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  • No one likes being at the DMV, but it's time to fill out that license renewal form.

    沒有人喜歡在車管所,但現在是填寫駕照更新表的時候。

  • It's mostly routine - name, address, and other information - but there's one box

    大部分是常規資訊--姓名、地址和其他資訊--但有一個框框

  • that sticks out.

    突出的。

  • It readsDo you wish to be an organ or tissue donor?”.

    上面寫著 "你想成為器官或組織的捐贈者嗎?"。

  • You've heard about organ donation of course, but you're not really sure what it entails

    你當然聽說過器官捐獻,但你並不清楚它需要什麼。

  • - and you've got to decide whether to sign up for it right now!

    - 你得決定是否現在就報名參加!

  • What actually happens when you donate your organs?

    捐獻器官後到底會發生什麼?

  • Around the world, countless people are sick because one of their organs isn't functioning

    在世界各地,無數的人生病是因為他們的一個器官不能正常工作。

  • properly.

    適當。

  • This could be due to an injury requiring the removal of an organ, an illness that causes

    這可能是由於受傷需要切除器官、疾病導致的。

  • damage to the cells in the organ, or a genetic condition that slowly degrades the function.

    器官細胞受損,或者是遺傳性疾病,功能慢慢退化。

  • In past times, there was little way to save someone with a malfunctioning necessary organ,

    在過去的時代,必要器官失靈的人幾乎沒有辦法救治。

  • although some artificial methods like dialysis were developed.

    雖然開發了一些人工方法,如透析。

  • But in the 19th century experiments began in transplanting a healthy organ from a donor

    但在19世紀,開始了從捐贈者身上移植健康器官的實驗。

  • to a new recipient.

    給新的收件人。

  • The earliest attempts at organ transplant were called autografts and involved skin - transplanting

    最早的器官移植嘗試被稱為自體移植,涉及皮膚--移植。

  • skin from a healthy area of a person's body to a damaged area on the same person.

    從一個人身體的健康部位到同一個人的受損部位的皮膚。

  • Some reports indicate this technique was created by the Indian surgeon Sushruta over 2000 years

    有報道稱,這種技術是印度外科醫生Sushruta在2000多年前創造的。

  • ago, and later continued by Italian surgeon Gasparo Tagliacozzi

    後來由意大利外科醫生Gasparo Tagliacozzi繼承。

  • The science of organ donation, though, had a long way to go.

    不過,器官捐獻的科學性還有很長的路要走。

  • Experiments in transplanting parts from one person to another may have gone back much

    從一個人身上移植到另一個人身上的實驗可能要追溯到很久之前

  • further, but lacked the understanding we have today.

    進一步,但缺乏我們今天的認識。

  • Roman Catholic doctrine say Saints Damian and Cosmas managed to replace the gangrenous

    羅馬天主教教義說,聖人達米安和科斯馬斯設法取代了壞疽的

  • leg of the Roman Emperor Justinian with the leg of a dead Ethiopian man.

    羅馬皇帝查士丁尼的腿和一個死去的埃塞俄比亞人的腿。

  • If it happened, it would have been a miracle - even today most amputees are still limited

    如果它發生了,那將是一個奇蹟--即使在今天,大多數截肢者仍然是有限的。

  • to state-of-the-art prosthetics, with limb transplants still being a work in progress

    到最先進的假肢,而肢體移植仍在進行中。

  • and very rare.

    而且非常罕見。

  • Other reports say Pien Chi'ao, an early Chinese physician, performed a double heart

    其他報道稱,中國早期的醫生Pien Chi'ao進行了雙心的

  • transplant between two men to balance their spirits.

    移植到兩個人之間,以平衡他們的精神。

  • But all these reports are apocryphal and heavily doubted by modern scientists.

    但這些報道都是無稽之談,現代科學家對此深表懷疑。

  • It would be centuries later before doctors would find the trick.

    幾百年後,醫生才找到了竅門。

  • Transplant of organ or tissue to a different donor is called the allograft, and it wasn't

    將器官或組織移植到不同的供體上,稱為異體移植,而這不是

  • until 1837 when the first successful attempt was made - on a Gazelle, who had been used

  • for experiments on corneal transplants.

    用於角膜移植的實驗。

  • Once it was successful, it would be Doctor Eduard Zirm in the Czech Republic who performed

    一旦成功,就由捷克共和國的愛德華-澤爾姆博士來執行。

  • the first successful transplant of a cornea on a human.

    首次成功地將角膜移植到人類身上。

  • The next step would be transplanting of Thyroid tissue to replace an organ's function, performed

    下一步將是移植甲狀腺組織,以取代器官的功能,進行。

  • in 1883 by Doctor Theodor Kocher - twenty-two years before Zirm's breakthrough.

