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  • As the COVID-19 vaccines roll out around the world, there is plenty of discussion about what is IN these vaccines.

    隨著COVID-19疫苗在全球範圍內的推廣,人們對這些疫苗中的內容進行了大量的討論。

  • These are the ingredient lists for both the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.

    這些是輝瑞/生物技術和Moderna疫苗的成分表。

  • Some of these may be really unfamiliar, or familiar in a confusing waylike...sugar?

    其中有些可能真的很陌生,或者熟悉中帶著迷茫,比如......糖?

  • So, let's go one by one and see why they're all in there.

    那麼,讓我們一個個去看看他們為什麼都在裡面。

  • And don't worry, none of them are microchips.

    而且不用擔心,他們都不是微芯片。

  • The key, active ingredient in both Moderna's and Pfizer's vaccine is messenger RNA, what we call mRNA.

    Moderna和輝瑞的疫苗中的關鍵、活性成分都是信使RNA,也就是我們所說的mRNA。

  • mRNA is a molecule containing the genetic code that tells your cells how to make ONE kind of protein.

    mRNA是一個包含遺傳密碼的分子,它告訴你的細胞如何製造一種蛋白質。

  • That's the spike protein on the surface of the virus.

    那是病毒表面的尖峰蛋白。

  • Your cells read those instructions and then make that spike proteinwhich can't infect you on its own

    你的細胞讀取這些指令,然後製造那個尖峰蛋白--它本身不能感染你--。

  • and your immune system learns how to recognize it.

    你的免疫系統就會學會如何識別它。

  • You start to build an army of antibodies, those are immune proteins that bind to the REAL virus

    你開始建立一個抗體的軍隊,那些是免疫蛋白,與真正的病毒結合。

  • and clear it away if you get infected.

    並在感染時將其清除。

  • Then, after a while, your cells get rid of that mRNA, that genetic material, but your body remembers how to defend itself.

    然後,過了一段時間,你的細胞擺脫了mRNA,遺傳物質,但你的身體記得如何保護自己。

  • It's like showing the picture of a bad guy around town so everyone knows who to look out for if they ever show up.

    這就像在鎮上展示一個壞人的照片,這樣每個人都知道如果他們出現的話,要注意誰。

  • Now, we can't just inject straight mRNA into someone's body,

    現在,我們不能直接把mRNA注射到別人的體內。

  • because your body is actually really good at chewing up and getting rid of foreign genetic material

    因為你的身體其實很善於咀嚼和清除外來的遺傳物質。

  • that's not supposed to be there.

    那是不應該存在的。

  • That's where the other vaccine ingredients come in.

    這就是其他疫苗成分的作用。

  • Both Pfizer and Moderna contain a variety of lipids.

    輝瑞和摩德納都含有多種脂質。

  • The word 'lipid' is basically just the scientific name for a fat or fat-like molecule.

    '脂質'這個詞基本上只是脂肪或類脂肪分子的學名。

  • You can even see the word cholesterol in the lipid list for both vaccines, same as the kind that's in your body naturally.

    你甚至可以在這兩種疫苗的脂質表裡看到膽固醇這個詞,和你身體裡自然存在的那種膽固醇一樣。

  • All of these lipids together form tiny little protective bubbles around the mRNA.

    所有這些脂質一起在mRNA周圍形成微小的保護泡。

  • One of the lipids sticks to the mRNA, others form the structure of the bubble

    其中一種脂質粘在mRNA上,其他脂質形成氣泡的結構

  • and help it cross your cell membrane into your cells where it can be used,

    並幫助它穿過你的細胞膜進入你的細胞,在那裡它可以被使用。

  • and other lipids keep the bubbles from clumping together.

    和其他脂質使氣泡不結塊。

  • In both of these vaccines, this whole complex is called a lipid nanoparticle, or LNP.

    在這兩種疫苗中,這整個複合物被稱為脂質納米粒子,或LNP。

  • Think of it like, if the mRNA is the letter, with all of the information, the LNP is the envelope you put the letter in

    想象一下,如果mRNA是一封信,包含了所有的資訊,那麼LNP就是你放信的信封

  • so it can reach its destination safely.

    以便它能安全到達目的地。

  • And although LNPs are currently the most advanced way of getting vaccine mRNA into a cell so it can do its job,

    而雖然LNPs是目前最先進的將疫苗mRNA送入細胞,使其發揮作用的方法。

  • these nanoparticles may potentially be what's causing allergic reactions.

    這些納米顆粒可能是潛在的 什麼是導致過敏反應。

  • Actually, just one lipid component of the nanoparticle, a form of polyethylene glycol,

    其實,只是納米粒子的一種脂質成分,一種聚乙二醇的形式。

  • called PEG for short.

    稱為PEG的簡稱。

  • PEGs are super common in everything from laxatives to cosmetics,

    PEGs在從瀉藥到化妝品中都超級常見。

  • but some people may have an immune reaction to them,

    但有些人可能對它們有免疫反應。

  • and we still don't totally know why.

    我們仍然不完全知道為什麼。

  • It may actually be that not the RNA vaccine itself, but the substances that are encapsulating it,

    其實可能不是RNA疫苗本身,而是封裝它的物質。

  • the fats and oils that are used that may actually be generating a very important immune response.

    所使用的油脂,實際上可能正在產生非常重要的免疫反應。

  • Moving on to the next category of ingredients, we've got salts!

    接下來是下一類食材,我們有鹽!

  • These help balance the pH of the whole mixture, making it the same pH as your body.

    這些有助於平衡整個混合物的pH值,使其與身體的pH值相同。

  • Salts balance pH by redistributing charges.

    鹽類通過重新分配電荷來平衡pH值。

  • A basic salt like sodium acetate helps balance out any acidity.

