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  • Should you eat paleo or vegan?

    你應該吃巴利歐還是素食?

  • Should you do crossfit or bodybuilding?

    你應該做跨服還是健美?

  • Is wine good or bad for your heart?

    葡萄酒對心臟是好是壞?

  • We are bombarded by varying perspectives on a variety of topics on a daily basis.

    我們每天都會被各種不同的觀點所轟炸。

  • You need to sort out what's real and what's nonsense.

    你要釐清什麼是真實的,什麼是胡說八道。

  • I'll show you how to do exactly that.

    我會告訴你如何做到這一點。

  • What's going on guys!

    這是怎麼回事的傢伙!

  • Dr. Jubbal from MedSchoolInsider.com.

    來自MedSchoolInsider.com的Jubbal博士。

  • That's right, it's Dr. Jubbal and no longer Dr. J. I came out with my real identity and

    沒錯,我是Jubbal博士,不再是J博士了,我說出了我的真實身份,而且...

  • the truth about my struggles and my story in a recent video on the life of a surgeon

    我的鬥爭和我的故事的真相在最近的視頻上的一個外科醫生的生活。

  • vlog channel.

    vlog頻道。

  • Like is in the description below.

    喜歡是在下面的描述中。

  • Many of our beliefs are plain wrong and not based in science or fact but rather in anecdotes,

    我們的很多信念都是明顯錯誤的,並不是基於科學或事實,而是基於傳聞。

  • word of mouth, or misinformation from seemingly trusted sources.

    口口相傳,或從看似可信的來源獲得的錯誤信息。

  • It's important to understand that many of our beliefs are socially constructed.

    重要的是要明白,我們的很多信念都是社會構建的。

  • As humans, we are incredibly malleable in what we believe and how we perceive the world;

    作為人類,我們對自己的信仰和對世界的認知具有不可思議的可塑性。

  • the influence of others holds tremendous weight.

    別人的影響具有巨大的分量。

  • Homo sapiens have evolved since our hunter gatherer times to follow the herd because

    智人自狩獵採集者時代起就進化到跟隨族群,因為

  • falling out of line could lead to being ostracized, which would ultimately mean end of the road

    掉以輕心,受人排擠,死路一條

  • for one's reproductive fitness.

    對於一個人的生育能力。

  • However, this desire to fit in and the resultant homogenization of our perspectives often does

    然而,這種想融入社會的願望以及由此導致的我們的觀點的同質化,往往會造成

  • more harm than good in our current age.

    在我們這個時代,弊大於利。

  • Throw in the power of clicks, money, and advertising with companies fighting for our attention,

    拋開點擊量、金錢和廣告的力量,與企業爭奪我們的注意力。

  • and it's no surprise that its incredibly tough to determine fact from fiction.

    這並不奇怪,它是令人難以置信的困難 確定事實和虛構。

  • In order to sift through all the noise and hyperbolic sensationalism and figure out the

    為了從所有的噪音和誇張的聳人聽聞中篩選出來,並找出。

  • truth, we must question our own beliefs and values to ensure that we have deliberately

    真理,我們必須質疑自己的信念和價值觀,以確保我們有意識地

  • chosen them and not simply blindly believed what we have been told.

    選擇了他們,而不是簡單地盲目相信我們被告知的事情。

  • Let's start with the pinnacle of progress and understanding: scientific research.

    讓我們從進步和認識的巔峰開始:科學研究。

  • Many of us turn to the most recent journal articles to help guide our beliefs and ways

    我們很多人都會求助於最新的期刊文章來幫助指導我們的信念和方式。

  • of living.

    的生活。

  • However, to get the most out of research requires a nuanced understanding of not only the study

    然而,要想從研究中獲得最大的收穫,不僅需要對研究有細微的瞭解

  • design, but also subject matter, funding, and study limitations.

    設計,但也有課題、資金和研究的侷限性。

  • One of the best ways to witness the importance of these factors is by turning to nutrition

    見證這些因素重要性的最好方法之一是通過轉向營養學

  • science, which still remains highly controversial.

    科學,至今仍有很大爭議。

  • One week it sounds like paleo is the best, the next week vegan, and the week after that

    一個星期,它聽起來像paleo是最好的, 下一個星期素食主義者,和後一個星期,

  • Mediterranean.

    地中海地區:

  • Here's an example; In 2014, Bazzano et al published a randomized trial comparing low-carb

    這裡舉個例子;2014年,Bazzano等人發表了一項隨機試驗,比較了低碳水化合物。

  • to low-fat diets.

    到低脂飲食。

  • Many interpreted the findings as a landslide victory proving that a low carb diet is superior.

    許多人將這一發現解讀為壓倒性的勝利,證明了低碳水化合物飲食的優越性。

  • The low-carb diet, after all, showed an increase in HDL, which is your good cholesterol, and

    低碳水化合物飲食,畢竟顯示出高密度脂蛋白的增加,這是你的好膽固醇,和。

  • greater weight loss.

