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  • The Katy Freeway in Texas connects Houston's western suburbs with the city's downtown.

    德州的凱蒂高速公路連接了休斯頓西部郊區和市區。

  • At its widest point, right here, it spans 26 lanes including parallel roads, before

    在最寬的地方,就在這裡,它橫跨26條車道,包括平行道路,然後是

  • it intersects with another freeway, creating this massive web of pavement. The Katy Freeway

    它與另一條高速公路相交,形成了這個巨大的人行道網。凱蒂高速公路

  • is among the widest in the world. But it didn't start out this big. The freeway was initially

    是世界上最寬闊的地方之一。但它一開始並沒有這麼大。這條高速公路最初是

  • built in the 1960's with 6 lanes in most places. But as the suburbs and office space

    建於上世紀60年代,大部分地方都是6車道。但隨著郊區和辦公場所的

  • around Houston started growing in the 1980' s and 90's and more people began using the

    休斯敦周圍在20世紀80年代和90年代開始增長,越來越多的人開始使用。

  • freewayit became a traffic nightmare. By 2004, it was ranked the second worst bottleneck

    高速公路--它成了交通噩夢。到2004年,它被列為第二大瓶頸。

  • in the country. To accommodate the growing commuter class, the city began a nearly 3

    在全國。為了適應日益增長的通勤階層,該市開始了近3。

  • billion dollar expansion project, to add the additional lanes. The solution seems natural

    億美元的擴建項目,以增加額外的車道。這個解決方案似乎很自然

  • more lanes equals less congestion. But traffic didn't get any better. In fact,

    - 更多的車道等於更少的擁堵。但交通並沒有得到任何改善。事實上。

  • it got worse, in both the morning and afternoon commutes.

    它變得更糟,在上午和下午的通勤時間。

  • The reason why hinges on a simple economic theory. One that is often overlooked, because

    原因就在於一個簡單的經濟理論。一個經常被忽視的理論,因為

  • actually reducing traffic is far from simple. Highway expansion has gone hand in hand with

    其實減少交通量遠非如此簡單。高速公路的擴建與

  • the suburbanization of American cities like Houston. It becomes a self-fulfilling recipe

    休斯頓等美國城市的郊區化。它成為一個自我實現的配方

  • for urban sprawl: a highway gets built to connect suburbs to a city center, which encourages

    為城市的擴張:修建一條高速公路,將郊區與市中心連接起來,從而鼓勵了

  • more development along it, which necessitates even more highways when those get congested

    擁擠的時候,就需要更多的公路。

  • and on and on and on. The instinct to widen

    - 並不斷的擴大。擴大的本能

  • highways to relieve traffic makes sensebut there's a reason it doesn't work: due

    緩解交通的高速公路是有意義的,但有一個原因,它不工作:由於。

  • to a concept calledinduced demand.” These represent 3 highway lanes. And these

    到一個叫做 "誘導需求 "的概念。這些代表了3條高速公路的車道。而這些

  • balls are the commuters that drive on them. These particular commutersthe red ones

    蛋蛋是在上面行駛的乘客。這些特殊的乘客--紅色的

  • will sit in traffic no matter how bad it gets, because they have to. Driving to

    - 無論情況有多糟糕,都會坐在車流中,因為他們必須這樣做。開車去

  • work on the highway is their only option. Let's say this is what congestion looks

    在高速公路上工作是他們唯一的選擇。讓我們說這是什麼擁堵的樣子。

  • like, during peak rush hours. Once a certain number of cars get on the highway, traffic

    像,在高峰期的高峰期。一旦有一定數量的汽車上了高速公路,交通

  • slows to a crawl. Now let's add a new lane. These drivers now have more room to spread

    緩慢的爬行。現在讓我們增加一條新的車道。這些司機現在有更多的空間來傳播

  • outwhich should make traffic flow better. That might happen at first, but it doesn't

    出--這應該會使交通流變得更好。一開始可能會出現這種情況,但它不會

  • stay that way. That's because there's another set of

    保持這樣的狀態。那是因為有另一套的原因

  • people who will take the highway under the right conditionseven though they have

    人們會在適當的條件下走高速公路--即使他們有。

  • other commuting options. When a highway is congested, they might take

    其他通勤選擇。當高速路擁堵時,他們可能會採取以下措施

  • local roads instead. Or be able to drive during off-peak hours. They might use other modes

    在地道路代替。或者能夠在非高峰期開車。他們可能會使用其他方式

  • of transportation, like public transit or biking.

    的交通工具,如公共交通或自行車。

  • Or maybe they can work from home that day and skip the commute altogether. In a few

    或者他們當天可以在家工作,完全跳過通勤時間。在一些

  • years, these people will start taking the highway, enticed by less congestion. This

    年,這些人將在減少擁堵的誘惑下,開始走高速路。這

  • is induced demand at play: the more supply there is, the more demand will follow, to

    是誘導需求在起作用:供給越多,需求就會越多,以。

  • exhaustion. And in this case, the supply is highway lanes. And sometimes, like on the

    疲憊不堪。而在這種情況下,供給的是高速公路車道。而有時,像在

  • Katy freeway, congestion gets even worse after a highway expansion, until some of those people

    凱蒂高速公路,高速公路擴建後,擁堵情況會更加嚴重,直到有些人

  • with more options go back to their old ways. But in the end, you're still left with more

