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  • A shot of liquid courage, a shared moment of bonding and escapism, even drugged up zombie

    一針液態的勇氣,共度了一段磨合和逃避的時光,甚至是吸毒的殭屍

  • soldiers - violence and mind-altering substances have always gone hand in hand.

    阿兵哥們--暴力和改變心智的物質總是齊頭並進。

  • The truth is, countless wars throughout history have been fought while soldiers were drunk

    事實是,歷史上無數的戰爭都是在阿兵哥喝醉的情況下進行的。

  • or high, and military conflict through the ages - including the modern day - have been

    或高,而古往今來的軍事衝突,包括現代

  • shaped by the insane drugs soldiers are fed to win wars

    塑造的瘋狂的藥物,阿兵哥們被餵養的瘋狂的戰爭,以贏得戰爭。

  • Drinking and drugging rituals have long been a part of the culture of warfare.

    飲酒下藥的儀式早已成為戰爭文化的一部分。

  • Indulging in alcohol or drugs together can help soldiers bond before going into battle,

    一起縱情飲酒或吸毒,可以幫助阿兵哥們在上戰場前建立聯繫。

  • provide a much-needed way to cope with the trauma of war, and even enhance combat performance.

    提供了一種急需的應對戰爭創傷的方法,甚至可以提高戰鬥力。

  • Alcohol is the oldest, most tried-and-true drug of choice for warriors around the world,

    酒精是全世界戰士們最古老、最經得起考驗的首選藥物。

  • and armies have issued alcohol rations to their troops throughout history.

    和軍隊在歷史上都曾給部隊發放過酒類口糧。

  • The Russians favored vodka while the British preferred rum; Germans have turned to beer,

    俄國人偏愛伏特加,而英國人更喜歡朗姆酒;德國人則轉而喝啤酒。

  • while ancient Romans and Greeks relied on wine for liquid courage.

    而古羅馬人和希臘人則是靠酒來充當液體的勇氣。

  • But, armies from ancient times all the way up to today have often relied on even stronger

    但是,從古至今的軍隊,往往都是靠著更強大的

  • drugs to win wars.

    用毒品來贏得戰爭。

  • According to ancient legends, Nordic Berserkers, the legendary viking warriors who fought ferociously

    根據古老的傳說,北歐狂暴者,傳說中凶猛作戰的維京戰士

  • and without fear, were said to get their animalistic fighting powers from the animal skins that

    毫無畏懼,據說他們的獸性戰鬥力來自於獸皮。

  • they wore in battle.

    他們在戰場上穿著。

  • Recently, though, modern researchers have come to believe that their ferocity came from

    不過最近,現代研究人員認為,它們的凶猛來自於

  • another source altogether - the black henbane plant.

    完全是另一種來源--黑雞冠花。

  • The plant's leaves could be dried and smoked or used to make wine or beer.

    該植物的葉子可以晒乾熏製,也可以用來釀酒或啤酒。

  • The plant was a powerful hallucinogen, causing users to see and perceive things that aren't

    該植物是一種強大的致幻劑,導致用戶看到和感知的東西是不是

  • there.

    在那裡。

  • Berserkers believed that they were calling upon their gods and harnessing the powers

    狂暴者相信他們在呼喚他們的神靈,駕馭他們的力量。

  • of the spirit world to help them thrive on the battlefield, and it's likely that the

    的精神世界,幫助他們在戰場上茁壯成長,而且很可能是。

  • trance-like state caused by ingesting the black henbane contributed to this feeling.

    攝取黑雞冠花引起的恍惚狀態促成了這種感覺。

  • While herbal drugs may usually be associated with a calm, peaceful high, they have also

    雖然草藥通常可能與平靜、安寧的高漲聯繫在一起,但它們也有可能是一種新的藥。

  • been known to cause intense anxiety, paranoia and even panic.

    已知會引起強烈的焦慮、妄想甚至恐慌。

  • Given that these warriors were psyching themselves up for battle when they took the black henbane,

    鑑於這些戰士在拿下黑雞冠的時候,都在為戰鬥做心理準備。

  • it's highly likely that the effects were less mellow and more aggressive.