    1883年,由西奧多-科赫醫生提出,比Zirm的突破早了22年。

  • While this was successful, tissue was working and organs weren't - yet.

    雖然這是成功的,但組織在工作,器官還沒有--。

  • That changed in 1954.

    這種情況在1954年發生了變化。

  • Richard Herrick was a Navy man who was gravely sick with kidney failure.

    理查德-赫瑞克是一名海軍,他因腎衰竭而病入膏肓。

  • His brother Ronald was willing to do whatever was needed to save him, and Dr. Joseph Murray

    他的弟弟羅納德願意不惜一切代價來救他,而約瑟夫-穆雷博士

  • believed he could help.

    相信他能幫上忙。

  • He performed a kidney transplant, and unlike past unsuccessful cases where recipients lived

    他進行了腎臟移植手術,與以往不成功的案例不同,受術者活了

  • less than a month, Richard lived another eight years!

    不到一個月,理查德又活了8年!

  • Dr. Joseph Murray received the Nobel Prize, but there was one key to this surgery that

    約瑟夫-默裡博士獲得了諾貝爾獎,但這個手術有一個關鍵,那就是

  • wouldn't be easy to duplicate.

    就不容易複製了。

  • The Herrick brothers were identical twins and had identical genetics, meaning the kidney

    赫瑞克兄弟是同卵雙胞胎,基因相同,也就是說,腎臟的

  • transplant was essentially an autograft.

    移植本質上是一種自體移植。

  • But not everyone has an identical twin to be their perfect donor.

    但並不是每個人都有同卵雙胞胎作為自己的完美捐贈者。

  • So what's the trick to making organ donation work?

    那麼,讓器官捐獻成功的訣竅是什麼呢?

  • Preventing rejection.

    防止被拒絕。

  • Our bodies are complex, and two key elements have to match for an organ to be a suitable

    我們的身體是複雜的,一個器官要想成為一個合適的器官,必須要有兩個關鍵的要素相匹配。

  • match for a person.

    匹配的人。

  • The first is blood type, and there are four blood types - each with different compatibility

    首先是血型,有四種血型--每種血型的兼容性不同

  • for donation.

    捐贈。

  • While type O blood is considered the universal donor and is the most common, type A, B, and

    雖然O型血被認為是通用的捐獻者,也是最常見的,但A型、B型和C型血也是最常見的。

  • AB are progressively more limited in who they can donate to.

    AB公司能捐助的對象逐漸受到限制。

  • Then it's on to HLA typing, to make sure the proteins, or antigens, in the body cells

    然後再進行HLA分型,以確保人體細胞中的蛋白質,或抗原。

  • won't conflict.

    不會衝突。

  • If the antigens are different, the body can make antibodies against their new organ and

    如果抗原不同,機體可以針對其新的器官產生抗體,並。

  • reject it.

    拒絕它。

  • That's where the wonder of modern medicine comes in.

    這就是現代醫學的神奇之處。

  • While perfect matches on HLA type are rare, medicine is available to keep the body from

    雖然HLA類型完美匹配的情況非常罕見,但目前已有藥物可以讓身體免受

  • creating these antibodies.

    創造這些抗體。

  • These anti-rejection medications are prescribed to people after almost all transplants, and

    這些抗排斥藥物幾乎在所有的移植手術後都會給人們開出,而且。

  • most people wind up taking these drugs as long as they have their transplanted organ

    大多數人只要有移植器官就會服用這些藥物。

  • - so ideally, their whole life.

    - 所以理想中,他們的一生。

  • Medical science marched on, and with the development of anti-rejection drugs, it became possible

    醫學科學在前進,隨著抗排斥藥物的發展,成為可能。

  • to transplant many organs that people couldn't live without.

    來移植許多人們不能沒有的器官。

  • So what organs are transplanted today?

    那麼,如今移植的器官有哪些呢?

  • Besides corneas and kidneys, which started it all, today heart, lung, and liver transplants

    除了開始的角膜和腎臟之外,今天的心肺肝移植手術也是如此

  • are common.

    是常見的。

  • Pancreas and intestine transplants are less common but possible, and tissue transplants

    胰腺和腸道移植較少見,但也有可能,組織移植

  • of skin, bone marrow, and blood are almost routine.

    皮膚、骨髓和血液的幾乎是常規。

  • Experiments in transplanting hands and arms have been performed, but preventing rejection

    移植手和手臂的實驗已經進行,但防止排斥現象的發生

  • is far trickier and many have failed after a period of time.

    是遠為棘手的,很多人在一段時間後都失敗了。

  • There are even experiments in transplanting a uterus so that a woman who has had a hysterectomy

    甚至還有移植子宮的實驗,所以做了子宮切除手術的女性。

  • can carry children.

