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  • In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius talks about mornings twice.

    在他的《沉思錄》中,馬庫斯-奧勒留兩次談到了早晨。

  • Once at the beginning of book 2 and once at the beginning of book 5.

    在第二冊的開頭和第五冊的開頭各一次。

  • Here are the quotes.

    以下是報價。

  • Pause the video if you really wanna read them.

    暫停視頻,如果你真的想讀他們。

  • But essentially, Marcus tells himself to do one thing each morning and that is:

    但本質上,馬庫斯告訴自己每天早上要做一件事,那就是。

  • negative visualization.

    消極的視覺化。

  • Negative visualization is when you set a goal, imagine all of the obstacles that can get

    消極可視化是指當你設定一個目標時,想象所有的障礙,可以得到

  • in your way, and then come up with a plan to deal with those obstacles.

    擋在你面前的障礙,然後提出一個計劃來處理這些障礙。

  • For example, let's say you start the day with the goal of finishing a big homework

    例如,假設你在開始一天的工作時,目標是完成一個大作業

  • assignment.

    任務。

  • At the beginning of the day, you imagine all of the obstacles that can come in your way:

    在一天的開始,你想象著所有可能會遇到的障礙。

  • you might get distracted by your phone, you might feel tired, you may have other assignments

    你可能會因為手機而分心,你可能會感到疲憊,你可能會有其他的任務。

  • to work on, so on and so forth.

    要努力,如此等等。

  • And then you come up with a plan to overcome all of the obstacles: you might put your phone

    然後你想出了一個克服所有障礙的計劃:你可能會把你的手機

  • on do not disturb and put it away so that you're not distracted.

    開啟 "請勿打擾",並將其收起,以免你分心。

  • You might take a nap or have a cup of coffee so you won't be tired.

    你可以睡個午覺或者喝杯咖啡,這樣你就不會累了。

  • And you create a schedule for when you'll complete all your other homework, so that

    你要為你完成其他功課的時間制定一個時間表,這樣一來

  • way you can free your mind to focus on the current one.

    的方式,你可以解放你的思想,專注於當前的。

  • But let's even take it a step further by looking at a new example.

    但是,我們甚至再進一步看一個新的例子。

  • So your goal is to ace your calculus class, but you doubt you'll be able to finish your

    所以,你的目標是在微積分課上取得好成績,但你懷疑自己是否能完成你的

  • upcoming assignment.

    即將到來的任務。

  • You simply have too many other classes and more important assignments to do.

    你只是有太多的其他課程和更重要的作業要做。

  • So the first obstacle is finishing the assignment.

    所以第一個障礙就是完成任務。

  • But if you can't finish the assignment, you're probably going to feel guilty, and

    但是,如果你不能完成任務,你可能會感到內疚,而且。

  • this will be your second obstacle.

    這將是你的第二個障礙。

  • And the third obstacle will be your lingering fear that your grades are slipping in the

    而第三個障礙將是你揮之不去的恐懼,你的成績在下滑。

  • class.

    類。

  • Now let's come up with a plan for dealing with these obstacles.

    現在,讓我們來制定一個應對這些障礙的計劃。

  • For the first obstacle, we decide that we'll finish the assignment if we have extra time

    對於第一個障礙,我們決定,如果有多餘的時間,我們就完成任務

  • after completing our other ones.

    在完成我們其他的之後。

  • We give it a place in our todo list.

    我們把它放在我們的待辦事項清單中。

  • We might not get to it, but we'll try.

    我們可能不會得到它,但我們會嘗試。

  • For the second obstacle, we just need to remind ourselves of the reality of things.

    對於第二個障礙,我們只需要提醒自己面對現實的事情。

  • We have too many classes and assignments to do, and so we have to prioritize them in order

    我們有太多的課程和作業要做,所以我們要釐清輕重緩急,以備不時之需

  • of importance.

    的重要性。

  • This calculus assignment is not as important as the other ones we're doing, so it's

    這個微積分作業沒有我們正在做的其他作業那麼重要,所以是

  • okay to let it fall to the wayside.

    好吧,讓它落到邊上。

  • On top of that, we make a commitment to take a review and study the solutions the teacher

    在此基礎上,我們做出承諾,對老師的解決方案進行復習和研究。

  • will upload later in the week, that way we're not missing the information for the test.

    將在本週晚些時候上傳,這樣我們就不會錯過測試的資訊。

  • Then to deal with the third obstacle, we make a commitment to get ahead on the next assignment.

    然後為了應對第三個障礙,我們做出承諾,在下一個任務中取得領先。

  • That way we know we'll pick up the slack in the future and prevent our grades from

    這樣我們就知道以後會拾遺補缺,防止我們的成績因

  • slipping too much.