    極有可能是效果不那麼圓潤,更有攻擊性。

  • They probably felt agitated and ready to fight, and felt dissociated from reality, making

    他們可能感到焦躁不安,隨時準備戰鬥,並感到與現實脫節,使得

  • it easier for them to fight like wild animals and kill with abandon.

    更容易讓他們像野生動物一樣戰鬥,肆意殺戮。

  • Viking Berserkers weren't the only ancient fighters to tap into the power of natural

    維京狂暴者並不是唯一一個利用自然力量的古代戰士。

  • herbs.

    藥材。

  • Eurasian warriors, especially Siberian tribes like the Chukchi and Koryaks, used psilocybin

    歐亞戰士,特別是楚科奇和高麗亞克等西伯利亞部落,使用迷幻藥

  • - more commonly known as magic mushrooms - to allow them to fight fearlessly and give them

    - 俗稱 "魔菇"--讓他們無所畏懼地戰鬥,並給他們提供

  • an edge in battle - and they even went so far as to drink the urine of warriors who

    他們甚至不惜喝下戰士們的尿液,因為他們的尿液可以讓他們在戰鬥中獲得優勢。

  • had previously ingested the mushrooms to take advantage of the residual psychoactive effects.

    之前攝入了蘑菇,以利用殘留的精神活性效應。

  • Use of magic mushrooms and other natural psychoactive herbs continued into the 19th and 20th centuries.

    魔法蘑菇和其他天然精神活性藥材的使用一直持續到19世紀和20世紀。

  • In 1879, when the British tried to subdue the Zulu tribe of Africa, they faced an enemy

    1879年,當英國人試圖征服非洲的祖魯部落時,他們面對的是一個敵人。

  • that seemed immune to fear even in the face of Britain's far more advanced weapons.

    即使面對英國更先進的武器,似乎也不懼怕。

  • Though the Zulu carried only spears and shields, they seemed unnervingly unafraid of the British's

    雖然祖魯人只帶著長矛和盾牌,但他們似乎不害怕英國人的長矛和盾牌,這讓他們感到不安。

  • rifles and bullets.

    步槍和子彈。

  • They likely had a little medicinal help in this department.

    他們很可能在這個部門有一點藥用幫助。

  • The Zulu warriors had a multitude of mind-altering substances at their disposal, from medicated

    祖魯族戰士有大量的精神改變物質可供他們使用,從藥物治療,到藥物治療,再到藥物治療。

  • beer to dagga, a South African variety of cannabis, to a powerful painkiller made from

    從啤酒到南非的一種大麻品種dagga,再到一種強大的止痛藥,從啤酒到大麻,再到一種強大的止痛藥。

  • the bushman poison bulb plant which also had hallucinogenic properties.

    布什曼毒球植物,也有致幻的特性。

  • Thanks to the psychoactive properties of these drugs, the Zulu warriors would have felt disconnected

    多虧了這些藥物的精神活性,祖魯族戰士們會感到心神不寧。

  • from the reality of battle, allowing them to fight ferociously and without fear.

    從現實的戰鬥中,讓他們凶猛的戰鬥,無所畏懼。

  • Though the Zulus would unfortunately go on to lose the war, they did impress the British

    雖然祖魯人很不幸地輸掉了戰爭,但他們確實給英國人留下了深刻的印象。

  • with their willingness to face death without fear thanks to the help of pharmacology.

    與他們願意面對死亡而不畏懼,多虧了藥理學的幫助。

  • As the nature of warfare changed and weapons and technology advanced, so too did the drugs

    隨著戰爭性質的改變,武器和技術的進步,藥物也在不斷地變化著

  • that were used to fuel soldiers and win wars.

    用來為阿兵哥提供燃料和贏得戰爭的。

  • World War 1 saw the first documented and widespread use of cocaine in battle.

    第一次世界大戰中,可卡因在戰場上的使用首次被記錄在案,並被廣泛使用。

  • Both the British and the Germans issued cocaine rations to their air force's fighter pilots

    英國人和德國人都給他們的空軍戰鬥機飛行員發放可卡因口糧。

  • to give them a boost before they engaged in incredibly dangerous dog fights.