    可以帶孩子。

  • The most stunning recent advancement in transplant science, though, is also the most visible.

    不過,移植科學最近最驚人的進展,也是最引人注目的。

  • In the last twenty years, scientists have successfully managed to transplant whole faces!

    在過去的二十年裡,科學家們已經成功地將整張臉移植到了這裡!

  • When dealing with patients who have been seriously disfigured from gunshots, industrial accidents,

    在處理因槍擊、工業事故而嚴重毀容的病人時。

  • fires, or animal attacks, they take the facial tissue from a donor and place it on the surgically

    火災或動物襲擊,他們從捐贈者那裡提取面部組織,並將其放置在手術後的面部。

  • prepped facial surface of the disfigured recipient.

    預備毀容受術者的面部。

  • After transplant, the face eventually shifts to the skeletal structure of the donor, so

    移植後,臉部最終會轉移到供體的骨骼結構上,所以。

  • they don't look exactly like they did before - but not like the donor either.

    他們看起來不像以前那樣--但也不像捐贈者。

  • This surgery requires vigilance with anti-rejection medication, but was successfully performed

    這種手術需要警惕,使用抗排斥藥物,但成功地進行了手術

  • first as a partial face transplant on a woman who lost all the skin on her lower face in

    第一次是在一位失去下半臉所有皮膚的婦女身上進行部分面部移植。

  • a dog attack.

    狗攻擊。

  • This led to full face transplants being performed around the world.

    由此,全世界都在進行全臉移植手術。

  • But in almost all these cases, the donors had one thing in common.

    但幾乎在所有這些案例中,捐助者都有一個共同點。

  • They were all dead.

    他們都死了。

  • The most common type of organ donation today is from a cadaver to a living donor, and this

    目前最常見的器官捐獻方式是由屍體向活體捐獻,這種

  • is what you're being asked when you sign on that dotted line.

    就是你在虛線上簽字時被問到的問題。

  • You're agreeing that should you meet an untimely end, your organs will be harvested

    你同意如果你過早地死去 你的器官會被摘取下來

  • from your body before you're buried or cremated.

    在你下葬或火化之前,從你的身體。

  • Those will then be given to people who need them, letting you live on beyond your body.

    這些就會交給需要的人,讓你在身體之外繼續活下去。

  • There's no real downside - you don't need them anymore, right?

    沒有真正的缺點--你不需要它們了,對嗎?

  • So why wouldn't everyone sign up?

    那為什麼大家不報名呢?

  • Well, some object because of religious rules, and others worry that the doctors wouldn't

    好吧,有些人因為宗教規則而反對,有些人則擔心醫生不願意

  • work as hard to save them in the hospital if they saw that their organs would be harvested.

    如果他們看到自己的器官會被摘取,就會努力在醫院裡救治他們。

  • But there is no evidence of that, and doctors say that the more people who sign up as organ

    但沒有證據表明,醫生說,報名成為器官的人越多。

  • donors, the better.

    捐助者越多越好。

  • So what happens when an organ becomes available?

    那麼,如果有了器官,會怎麼樣呢?

  • Organ donors whose organs can be used are usually in good health, with their organs

    可以使用器官的器官捐獻者通常身體健康,其器官的

  • functioning well.

    運作良好。

  • But anything can happen, and a piano can fall on the head of anyone at any time.

    但任何事情都有可能發生,一架鋼琴隨時可能落在任何人的頭上。

  • If a person is dead or brain dead and they're an organ donor, the hospital springs into

    如果一個人已經死亡或腦死亡,他們是一個器官捐贈者,醫院就會跳出來。

  • action to keep the organs in good condition until the time.

    動,使器官保持良好的狀態,直到時。

  • If someone is still clinically alive, they may be kept on life support longer than usual

    如果一個人在臨床上仍然活著,他們可能會比平常更長時間地保持生命支持。

  • to keep their organs healthy.

    以保持其器官健康。

  • If they didn't have a directive either way on whether they're an organ donor, the doctors

    如果他們對自己是否是器官捐獻者沒有任何訓示,醫生就會

  • will often ask the grieving family if they would be willing to sign the papers - but

    往往會問悲傷的家人是否願意簽署文件 - 但

  • it is always up to the person or their family.

    始終取決於當事人或其家人。

  • From there, the organs will go to the next person on the organ donation list.

    從此,器官將被送到下一個器官捐贈名單上的人手中。

  • Wait, there's a list?

    等等,還有一個名單?

  • In the United States, the United Network for Organ Sharing oversees the transplant system

    在美國,"器官共享聯合網絡 "負責監督移植系統。

  • for most cases, keeping a registry of everyone who is in need for an organ.