    滑得太厲害了。

  • But let's take it another step forward with another example.

    但我們再舉一個例子,再往前推一步。

  • Your goal is to make a living for yourself, and right now you're flunking your college

    你的目標是為自己謀生,而現在你的大學成績不及格

  • courses.

    課程:

  • So you're first major obstacle is getting good grades.

    所以,你的第一個主要障礙是獲得好成績。

  • Your plan is to get a tutor and spend more time in the library studying, instead of studying

    你的計劃是請個家教,花更多的時間在圖書館學習,而不是學習。

  • at home.

    在家裡。

  • The second major obstacle is the fact that you might actually flunk out of school.

    第二大障礙是,你可能真的會從學校退學。

  • If that happens, your plan is to go to trade school instead, to have a back up career.

    如果這樣,你的計劃是改去讀職業學校,以備備份職業。

  • In the event that trade school doesn't work out, you come up with a list of the highest

    在貿易學校不成功的情況下,你拿出一份最高的

  • paying careers that don't require any education past high school and keep that aside as a

    不需要高中以上任何教育的高薪職業,並將其放在一邊,作為一個。

  • back up plan.

    備份計劃。

  • There are at least three major benefits to doing negative visualization.

    做負面視覺化至少有三大好處。

  • The first major benefit is that it helps you see how bad things can get.

    第一大好處是,它可以幫助你看到事情會變得多麼糟糕。

  • If you imagine the worst possible scenario, that might motivate you to keep working to

    如果你想象最壞的情況,這可能會激勵你繼續努力,以達到最壞的效果。

  • avoid it.

    避開它。

  • And the second reason to use negative visualization is that it allows you to be proactive by anticipating

    而使用消極視覺化的第二個原因是,它可以讓你通過預測來主動地進行

  • obstacles, and getting ready to act in a productive and useful way.

    障礙,並準備以富有成效和有用的方式採取行動。

  • If things go wrong, you're ready to deal with them instead of being taken by surprise.

    如果事情出了問題,你要做好處理的準備,而不是措手不及。

  • If things go right, then you're still good to go.

    如果事情順利,那你還是可以的。

  • But I think the biggest benefit by far is this: it allows you to leverage human psychology

    但我認為到目前為止,最大的好處是:它可以讓你利用人類的心理學

  • to your benefit.

    對你有利。

  • So imagine a vertical line with a dot in the centre.

    所以想象一條豎線,中間有一個點。

  • Let's mark off the centre axis with a dashed line: this represents your normal state, not

    讓我們用虛線在中軸線上做個標記:這代表了你的正常狀態,而非

  • happy or sad, just neutral.

    快樂或悲傷,只是中性。

  • Let's say you make $70 000 a year, that's your normal financial state.

    比如說你年薪7萬,這就是你正常的財務狀態。

  • And suddenly, you get a raise to $80 000 a year.

    忽然間,你的年薪就漲到了8萬元。

  • So now your current state, represented by the dot, moves above your normal state.

    所以現在你的當前狀態,由點代表,移動到你的正常狀態之上。

  • This will make you really happy for a bit, but soon you'll adjust and get used to it.

    這會讓你真的開心一下,但很快你就會調整和習慣。

  • $80 000 will become your new normal, and will be the point at which you feel neutral.

    8萬美元將成為你的新常態,也將是你感覺中性的點。

  • Now let's say you get a new job that pays $70 000 again, now you move below your new

    現在假設你又找到了一份新的工作,工資70000元,現在你的工資低於你的新工作。

  • normal of $80 000 and feel sad, but your feelings will adjust again and $70 000 will once again

    8萬元的正常水準,感到悲傷,但你的感情會再次調整,7萬元將再次

  • become your new normal.

    成為你的新常態。

  • The same thing will happen if you get a new car.

    如果你買了新車,同樣的事情也會發生。

  • You'll feel happy for a bit, but your feelings will once again adjust and it won't make

    你會感覺到高興一下,但你的感覺會再次調整,不會使

  • you as happy anymore.

    你作為快樂了。

  • This process is referred to as hedonic adaptation, and we often talking about it in negative

    這個過程被稱為享樂適應,我們經常用消極的方式來談論它。

  • terms.

    術語:

  • We talk about how the same amount of money, things, likes, views, etc don't make us

    我們談論的是同樣的錢、物、喜歡、瀏覽量等,並不能讓我們成為

  • happy anymore, and that we always need more and more.

    幸福了,我們總是需要更多更多。

  • But there's actually a positive aspect to hedonic adaptation, and that's what negative

    但其實享樂式的適應也有積極的一面,這就是消極的

  • visualization allows you to do.