    在他們進行非常危險的狗戰之前,給他們一個刺激。

  • World War 1 fighter pilots were tasked with a nearly impossible mission - they had to

    第一次世界大戰中,戰鬥機飛行員被賦予了一個幾乎不可能完成的任務--他們必須要做到

  • engage other aircraft in close combat in mid-air.

    與其他飛機在半空中進行近距離戰鬥。

  • They needed to dodge enemy planes while simultaneously trying to get the enemy in their crosshairs

    他們需要在躲避敵機的同時,還要設法讓敵人進入他們的十字線。

  • so their gunner could take them out, all while making sure not to crash their planes.

    這樣他們的炮手就可以把他們幹掉,同時確保不撞機。

  • It was a chaotic and terrifying environment, and cocaine helped the pilots keep their energy

    那是一個混亂而恐怖的環境,可卡因幫助飛行員保持精力充沛。

  • up and helped them to focus on the job at hand without getting carried away by the very

    了,並幫助他們專注於手頭的工作,而不至於被非常重要的事情衝昏頭腦。

  • real fear that death could come at any moment.

    真正的恐懼,死亡隨時可能到來。

  • The Canadian infantrymen who also relied on cocaine called itForced March”, since

    加拿大步兵也是依靠可卡因,他們稱之為 "強行軍",因為。

  • that was exactly what it was used for.

    這正是它的用途。

  • Infantry troops that needed to be mobilized and moved long distances during the war often

    在戰爭中需要調動和長途移動的步兵部隊,往往是

  • had to do so on their own two feet, enduring grueling marches through desolate, war-torn

    不得不用自己的雙腳去做,忍受著艱苦的行軍,穿過荒涼的、飽受戰爭摧殘的地方。

  • landscapes, knowing all the while that the enemy could be anywhere, waiting to attack.

    景觀,同時知道敵人可能在任何地方,等待攻擊。

  • These marches could last for hours or even days, and once again, cocaine was their secret

    這些遊行可以持續幾個小時甚至幾天,再一次,可卡因是他們的祕密。

  • to success.

    到成功。

  • The Forced March pills, which were a combination of cocaine and caffeine, gave soldiers the

    強制行軍藥丸,是可卡因和咖啡因的混合物,給阿兵哥們帶來的是:"我是說,我是說,我是說......"。

  • energy and endurance to withstand hours of marching through difficult terrain to get

    耐力和耐力,以承受數小時的行軍,通過困難的地形,以獲得。

  • where they were needed, and also helped to blunt their fear that the enemy could be waiting

    也幫助他們消除了對敵人可能在等待的恐懼。

  • for them around the next corner.

    為他們在下一個轉角處。

  • The most famous stories of soldiers on drugs may have come from World War 2, which is fitting

    最著名的阿兵哥吸毒的故事可能來自於二戰,這很合適。

  • considering that the entire 6 year conflict was largely fueled by speed, a favorite of

    考慮到整個6年的衝突在很大程度上是由速度推動的,這是一個最喜歡的。

  • frontline soldiers on both sides.

    雙方的前線阿兵哥。

  • The Nazis' drug of choice, called Pervitin, was an early version of crystal meth, and

    納粹選擇的毒品,叫Pervitin,是早期的安非他命版本,而且... ...

  • the German company Temmler-Werke supplied the German military with 29 million of these

    德國Temmler-Werke公司向德國軍方提供了2900萬個這樣的產品。

  • so-calledattack pills”.

    所謂 "攻心丸"。

  • Not to be outdone by their enemies, the Allies followed suit and issued millions of Benzedrine

    盟軍不甘示弱,紛紛效仿,發放了上百萬支苯丙胺鹼

  • tablets to their soldiers.

    平板電腦給他們的阿兵哥。

  • The British are estimated to have consumed around 72 million tablets, while the Pentagon's

    據估計,英國人消費了約7200萬片,而五角大樓的。

  • official estimate is that U.S. soldiers consumed between 250 and 500 million pills during the

    據官方估計,美軍阿兵哥在戰爭期間消耗了2.5億至5億顆藥片。

  • war.