    更大的減肥效果。

  • This was a randomized trial, so it must good study, right?

    這是一個隨機試驗,所以它必須好的研究,對不對?

  • Not so fast!

    別這麼快!

  • It is true that randomized prospective trials are better than retrospective trials, which

    隨機前瞻性試驗確實比回顧性試驗要好,而回顧性試驗

  • analyze data from the past and look for correlations.

    分析過去的數據,尋找關聯性;

  • However, by understanding the subject material and the study limitations, it becomes apparent

    然而,通過對課題材料的瞭解和研究的侷限性,就會發現

  • that like many nutritional studies, this one is far from perfect.

    就像許多營養學研究一樣,這個研究遠非完美。

  • The study relied on self-reported dietary information which is prone to recall bias,

    該研究依賴於自我報告的飲食資訊,容易產生回憶偏差。

  • dietitians were not blinded, there were no cardiovascular disease endpoints, the low-fat

    營養師不盲目,沒有心血管疾病終點,低脂

  • diet was really just a regular-fat diet, and fiber intake was less than half of the recommended

    飲食其實只是普通的脂肪飲食,而纖維的攝入量還不到推薦量的一半。

  • amount.

    數量。

  • Additionally, HDL, your good cholesterol, functions to transport cholesterol from the

    此外,高密度脂蛋白,即您的好膽固醇,其功能是將膽固醇從您的身體運送到您的身體。

  • periphery to the liver.

    外圍到肝臟。

  • Increasing the amount of fats and cholesterol you eat will require a greater amount of HDL.

    增加脂肪和膽固醇的攝入量,就需要增加高密度脂蛋白的含量。

  • If you have more garbage, you need more garbage trucks.

    如果你有更多的垃圾,你需要更多的垃圾車。

  • It does not necessarily make you healthier.

    它不一定會讓你更健康。

  • It's equally important to pay attention to who funds the study.

    同樣重要的是要注意誰為研究提供資金。

  • Data, but even more so common sense, indicates that industry funding is associated with pro-industry

    數據,但更多的是常識表明,產業資金與親產業相關

  • conclusions.

    結論:

  • The Vox recently came out with an excellent article explaining how the chocolate industry

    The Vox最近出了一篇很好的文章,解釋了巧克力行業如何

  • has funded hundreds of studies that promote chocolate as a health food.

    資助了數百項促進巧克力作為健康食品的研究。

  • Is chocolate actually good for your health when unbiased studies are examined?

    經過公正的研究,巧克力真的對健康有益嗎?

  • The take away is no, but cocoa-based products with little or no added sugar or fat do seem

    沒有,但以可可為基礎的產品,很少或沒有添加糖或脂肪,似乎。

  • beneficial.

    有益。

  • For those of you who want a more scientific analysis, check out the systematic review

    想要進行更科學的分析的朋友,可以看看系統性的綜述

  • by Hooper et al that essentially said the same thing.

    由Hooper等人Â,基本上說同樣的事情。

  • MANY OF YOUR BELIEFS HAVE NO SCIENTIFIC BACKING Now let's be real, none of us actually goes

    你的很多信仰都沒有科學依據 現在讓我們說實話,我們沒有人真的去

  • to the primary literature for everything.

    凡事都要向主要文獻求助。

  • Nor should we.

    我們也不應該。

  • Your beliefs don't ALL require scientific backing, but they do all require a healthy

    你的信仰並不都需要科學的支持,但它們都需要一個健康的。

  • dose of skepticism.

    懷疑的劑量。

  • If I asked you how much water you should drink in a day, you may suggest 8 glasses.

    如果我問你一天應該喝多少水,你可能會建議喝8杯。

  • The 8 glasses of water recommendation actually has minimal scientific basis, and can be traced

    8杯水的建議其實沒有什麼科學依據,可以追溯到

  • back to a 1921 paper where the author measured his own urine and sweat to determine that

    回溯到1921年的一篇論文,作者測量了自己的尿液和汗液,以確定。

  • he lost approximately 3% of his body weight in water per day, which is approximately 8

    他每天流失的水分約佔體重的3%,約為8。

  • cups.

    杯子。

  • I'm not sure about you, but basing humanity's water intake recommendation off the results

    我不知道你是怎麼想的,但基於人類的水攝入量建議的結果

  • of one man seems misled.

    的一個人似乎被誤導了。

  • Your belief of whether or not there is a god is definitely not based on scientific fact.

    你相信是否有神,絕對不是基於科學事實。

  • People have varying opinions and it's critical to be aware that just because you do or do

    人們有不同的意見,關鍵是要知道,僅僅因為你做或不做

  • not believe in one thing doesn't mean that another persons opinion isn't valid.

    不相信一件事並不代表別人的意見不成立。

  • This is especially important when your beliefs aren't easily proven one way or another,

    當你的信念不容易得到這樣或那樣的證明時,這一點尤其重要。

  • such as with regards to religion.

