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  • As of 2020, the world's biggest lithium-ion battery

    截至2020年,全球最大的鋰離子電池?

  • is hooked up to the Southern California power grid

    與南加州電網相連

  • and can provide 250 million watts of power,

    並可提供2.5億瓦的電力。

  • or enough to power about 250,000 homes.

    或足夠為約25萬戶家庭供電。

  • But it's actually not the biggest battery in the world:

    但它其實不是世界上最大的電池。

  • these lakes are.

    這些湖泊是。

  • Waithow can a pair of lakes be a battery?

    等等--一對湖泊怎麼可能是電池?

  • To answer that question, it helps to define a battery:

    要回答這個問題,有助於定義電池。

  • it's simply something that stores energy and releases it on demand.

    它只是一種儲存能量並按需釋放的東西。

  • The lithium-ion batteries that power our phones, laptops, and cars

    為我們的手機、筆記本電腦和汽車提供動力的鋰離子電池。

  • are just one type.

    只是一種類型。

  • They store energy in lithium ions.

    它們將能量儲存在鋰離子中。

  • To release the energy, the ions are separated from their electrons,

    為了釋放能量,離子與電子分離。

  • then rejoined at the other end of the battery

    然後再在電池的另一端連接起來

  • as a new molecule with lower energy.

    作為一個能量較低的新分子。

  • How do the two lakes store and release energy?

    兩湖是如何儲存和釋放能量的?

  • First, one is 300 meters higher than the other.

    首先,一個比另一個高300米。

  • Electricity powers pumps that move billions of liters of water

    電力驅動水泵移動數十億公升的水

  • from the lower lake to the higher one.

    從低處的湖泊到高處的湖泊。

  • This stores the energy by giving the water extra gravitational potential energy.

    這通過給水額外的重力勢能來儲存能量。

  • Then, when there's high demand for electricity,

    然後,當電力需求量大的時候。

  • valves open, releasing the stored energy by letting water flow downhill

    閥門打開,通過讓水往下流來釋放儲存的能量。

  • to power 6 giant turbines that can generate 3 billion watts of power

    為6臺巨大的渦輪機提供動力,可產生30億瓦的電力。

  • for 10 hours.

    10小時。

  • We're going to need more and more giant batteries.

    我們會需要越來越多的巨型電池。

  • That's because right now, generating enough electricity to power the world

    這是因為現在,發電量足以為世界提供電力。

  • produces an unsustainable amount of greenhouse gas:

    產生了不可持續的溫室氣體量。

  • 14 billion tons per year.

    每年140億噸。

  • We'll need to get that number down to net-zero.

    我們需要把這個數字降到淨值零。

  • But many clean energy sources can't produce electricity 24/7.

    但很多清潔能源不能24小時不間斷地發電。

  • So to make the switch, we need a way to store the electricity until it's needed.

    所以要想轉換,我們需要一種方法來儲存電能,直到需要的時候。

  • That means we need grid-scale batteries:

    這意味著我們需要電網規模的電池。

  • batteries big enough to power multiple cities.

    足夠大的電池為多個城市供電。

  • Unfortunately, neither of the giant batteries we've talked about so far

    不幸的是,到目前為止,我們所談及的巨型電池都沒有。

  • can solve this problem.

    可以解決這個問題。

  • The two lakes setup requires specific geography, takes up a lot of land,

    兩湖設置需要特定的地理環境,佔用大量土地。

  • and has high upfront costs to build.

    並具有較高的前期建設成本。

  • The giant lithium-ion battery in California, meanwhile,

    加州的巨型鋰離子電池,同時。

  • can power about 250,000 homes, yes, but only for an hour.

    可以為25萬戶家庭供電,是的,但只能維持一個小時。

  • Lithium-ion batteries are great for things that don't use a lot of power.

    鋰離子電池很適合用電量不大的東西。

  • But to store a lot of energy, they have to be huge and heavy.

    但要儲存大量的能量,它們必須是巨大而沉重的。

  • That's why electric planes aren't a thing:

    這就是為什麼電動飛機不是一個東西。

  • the best electric plane can only carry two people

    電動飛機最好的也只能載兩個人

  • for about 1,000 kilometers on one charge,

    一次充電可行駛約1000公里。

  • or its batteries would be too heavy to fly.

    否則它的電池會太重,無法飛行。

  • A typical commercial jet can carry 300 people over 14,000 km before refueling.

    一架典型的商用噴氣機在加油前可載300人飛行14000公里。

  • Lithium-ion batteries also require certain heavy metals to make.

    鋰離子電池也需要某些重金屬來製造。

  • These resources are limited, and mining them often causes environmental damage.

    這些資源是有限的,開採這些資源往往會造成環境破壞。

  • Inventors all over the world are rising to the challenge

    全世界的發明家都在迎接挑戰。

  • of making batteries that can meet our needs

    製造能滿足我們需求的電池

  • many of them even weirder than the two lakes.

    其中很多甚至比兩湖更詭異。

  • One company is building a skyscraper battery.

    有一家公司正在打造摩天大樓電池。

  • When the sun is shining, a crane powered by solar energy

    陽光燦爛的時候,用太陽能驅動的起重機

  • piles blocks on top of each other in a tower.

    將積木疊加在塔上。

  • At night, the cranes let gravity pull the blocks down

    夜晚,吊車讓重力把積木拉下來。

  • and use the resulting power to spin generators.

    並利用所產生的電力來旋轉發電機。

  • Though there have been some early setbacks,

    雖然早期也有一些挫折。

  • another promising approach involves heating up salts until they melt.

    另一種很有前途的方法是將鹽類加熱至融化。

  • The molten salt can be stored until there's a high demand for electricity,

    這些熔鹽可以儲存起來,直到有大量的電力需求。

  • then used to boil water.

    然後用來燒水。

  • The steam can power turbines that generate electricity.

    蒸汽可以驅動渦輪機發電。

  • Another idea: bio-batteries made from paper, powered by bacteria,

    另一個想法:用紙做的生物電池,由細菌提供動力。

  • and activated by spit.

    並被唾液激活。

  • Bacteria release energy in the form of electrons when they metabolize glucose,

    細菌在代謝葡萄糖時以電子的形式釋放能量。

  • and at least one species of bacteria can transfer those electrons

    而至少有一種細菌可以轉移這些電子

  • outside its cells, completing a circuit.

    在其細胞外,完成一個電路。

  • While these batteries won't power a city, or even a house,

    雖然這些電池無法為一個城市,甚至一棟房子供電。

  • they don't have the waste and cost concerns of traditional batteries.

    它們沒有傳統電池的浪費和成本問題。

  • From vast mountain lakes to microscopic bacteria,

    從浩瀚的高山湖泊到微觀的細菌。

  • from seawater batteries that bypass the need for heavy metals

    海水電池,不需要重金屬

  • to nuclear batteries that power deep space missions,

    到為深空任務提供動力的核電池。

  • we're constantly rethinking what a battery can be.

    我們不斷地在重新思考電池可以是什麼。

  • The next unlikely battery could be hiding in plain sight

    下一個不太可能的電池可能就藏在眾目睽睽之下--。

  • just waiting to be discovered and help us achieve a sustainable future.

    就等著被發現,幫助我們實現可持續發展的未來。

As of 2020, the world's biggest lithium-ion battery

截至2020年,全球最大的鋰離子電池?

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 電池 離子 儲存 電力 能量

世界上最大的電池看起來一點也不像電池。 (The world's biggest battery looks nothing like a battery)

  • 9 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 22 日
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