    可視化讓你可以做到。

  • With this animation, I showed that the feeling of happiness is actually the gap between your

    通過這個動畫,我展示了幸福感其實就是你的差距。

  • expectations, the dashed line, and your current reality, the dot.

    期望,虛線,和你目前的現實,點。

  • The goal with negative visualization is to keep your expectations as low as possible,

    消極可視化的目標是讓你的期望值儘可能的低。

  • to keep the dashed line as low as possible, that way the gap between your reality and

    虛線要儘可能的低,這樣你的現實和你的現實之間的差距就會越來越大。

  • your expectations is as big as you can possibly make it, in a positive way.

    你的期望值有多大,你就有多大,以積極的方式。

  • This is what minimalists do.

    這就是極簡主義者的做法。

  • If you can learn to live and make peace with only a few number of items in your life, all

    如果你能學會生活,並與你的生活中只有幾個項目和平相處,所有的

  • of the extra stuff you get is just a benefit.

    額外的東西,你得到的只是一個好處。

  • If you can learn to live and make peace with a limited salary, all of the extra raises

    如果你能學會在有限的工資中安分守己,所有額外的加薪

  • you get are just bonus upside.

    你得到的只是獎金的上漲。

  • If you can learn to live with and make peace with the worst possible scenarios in your

    如果你能學會與最壞的情況和平共處的話

  • life, everything beyond that is upside and benefit.

    生活,除此之外的一切都有上升空間和利益。

  • In other words, learn to keep your expectations low, but try to let your reality exceed that.

    換句話說,要學會把自己的期望值壓低,但要儘量讓自己的現實超出這個期望值。

  • So the negative visualization cycle looks like this: set a goal, anticipate the obstacles,

    所以,消極的可視化循環是這樣的:設定目標,預估障礙。

  • and come up with a plan for how you'll deal with them.

    並想出一個計劃,你將如何處理他們。

  • So what was Marcus' goal?

    那麼馬庫斯的目標是什麼?

  • In essence, it was to live with justice and piety, but to understand this, you have to

    本質上,是要以正義和虔誠的態度生活,但要理解這一點,你要

  • understand his worldview.

    瞭解他的世界觀。

  • He believed that we were all parts of a whole, in the same way a finger is a part of the

    他認為,我們都是一個整體的一部分,就像手指是一個整體的一部分一樣。

  • body or a tree is a part of a forest.

    體或一棵樹是森林的一部分。

  • What's good for the part is good for the whole and vice verse, or what's good for

    局部的好,就是整體的好,反之亦然,或者說,什麼是好的?

  • the finger is good for the hand and what's good for the tree is good for the forest.

    手指是好的,樹上的東西就是森林的好。

  • He sees everything as interdependent and that what's truly good is good for all the parts

    他認為萬事萬物都是相互依存的,真正好的東西對所有的部分都有好處。

  • and wholes equally.

    和整體平等。

  • He believes that every individual has a duty to fulfill, and the best thing anyone can

    他認為,每一個人都有責任去履行,而每個人都能做的最好的事情就是

  • do is fulfill that duty.

    做的就是履行這個職責。

  • And practically speaking, Marcus was the emperor of Rome and he had a duty to fulfil to the

    而實際上,馬庫斯是羅馬的皇帝,他有責任去履行他的職責。

  • people, and he kept this in mind on a daily basis.

    人,他每天都牢記這一點。

  • So now that we know his goal, let's take a look at how he utilized negative visualization.

    現在我們知道了他的目標,讓我們來看看他是如何利用負面視覺化的。

  • At the beginning of book 2, Marcus reminds himself in the morning that he will meet people

    在第二冊的開頭,馬庫斯在早晨提醒自己,他將會遇到人

  • who are going to bug him.

    誰要竊聽他。

  • He says they are, “meddling, ungrateful, arrogant, dishonest, jealous, and surly.”

    他說他們是,"多管閒事,忘恩負義,傲慢無禮,不誠實,嫉妒,和暴躁"。

  • He fears that these people will make him neglect his duty, and he worries that he'll become

    他怕這些人讓他失職,他擔心自己會變得。

  • angry towards them.

    對他們很生氣。

  • And so here we see the obstacles in Marcus' way: annoying people, neglecting his duty,

    於是在這裡,我們看到了馬庫斯前進道路上的障礙:惹人厭煩,玩忽職守。

  • and becoming angry or resentful.

    而變得憤怒或怨恨。

  • So what's Marcus' plan for dealing with these obstacles?

    那麼馬庫斯有什麼計劃來應對這些障礙呢?

  • He uses a series of reminders.