    戰爭。

  • Bennies”, as they were known, were even included in emergency kits for American bomber

    "Bennies",正如他們所知道的那樣,甚至被列入美國轟炸機的應急包中。

  • crews.

    隊員們。

  • Both the German attack pills and the Allies' bennies provided their users with a boost

    德軍的攻擊藥和盟軍的安息藥都為其使用者提供了助力。

  • of energy to help them cope with drawn-out battles and long distance marches.

    的能量,以幫助他們應對曠日持久的戰鬥和長途行軍。

  • It increased alertness and combated fatigue, which was helpful for keeping vigilant during

    它能提高警覺性,消除疲勞,這對保持警惕性很有幫助。

  • long periods of watch duty, and bolstered already exhausted soldiers who were about

    長時間的值班,也讓已經疲憊不堪的阿兵哥們有了更多的動力。

  • to go into battle.

    要上戰場了。

  • It also created a strong sense of confidence and bravado in the soldiers, allowing them

    這也讓阿兵哥們產生了強烈的自信和豪情,讓他們能夠做到

  • to rush into enemy fire with little regard for their own life or safety.

    不顧自己的生命和安全,衝進敵人的火力中。

  • The role that speed played in World War 2 cannot be overstated - experts now say that

    速度在二戰中所發揮的作用怎麼強調都不過分--專家們現在說

  • many of Germany's early and decisive victories in the war were thanks in large part to the

    德國在戰爭中的許多早期和決定性的勝利在很大程度上要歸功於

  • rampant use of Pervitin.

    普維汀的猖獗使用。

  • The drug helped German soldiers march for hours past their breaking point, allowing

    這種藥物幫助德國阿兵哥行軍數小時,超過了他們的極限,使他們能夠...

  • them to capture huge amounts of territory relatively quickly.

    他們可以比較迅速地佔領大量的領土。

  • Historical accounts from early battles in Belgium described crazed German soldiers fearlessly

    早期比利時戰役的史料記載,瘋狂的德國阿兵哥無所畏懼地

  • charging directly towards machine gun nests, seemingly unaware of the hail of automatic

    直接向機槍巢穴衝去,似乎不知道自動步槍的呼嘯聲。

  • gun fire raining down on them.

    炮火雨點般地砸向他們。

  • This behavior understandably frightened the Belgian defenders, and it may have led to

    這種行為可以理解,這讓比利時的後衛們感到害怕,這可能會導致

  • the widespread rumor that Germany had created unbeatable super-soldiers.

    廣泛流傳的德國創造了無敵的超級阿兵哥。

  • Even as these harder drugs entered the fray, they didn't fully replace the more natural

    即使這些更難的藥物進入戰場,它們也沒有完全取代更自然的藥物

  • substances of past centuries.

    過去幾個世紀的物質。

  • The Soviets were rumored to have been on magic mushrooms during the battle of Székesfehérvár

    傳聞蘇軍在Székesfehérvár戰役中一直在吃魔法蘑菇。

  • in 1945, where they performed fearlessly and succeeded in capturing the city from the well-entrenched

    1945年,他們在那裡無所畏懼地執行任務,併成功地從根深蒂固的軍隊手中奪取了這座城市。

  • and much better equipped Nazis.

    和裝備更好的納粹。

  • Authorized drug use by American soldiers continued into the Korean War from 1950 to 1953 and

    1950年至1953年朝鮮戰爭期間,美軍阿兵哥獲准使用毒品的情況一直持續到1953年。

  • the Vietnam War from 1955 to 1973, though it was now combined with rampant non-sanctioned

    1955年至1973年的越南戰爭,儘管它現在與猖獗的未經準許的越戰相結合。

  • drug use.

    吸毒;

  • Speed continued to be the approved drug of choice, but now soldiers gained access to

    "飛毛腿 "仍然是被準許的首選藥物,但現在阿兵哥們可以獲得 "飛毛腿"。

  • illicit drugs like heroin.

    海洛因等非法藥物;

  • Desperate soldiers would combine these two powerful drugs to create their own homemade

    鋌而走險的阿兵哥會把這兩種強效藥物結合起來,製造出他們自己的自制藥物。

  • injectable speed balls.