    像醋酸鈉這樣的基礎鹽有助於平衡任何酸度。

  • This group of chemicals in the Pfizer vaccine when taken together is known as PBS,

    輝瑞疫苗中的這組化學物質一起服用時被稱為PBS。

  • and I've actually used it in the lab myself to keep cells I'm studying alive and well and pH balanced.

    實際上我在實驗室裡也用過它來保持我所研究的細胞的活力和pH值平衡。

  • In both lists you'll see this familiar ingredient: sucrose.

    在這兩份名單中,你會看到這個熟悉的成分:蔗糖。

  • Yup, exactly the same kind as you have in your baking cupboard, but extra pure, of course.

    是的,和你的烘焙櫃裡的那種,但特別純正,當然。

  • And honestly, between the sugar and the cholesterol, these vaccines actually sound kinda tasty.

    說實話,在糖和膽固醇之間,這些疫苗其實聽起來還挺好吃的。

  • But the sucrose isn't in there because it tastes yummy...it's there to keep everything stable at really cold temperatures.

    但蔗糖並不是因為好吃才放進去的......它是為了在真正的低溫下保持一切穩定。

  • You wonder, "Why were those RNA vaccines stored at the temperature of dry ice?"

    你不禁要問:"為什麼那些RNA疫苗要在乾冰的溫度下儲存?"

  • It's because RNA has a problem with degradation. With the newer formulations, perhaps not.

    這是因為RNA有降解的問題。對於新的配方,也許不是。

  • And the way they're packaged may also protect them.

    而它們的包裝方式也可能保護它們。

  • But having worked with RNA, you know that if you do make a mistake and there's contamination,

    但處理過RNA的工作 你知道如果你犯了錯誤,有汙染的話

  • the RNA very rapidly can be turned into pieces. And you don't want that.

    核糖核酸很快就會變成碎片。而你不希望這樣

  • Sugar essentially packs in around all the proteins and lipids in the other vaccine ingredients,

    糖類基本上是圍繞著其他疫苗成分中的所有蛋白質和脂質進行包裝。

  • keeping them from losing their shape and therefore, their properties.

    使它們不至於失去形狀,從而失去其特性。

  • Think of the sugar kind of like molecular packing peanuts that protect the other stuff in the vaccine

    把糖想象成像分子包裝的花生一樣,保護疫苗中的其他東西

  • from cracking under the icy cold temperatures required by the mRNA.

    以免在mRNA所需的冰冷溫度下開裂。

  • And the cool thing about how cold these vaccines areget it, cool?!—is that they don't need any preservatives.

    而且這些疫苗的涼爽之處--明白了嗎,涼爽嗎!--就是不需要任何防腐劑。

  • Because everything is kept at such cold temperatures, nothing funky is gonna grow in these vaccine vials

    因為所有的東西都保存在這麼低的溫度下, 沒有什麼奇怪的東西會在這些疫苗瓶裡生長--

  • the only thing needed to keep them from going bad is ice.

    唯一能讓它們不變質的就是冰塊。

  • And that's all the ingredients on the list!

    這就是清單上的所有材料!

  • Pretty simple, right?

    很簡單吧?

  • When it comes to actually USING these shots,

    當談到實際使用這些鏡頭時。

  • the Pfizer vaccine needs to be mixed with saline right before it's injected, to dilute it to the correct concentration

    輝瑞的疫苗在注射前需要與生理鹽水混合,以稀釋到正確的濃度--。

  • that's just the way it's formulated.

    這只是它的方式制定。

  • The problem is, after you add the saline, the vaccine ingredients only have six hours before they start to degrade

    問題是,在你加入生理鹽水後,疫苗成分只有六個小時的時間才會開始降解----。

  • you have to use it fast.

    你必須快速使用它。

  • This is where we see how differences in ingredients can make for differences in application.

    這就是我們看到的成分的不同會造成應用的差異。

  • For example, Moderna's vaccine doesn't have to be kept QUITE as cold as Pfizer's

    例如,Moderna公司的疫苗不必像輝瑞公司的疫苗那樣低溫保存。

  • because its lipid nanoparticles are more resilient.

    因為它的脂質納米顆粒更有彈性。

  • This, and the fact that there's no dilution step, makes Moderna's a little simpler on the logistical level

    再加上沒有稀釋的步驟,使得摩德納的在物流層面上更加簡單...

  • so easier to get to more people.

    所以更容易接觸到更多的人。

  • I hope learning more about these ingredients has made you feel more comfortable and empowered

    希望瞭解更多關於這些成分的資訊,讓你感覺更舒服,更有力量。

  • during your vaccine decision-making.

    疫苗決策過程中。

  • mRNA vaccines are new in the sense that we've never used them before, but the technology has been around for years,

    mRNA疫苗是一種新的疫苗,我們從來沒有使用過,但這項技術已經存在多年。

  • and lots of research has gone into making it workwe just haven't ever needed itor at least not as urgentlyuntil now.

    很多研究都是為了讓它發揮作用......我們只是從來沒有需要過它--或者至少沒有那麼迫切,直到現在。

  • And their very nature makes them hugely exciting, not only for COVID, but for tackling many other diseases in the future too.

    它們的性質使它們非常令人興奮,不僅對COVID來說是如此,對未來解決許多其他疾病也是如此。

As the COVID-19 vaccines roll out around the world, there is plenty of discussion about what is IN these vaccines.

隨著COVID-19疫苗在全球範圍內的推廣,人們對這些疫苗中的內容進行了大量的討論。

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B2 中高級 中文 疫苗 脂質 成分 輝瑞 細胞 納米

輝瑞和摩德納冠狀病毒疫苗裡到底有什麼? (What’s Actually in the Pfizer and Moderna Coronavirus Vaccines?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 10 日
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