    他用一系列的提醒。

  • He reminds himself that these people act this way out of ignorance: they don't know any

    他提醒自己,這些人這樣的行為是出於無知:他們不知道任何的

  • better.

    更好的。

  • He reminds himself that they're doing more harm to themselves than they are to him by

    他提醒自己,他們對自己的傷害比對他的傷害更大,因為

  • acting like that.

    這樣的行為。

  • He also reminds himself that the actions of these individuals can't stop him from acting

    他也提醒自己,這些人的行為不能阻止他的行動

  • however he wants and still fulfilling his duty.

    無論他怎麼想,還是履行自己的職責。

  • His own duty is always in his control to fulfill.

    他自己的職責總是在他的控制下完成。

  • And lastly he reminds himself, “Nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him.

    最後他還提醒自己:"我也不能對我的親人生氣,也不能恨他。

  • We were born for cooperation, like feet, like hands, like eyelids, like the rows of upper

    我們生來就是為合作而生的,像腳,像手,像眼皮,像上排的

  • and lower teeth.”

    和下牙。"

  • So he tells himself that even though they will annoy him, it's because they don't

    所以他告訴自己,雖然他們會煩他,但那是因為他們不懂。

  • know any better and that he still needs to cooperate and love them instead of being resentful.

    知道再多,他還是需要配合和愛他們,而不是怨天尤人。

  • What's best for everyone is cooperation.

    對大家來說,最好的就是合作。

  • Marcus routinely uses reminders to overcome the obstacles.

    馬庫斯經常用提醒來克服障礙。

  • He's another example.

    他是另一個例子。

  • At the beginning of book 5, Marcus tells himself that he'll have trouble waking up in the

    在第5冊的開頭,馬庫斯告訴自己,他將很難在醒過來。

  • mornings.

    早晨。

  • He identifies a few obstacles that he'll encounter: the bed will feel really nice,

    他確定了自己會遇到的幾個障礙:床的感覺會非常好。

  • he'll be really lazy, and he'll have excuses for himself to stay in bed.

    他就會很懶,他就會給自己找藉口賴床。

  • And again, Marcus uses some reminders to overcome these obstacles.

    而馬庫斯又用一些提醒來克服這些障礙。

  • He reminds himself that he's not meant tofeel nice”.

    他提醒自己,他不是為了 "感覺良好"。

  • He has a duty to fulfil to the world—a duty only he can fulfill.

    他有責任向世界履行--只有他能履行的責任。

  • He reminds himself that every other animal has gotten up to do their duty this morning,

    他提醒自己,其他動物今天早上都已經起床盡責了。

  • including the bees, the birds, and the plants.

    包括蜜蜂、鳥類和植物。

  • They are all contributing to the community that they are apart of.

    他們都在為自己所處的社會做貢獻。

  • So Marcus scolds himself for his laziness.

    所以馬庫斯罵自己懶惰。

  • He asks himself why he should lie around and neglect his duty when all of the other animals

    他問自己,為什麼要躺在這裡,而忽視了自己的職責,而其他動物都是

  • have gotten up and started doing theirs?

    起身開始做自己的事?

  • So I'll leave you with this: every day is the beginning of a new journey.

    所以,我給你留下一句話:每一天都是新的旅程的開始。

  • It's a chance to go in a new direction or destination, to move further ahead than we

    這是一個機會,可以去一個新的方向或目的地,比我們走得更遠。

  • are today.

    是今天。

  • And with negative visualization, we can prepare for and make peace with the worst possible

    而通過消極的視覺化,我們可以為最壞的情況做準備,並與之和平相處。

  • scenario, while still reaping the upside of the best possible scenario.

    情景,同時還能收穫最好的升值空間。

  • And negative visualization isn't just a simple tactic, it's more of a way of life.

    而消極的視覺化不僅僅是一種簡單的策略,更是一種生活方式。

  • You have to actually become the kind of person who can make peace with the worst possible

    你必須真正成為那種能與最壞的可能和平相處的人。

  • scenarios.

    場景。

  • And the steps are simple, set a goal, anticipate the obstacles, come up with a plan.

    而步驟很簡單,設定目標,預估障礙,拿出計劃。

  • They are simple but

    它們雖然簡單,但

  • not easy.

    不容易。

  • So good luck!

    所以,祝你好運!

In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius talks about mornings twice.

在他的《沉思錄》中,馬庫斯-奧勒留兩次談到了早晨。

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B1 中級 中文 障礙 馬庫斯 提醒 視覺化 作業 目標

馬庫斯-奧勒留 - 成功的晨間例行公事|斯多葛精神 (Marcus Aurelius – Morning Routine for Success | Stoicism)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 19 日
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