    注射式速度球。

  • This potent combination creates a push-pull effect, both boosting energy and helping them

    這種強效的組合產生了推拉效應,既能提升能量,又能幫助它們

  • relax.

    放鬆。

  • The high from these speed balls was stronger and more long-lasting than the high they could

    這些速度球帶來的高漲比他們能帶來的高漲更強更持久。

  • get from using either drug on its own, and it helped the soldiers to deal with the brutal

    它可以幫助阿兵哥們應對殘酷的挑戰

  • conditions of war, as well as cope with the horrible atrocities that they witnessed - and

    以及應對他們所目睹的可怕的暴行------------------------------------------。

  • even committed - during these wars.

    甚至在這些戰爭中犯下。

  • Drug use during the Vietnam war reached epidemic levels - according to the Pentagon, by the

    越戰期間的毒品使用達到了流行的程度--根據五角大樓的說法,到了越戰期間,毒品使用達到了流行的程度。

  • time the U.S. withdrew from the war in 1973, some 70 percent of all American soldiers in

    1973年美國退出戰爭的時候,大約70%的美國士兵都在這裡。

  • Vietnam had taken drugs.

    越南曾吸食毒品。

  • Shockingly, the authorized use of drugs by soldiers in combat continues around the world

    令人震驚的是,世界各地仍有阿兵哥在戰鬥中獲准使用藥物的情況。

  • to this day.

    直到今天。

  • Modern-day terrorists have no qualms about using drugs to motivate their fighters and

    現代恐怖分子對使用毒品來激勵他們的戰鬥人員和

  • achieve their heinous missions.

    實現其令人髮指的任務。

  • The terrorist group ISIS promotes the use of hashish and opioid painkillers within their

    恐怖組織 "伊斯蘭國 "在其內部推廣使用大麻和類鴉片止痛劑。

  • ranks, and they are also well known for the pervasive use of the drug Captagon, a powerful

    隊伍,而且他們還因普遍使用藥物Captagon而聞名,這是一種強大的藥物。

  • stimulant that metabolizes in the body to form amphetamine.

    興奮劑,在體內代謝形成苯丙胺。

  • This drug increases alertness, numbs fear, and induces a sense of courage and bravado,

    這種藥物能提高警覺性,麻痺恐懼感,誘發勇氣和豪邁感。

  • and so it is incredibly popular with Jihadists undertaking suicide missions.

    是以,它是令人難以置信的聖戰者進行自殺任務的流行。

  • The drug is also reported to increase strength, and there have been reports of fighters taking

    據報道,這種藥物還可以增加力量,有報道稱,有戰士服用了這種藥物。

  • so much of the drug that, even after being shot multiple times, they refuse to drop and

    這麼多的藥物,即使被槍殺多次,他們拒絕下降和

  • continue to fight through their injuries.

    繼續帶傷作戰。

  • Even smaller terrorist organizations have capitalized on the power of drugs to create

    即使是規模較小的恐怖組織,也利用毒品的力量製造了

  • seemingly invincible soldiers.

    看似無敵的阿兵哥。

  • In his book A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier, Ishmael Beah describes his horrendous

    在他的《遠去的路:一個男孩阿兵哥的回憶錄》一書中,Ishmael Beah描述了他的可怕經歷。

  • experience as a child soldier in Sierra Leone and the rampant use of drugs to control and

    作為塞拉利昂兒童兵的經歷,以及為控制和控制毒品而猖獗使用毒品的情況。

  • manipulate child soldiers in these loosely organized armies.

    在這些組織鬆散的軍隊中操縱兒童兵。

  • According to Beah, commanders would strategically keep their child soldiers high on what they

    根據比亞的說法,指揮官會有策略地讓他們的兒童兵高枕無憂。

  • calledbrown-browns” - a potent and highly addictive combination of cocaine and gunpowder.

    被稱為 "棕色布朗"--一種可卡因和火藥的強效和高度上癮的組合。

  • Gunpowder contains nitroglycerin, which helps the cocaine to spread more quickly through

    火藥中含有硝化甘油,有助於可卡因更快地在體內擴散。

  • the bloodstream and delivers a faster, more intense high.

