vibrations into nervous impulses that travel to the brain

    內耳,將振動轉化為神經衝動,傳入大腦

  • and get interpreted as your favorite Tiktok song. This is my how do you do, fellow kids

    並被演繹成你最喜歡的提克托克歌曲。這是我怎麼做的,小朋友們

  • moment isn't it? Right next to the cochlea is the tiny vestibular system, which includes

    瞬間不是嗎?緊挨著耳蝸的是微小的前庭系統,其中包括了

  • three semicircular canals, and tiny segments called the utricle and saccule, all of which

    三條半圓形的管道,以及被稱為 "胞宮 "和 "囊袋 "的微小部分,所有這些都是

  • are filled with fluid. These things are the main organs for balance. If we shrunk down

    是充滿液體的。這些東西是平衡的主要器官。如果我們縮小

  • into the semicircular canals, we'd find a space lined with little sensory cells called

    在半圓形的管道中,我們會發現有一個空間,裡面有一些小的感覺細胞,叫作 "感覺細胞"。

  • hair cells, named so because they poke out of the canal a little bitnot because

    毛細胞,之所以如此命名,是因為它們從管子裡伸出來一點點--而不是因為

  • they're actual hair. Whenever we turn or tilt our heads, the inner ear moves with it,

    他們是真正的頭髮。每當我們轉頭或仰頭時,內耳就會隨之移動。

  • and the fluid inside the canals sloshes back and forth. And that movement of the fluid

    而運河內的液體來回滑動。而這種液體的運動

  • pushes on the hair cells, which are sensitive enough to detect less than a nanometer's

    推動毛細胞,它的靈敏度足以檢測到小於一納米的毛細胞。

  • length worth of movement. Each of those canals detects motion on a different axisone

    值得運動的長度。每一個通道都能檢測到不同軸線上的運動--一個軸線上的運動。

  • detects tilting up or down, one detects rotation, and one detects bending left or right. The

    檢測上下傾斜,一個檢測旋轉,一個檢測左右彎曲。該

  • other organs, the utricle and saccule, works similarly. They both have those hair cells,

    其他的器官 胞衣和囊衣的工作原理是相似的。它們都有這些毛細胞。

  • but they have tiny calcium crystals on them. That makes this part of the balance organ

    但它們上面有細小的鈣晶體。這使得這部分平衡器官

  • specialized to detect acceleration. I personally picture the balance organs like those spirit

    專門用來檢測加速度的。我個人認為平衡器官就像那些精神

  • levels with the bubbles inside them. But instead of our eyes determining the position of the

    的水準與裡面的氣泡。但是,我們的眼睛並沒有確定這些氣泡的位置。

  • bubble visually, the sensors are built into the level. From there, the balance organs

    保麗龍視覺,傳感器內置在水準。從那裡,平衡機關

  • work like any other sense. They convert the motion from the hair cells into nervous impulses

    像其他感覺一樣工作。它們將毛細胞的運動轉化為神經衝動。

  • and send them to the brain. There, they combine with information like what your eyes are focusing

    並將它們發送到大腦。在那裡,它們與資訊結合起來,比如你的眼睛正在關注的東西

  • on, or the position of your foot, or the stretch of certain tendons. But every now

    或你腳的位置,或某些肌腱的伸展。但每當

  • and then, those different inputs conflict with each other like when you're on a boat

    然後,這些不同的輸入互相沖突 就像你在船上一樣

  • or airplane, which manifests as dizziness or even nausea. Unfortunately, all of these

    或飛機,表現為頭暈甚至噁心。不幸的是,所有這些

  • sensory systems break down as you get older. So it's no surprise that the elderly are

    隨著年齡的增長,感覺系統會出現故障。所以,老人家也就不足為奇了。

  • at a drastically increased risk of experiencing dizziness and falls over their younger selves.

    比起年輕時的自己,出現頭暈和跌倒的風險大大增加。

  • While just about every part of your balance organs deteriorates over time, you start losing

    當你的平衡器官的每一個部分都隨著時間的推移而退化時,你就會開始失去。

  • hair cells as you age which contributes to impaired balance. But even before you start

    頭髮細胞隨著年齡的增長,會導致平衡受損。但即使在您開始

  • aging, if you have a disease or injury that affects the inner ear, there's a good chance

    衰老,如果你有影響內耳的疾病或損傷,很有可能是

  • it'll throw off your balance. The most common cause of vertigo in adults is called benign

    它會讓你失去平衡。成人最常見的眩暈原因叫做良性眩暈

  • paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV, and it happens when some of the crystals in the

    陣發性位置性眩暈,或稱BPPV,它發生在一些晶體的時候。

  • inner ear become dislodged from where they usually are. Or there's Meniere's disease

    內耳會從平時的位置脫落。或者是美尼爾氏病。

  • which is an inner ear disorder that might be caused by abnormal buildup of fluid in

    這是一種內耳疾病,可能是由於內耳積液異常引起的。

  • the balance organsscientists aren't totally sure why it happens. This causes vertigo

    平衡器官--科學家們還不完全確定為什麼會發生這種情況。這將導致眩暈

  • and ringing in the ears, although typically just one ear. So it's a bit of a tradeoff.

    和耳鳴,雖然一般只是一隻耳朵。所以這就有點得不償失了。

  • We have this intricate, three dimensional system for detecting our position in space,

    我們有這個複雜的三維繫統來檢測我們在空間的位置。

  • but it's delicate. I wish I could give you hope, or tell you the one secret doctors don't

    但它是微妙的。我希望我能給你希望 或者告訴你一個醫生不知道的祕密

  • want you to know, but it's a fact of life. You get old, systems break down, then you

    想讓你知道,但這是生活的事實。你老了,系統崩潰,然後你

  • die. WellThanks for watching Human. Speaking of things coming to an end, this episode marks

    死吧好吧,謝謝你看 "人類"。說到即將結束的事情,這一集標誌著:

  • the end of season 2 of Human. Don't worry, we're still working on videos behind the

    《人類》第二季的結尾。別擔心,我們還在製作 "人類 "背後的視頻。

  • scenes, so make sure to subscribe to us here on Youtube and drop a comment if you have

    場景,所以一定要在Youtube上訂閱我們,如果你有

  • a topic you want me to cover in Season 3. Thanks for watching

    你希望我在第三季中涉及的話題。謝謝你的觀看

I've got a little challenge for you this week. If you're able to, stand on one foot

這周我給你們準備了一個小挑戰。如果你有能力的話,單腳站立

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為什麼這些隱藏的器官讓你不至於摔倒? (Why These Hidden Organs Keep You From Falling Over)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 25 日
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