    有了更多的選擇就會重走老路。但到最後,你還是會剩下更多的。

  • drivers, and congestion that's at least as bad as it was before. When our transportation

    司機,以及至少和以前一樣嚴重的擁堵。當我們的交通

  • system is so reliant on highways and private automobiles, there's almost no way around

    體系對公路和私家車的依賴性太強了,幾乎沒有任何辦法。

  • it because that's the system that we've created. This is Kyle Shelton, an urbanist based in

    因為這就是我們創造的系統。這是凱爾-謝爾頓,一個城市學家,位於

  • Houston. The endless reduction of congestionshould that be...the driving, honestly the

    休斯頓。無休止地減少擁堵......應該是......開車的人,說實話。

  • driving policy question for a lot of our transportation funding? Big expensive highway infrastructure

    驅動政策問題,我們的很多交通資金?大的昂貴的高速公路基礎設施

  • projects are still the prevailing band-aid to congestion in the US. The transit advocacy

    項目仍然是美國解決交通擁堵的主流Ok繃。交通倡導

  • group Transportation for America found that between 1993 and 2017, the US added over 30,000

    團體 "美國交通 "發現,1993年至2017年,美國增加了超過3萬個。

  • miles of new freeway lanes in 100 metro areas. Building more highways may provide some short-term

    100個大都會區新建高速公路車道的里程。建設更多的高速公路可能會提供一些短期的

  • relief. And it's easier than most infrastructure projects to get federal funding to do a highway

    緩解。而且比大多數基礎設施項目更容易獲得聯邦資金,做一條高速公路。

  • expansion. But if we want less traffic and fewer drivers, giving flexible commuters better

    擴張。但是,如果我們想減少交通和司機,給靈活的通勤者更好的服務。

  • choices is a good place to start. Like by improving public transit by adding more and

    選擇是一個好的開始。比如改善公共交通,增加更多和

  • better bus routes or trains. That alone might not be a silver bullet for congestion relief,

    更好的公交線路或火車。單單是這一點,可能並不是緩解擁堵的靈丹妙藥。

  • for the same reason that adding another lane isn't: new drivers will take the place of

    同樣的原因,增加另一條車道不是:新的司機將取代

  • transit commuters on the highway. And for many people living off highways in sprawling

    高速公路上的過境通勤者。而對於很多生活在高速公路外的人來說,在龐大的

  • US cities, public transit may never be an adequate solution.

    美國的城市,公共交通可能永遠不是一個充分的解決方案。

  • 'Cause it's not just about the infrastructure. It's also about individual behaviors. It's

    因為這不僅僅是基礎設施的問題。它也是關於個人行為。它是

  • about where job opportunities are located. And most of our cities have now been constructed

    關於工作機會的位置。而我們的大部分城市現在已經建成了

  • in this way where the car is the prime mode. Another option is to enact policies that actively

    在這種以汽車為主要模式的情況下。另一種選擇是頒佈政策,積極

  • disincentivize people from using the highway. Like congestion pricing, which charges people

    抑制人們使用高速公路。就像擁堵收費一樣,向人們收取

  • who drive on highways during rush hours. Or remote work programs that deter people from

    誰在高峰時段在高速公路上開車。或遠程工作計劃,阻止人們從

  • traveling during the highest traffic timesor make it so they don't have to commute

    在交通最繁忙的時候出行--或者讓他們不必在交通高峰期上下班。

  • at all. And in the long-term, better land use policies can help as well, like by building

    根本不可能。而從長遠來看,更好的土地使用政策也能起到幫助作用,比如通過建設。

  • communities that put people closer to where they need to go. And if building more highways

    社區,使人們更接近他們需要去的地方。如果修建更多的高速公路

  • results in more drivers and congestion, then removing them could have the opposite effect.

    導致更多的司機和擁堵,那麼取消它們可能會產生相反的效果。

  • For example, the city of Boston removed a freeway in its city center in the 1990s, and

    例如,波士頓市在20世紀90年代拆除了市中心的一條高速公路,並。

  • replaced it with a boulevard with biking and bus lanes and more space to walk. It reduced

    取而代之的是一條有自行車和公車道的林蔭道,有更多的步行空間。它減少了

  • congestion by 62%. And now the Democratically controlled Senate is considering nearly $10

    擁堵的62%。而現在,民主黨控制的參議院正在考慮近10美元的。

  • billion in funding for similar highway-removal projects in other cities. What we build and

    億的資金用於其他城市類似的高速公路拆除項目。我們的建設和

  • invest in in the world of transportation truly changes our behavior.

    在交通領域的投資真正改變了我們的行為。

  • If building more roads makes us drive on them more. Then giving people better choices by

    如果修建更多的道路能讓我們更多的開車上路。那麼通過以下方式給人們更好的選擇

  • investing in the right things, will make us drive less. Because, if we build it, they

    在正確的事情上投資,會讓我們少開車。因為,如果我們建立它,他們

  • will come.

    會來的。

The Katy Freeway in Texas connects Houston's western suburbs with the city's downtown.

德州的凱蒂高速公路連接了休斯頓西部郊區和市區。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 高速 公路 交通 司機 減少

高速公路如何讓交通更糟糕 (How highways make traffic worse)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 12 日
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