    如在宗教方面。

  • To sift through the misinformation, it is essential to practice critical thinking.

    要想篩選出錯誤的資訊,就必須練習批判性思維。

  • What is critical thinking?

    什麼是批判性思維?

  • It's essentially the skill of absorbing important information and using that to form

    它本質上是吸收重要資訊並利用這些資訊形成的技能。

  • a decision or opinion of your own, rather than just reciting what you hear others say.

    自己的決定或意見,而不只是背誦你聽到別人說的話。

  • 1) Determine what's important Not all things require this level of analysis.

    1)確定重要的事情 不是所有的事情都需要這種程度的分析。

  • When deciding which movie to watch tonight, maybe you don't have to be 100% certain on

    當決定今晚看哪部電影時,也許你不必百分百確定要看的是

  • which movie would be best for your current mood and time allocation.

    哪部電影最適合你現在的心情和時間分配。

  • So first, determine what is important for you to understand on a deeper level.

    所以,首先要確定對你來說,更深層次的理解什麼是重要的。

  • To start, any behavior you are changing that significantly effects your health, life, or

    首先,你正在改變的任何行為都會顯著影響你的健康、生活或

  • well-being on should require a deeper understanding where you have practiced critical thinking.

    幸福感上應該需要更深的理解,你在哪裡練就了批判性思維。

  • As a doctor, I would argue that anything effecting your health, like deciding on which diet or

    作為一個醫生,我會認為任何影響你健康的事情,比如決定哪種飲食或。

  • exercise to pursue, requires critical thinking and analysis.

    鍛鍊追求,需要批判性思維和分析。

  • 2) Pay attention to the right details In this day and age, we are exposed to an all time

    2)注意正確的細節 在這個時代,我們所接觸到的是一個無時無刻的

  • high of information.

    資訊的高。

  • Information overload.

    資訊過載。

  • Determining which facts are relevant and which are irrelevant will serve you well.

    確定哪些事實是相關的,哪些事實是不相關的,將對你很有幫助。

  • First, question the source.

    首先,質疑源頭。

  • As we have already gone over, sources are not always reliable.

    我們已經說過了,消息來源不一定可靠。

  • Thinking about who benefits from a statement can also help you shift your perspective and

    思考誰能從聲明中受益,也能幫助你轉變視角,並。

  • view the topic in a more objective way.

    更客觀地看待這個話題。

  • 3) Challenge the argument The best way to challenge the argument is by asking the right

    3)挑戰論點 最好的挑戰論點的方法是問正確的問題。

  • questions.

    問題。

  • What is the counter-argument?

    反駁的理由是什麼?

  • No argument is bullet proof, and it's your duty to question what you are told, to see

    沒有任何論點是彈無虛發的,你的責任是質疑你被告知的東西,看一看

  • the other side and to understand both sides of the coin.

    另一面,瞭解硬幣的兩面。

  • 4) Be wary of confirmation bias Rather than question our beliefs, its human nature that

    4)警惕確認偏差 與其說是質疑我們的信念,不如說是人性使然。

  • we want to reinforce our currents views.

    我們要加強我們的電流觀點。

  • You may find yourself reading articles that align with your beliefs, but why not learn

    你可能會發現自己閱讀的文章與你的信仰一致,但為什麼不學習呢?

  • about the opposing viewpoint?

    關於對方的觀點?

  • Understanding both sides will not only guide you closer to the truth, but you also will

    瞭解雙方的情況,不僅能引導你更接近真相,而且你還會

  • have a stronger backing and argument supporting your decision.

    有更強大的後盾和論據支持你的決定;

  • If you find yourself repulsed by a certain point of view in an argument, chances are

    如果你發現自己在爭論中對某一觀點感到反感,那麼有可能是

  • you are being closed minded and not objective.

    你是閉目塞聽,不客觀。

  • Take a step back, acknowledge your bias, and reapproach the situation with curiosity rather

    退一步說,承認自己的偏見,帶著好奇心重新審視這種情況,而不是...

  • than your own agenda.

    比你自己的議程。

  • Thank you all so much for watching and special shout-out to my patreon supporters that help

    感謝大家的觀看,並特別向我的贊助人致敬,他們的幫助是

  • make videos like these possible.

    讓這樣的視頻成為可能。

  • If you liked the video, make sure you press that like button.

    如果你喜歡這段視頻,一定要按下那個喜歡的按鈕。

  • Hit subscribe if you have not already and I will see you guys in that next one!

    點擊訂閱,如果你還沒有,我會看到你們在下一個!

Should you eat paleo or vegan?

你應該吃巴利歐還是素食?

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B1 中級 中文 研究 飲食 信念 科學 膽固醇 試驗

批判性思維的4個步驟|你所相信的一切都錯了。 (4 Steps to Critical Thinking | Everything You Believe is WRONG)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 23 日
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