    血液,並提供更快,更強烈的高。

  • Once these child soldiers were high on brown-browns, they would essentially be immune to fear and

    一旦這些童子軍嗑了棕褐色的藥,他們基本上就會對恐懼和。

  • would have little to no conscience.

    會幾乎沒有良心。

  • Their commanders would take advantage of this altered state and force the children to commit

    他們的指揮官會利用這種狀態的改變,迫使孩子們犯下了

  • terrible atrocities while they were high.

    在他們高高在上的時候,可怕的暴行。

  • The knowledge and shame that they had done such horrible things while high, combined

    他們在高處時做了如此可怕的事情,知道並感到羞恥,再加上

  • with a heavy dependence on the addictive drugs, kept the child soldiers loyal, obedient, and

    對成癮性藥物有嚴重的依賴性,使童兵們忠心耿耿,聽話,並。

  • easy to control.

    容易控制。

  • And it's not just the so-calledBad Guysstill feeding drugs to their soldiers in the

    不僅僅是所謂的 "壞蛋 "還在給他們的阿兵哥餵食毒品

  • present day.

    今。

  • As long as all procedures are followed to a T, the U.S. military still issues amphetamines

    只要所有的程序都按T字形進行,美軍還是會發放安非他命的

  • to pilots assigned to 8-plus hour long flight missions.

    給被指派執行8小時以上飛行任務的飛行員。

  • These Dexedrine pills, known asGo Pills”, promote wakefulness and keep pilots alert

    這些被稱為 "Go Pills "的Dexedrine藥丸能促進清醒,讓飛行員保持警惕。

  • on long endurance missions.

    長時間的耐久任務。

  • To help soldiers calm down after battle - and to combat the energy boosting effects of the

    幫助阿兵哥們在戰鬥後冷靜下來--並對抗能量提升效果。

  • Dexedrine pills - the U.S. military also issues what they callNo-Go Pills” - or sleeping

    地塞德林丸--美國軍方也會發放他們所謂的 "禁藥"--或者說安眠藥。

  • pills - to help soldiers recover and be ready for their next mission.

    藥片--幫助阿兵哥恢復併為下一次任務做好準備。

  • Other countries are following suit - in the UK, France and India, the drug Modafinil has

    其他國家也紛紛效仿--在英國、法國和印度,藥物莫達菲尼已。

  • recently replaced amphetamines for use in endurance missions and to combat sleep deprivation

    最近取代安非他明,用於耐力任務和防治睡眠不足

  • among pilots and other members of the military.

    飛行員和其他軍人中。

  • The history of warfare and the history of drug use are inextricably linked, and with

    戰爭史和吸毒史有著千絲萬縷的聯繫,隨著

  • modern militaries continuing to use substances to alter their soldiers and enhance their

    現代軍隊繼續使用藥物來改變其阿兵哥的身體狀況,並加強他們的能力。

  • performance, this is a trend that shows no signs of slowing down.

    業績,這是一個沒有放緩跡象的趨勢。

  • It will certainly be fascinating to see what kind of insane drugs soldiers are fed to win

    看看阿兵哥們為了打勝仗被餵了什麼瘋狂的藥,肯定會很有趣的

  • wars in the years to come.

    在未來幾年的戰爭中。

  • If you thought this video was fascinating, be sure and check out our other videos, like

    如果你覺得這段視頻很吸引人,請務必查看我們的其他視頻,如

  • this one calledWhat Does Heroin Do To Your Body?”, or perhaps you'll like this

    這個叫 "海洛因對你的身體有什麼影響?",或者你會喜歡這個。

  • other video instead.

    其他視頻代替。

  • As always, thanks for watching, and don't forget to like, share and subscribe!

    一如既往,感謝您的觀看,別忘了點贊、分享和訂閱!

  • See you next time!

    下次見!

A shot of liquid courage, a shared moment of bonding and escapism, even drugged up zombie

一針液態的勇氣,共度了一段磨合和逃避的時光,甚至是吸毒的殭屍

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 阿兵哥 藥物 戰爭 毒品 戰士 使用

為了打贏戰爭,給阿兵哥服用瘋狂的藥物。 (Insane Drugs Given to Soldiers to Win Wars)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 17 日
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