    在大多數情況下,為每個需要器官的人保留一個登記冊。

  • When an organ comes in, they filter it by compatibility, size, and geography to give

    當一個器官被送來時,他們會根據兼容性、大小和地理環境進行篩選,從而給出了

  • the transplant the best chance for success.

    移植成功的最佳機會。

  • Each person's place on the list is determined by their medical urgency, their waiting time,

    每個人在名單上的位置是由他們的醫療緊急程度、等待時間決定的。

  • and their age - with younger recipients being higher on the list.

    以及他們的年齡----年輕的受助者在名單上的排名較高。

  • The things that don't play a role?

    不起作用的東西?

  • Income, insurance status, or celebrity status.

    收入、保險狀況或名人身份。

  • If you wind up on the organ donation list, it doesn't matter who you are - the factors

    如果你被列入器官捐獻名單,不管你是誰---------------------------------------因素

  • are always the same, and you can't buy your way into a higher slot ahead of someone who

    始終是一樣的,你不能買到你的方式進入一個更高的插槽前面的人誰

  • needs it.

    需要它。

  • And when the time comes, the organ donation team moves fast.

    而當時間到了,器官捐獻團隊的動作也很快。

  • A patient comes in and can't be saved.

    一個病人來了,救不了。

  • They are assessed for organ health and matched to a recipient.

    他們將接受器官健康評估,並與受體匹配。

  • The organs are harvested and chilled until use, but the clock is ticking.

    器官採摘後,冰鎮後再使用,但時間在流逝。

  • Doctors will try to find a match as close as possible, but if a high-priority recipient

    醫生會盡量尋找匹配的對象,但如果是高優先級的受術者。

  • is far away, they will transport that organ via courier with the highest priority.

    遠,他們會通過快遞將該器官以最優先的方式運輸。

  • The goal is to get it to the hospital for transplant while it's still fresh and keep

    我們的目標是趁著它還新鮮,把它送到醫院去移植,並保持

  • it from getting damaged - although, despite what a TV show once showed, there are no reports

    雖然,儘管一個電視節目曾經展示過,但並沒有報道說,它被損壞了

  • of transplant hearts getting eaten by dogs along the way.

    的移植心臟被狗沿途吃掉。

  • The problem is, there are a lot more people in need of organs than there are organs available,

    問題是,需要器官的人比現有的器官多得多。

  • especially for those with rarer blood types.

    特別是對於那些血型比較罕見的人來說。

  • That's why there's another way.

    所以才會有另一種方式。

  • If you sign up to be an organ donor, the only time this will be relevant is if you're

    如果你報名成為器官捐獻者,只有在以下情況下才有意義

  • dead or almost dead.

    死了或幾乎死了。

  • But since the first living donor transplant between the Herricks, living donor transplants

    但自從Herricks夫婦進行了第一例活體捐獻移植後,活體捐獻移植就開始了

  • have become more common, especially for rare blood types who could be waiting a long time.

    已經變得越來越普遍,特別是對於罕見的血型,可能要等很久。

  • Approximately one in three donors of kidneys is now still living, and it's common for

    現在大約每三個腎臟捐贈者中就有一個還活著,常見的是

  • them to be from family or close friends of the person who needs a kidney.

    他們是來自需要腎臟的人的家人或親朋好友。

  • Doctors will assess the person's physical and mental health and the health of their

    醫生會對患者的身心健康和健康狀況進行評估。

  • organs, and make sure they're not under any duress.

    機關,並確保他們沒有受到任何脅迫。

  • But what happens if someone doesn't have anyone they know willing to donate a kidney?

    但是,如果有人沒有認識的人願意捐腎,怎麼辦?

  • The advance of the internet and social media have given new hope.

    互聯網和社交媒體的發展給人們帶來了新的希望。

  • People with a rare blood type have put out blasts on social media, asking for help to

    罕見血型的人在社交媒體上放出了爆料,請求幫助,以

  • find a donor.

    找到一個捐贈者。

  • In 2009, Chris Strouth managed to find a kidney donor on Twitter.

    2009年,Chris Strouth在Twitter上成功找到了一位腎臟捐贈者。

  • And when there's no direct match, a new possibility has emerged - kidney chains.

    而當沒有直接匹配的時候,又出現了一種新的可能--腎鏈。

  • This is when someone gives a kidney to someone other than their loved one, in exchange for

    這是指有人將腎臟捐給親人以外的人,以換取

  • one being given by another donor to theirs.

    由另一捐贈者提供給他們的一個。

  • This can be as simple as a swap between two families, but for more complex cases, open-ended

    這可以是簡單的兩個家庭之間的交換,但對於更復雜的情況,開放式的。

  • chains have begun.

    鏈條已經開始。

  • This can develop into a long, elaborate chain connecting dozens of families and giving one

    這可能會發展成一個長長的、精心設計的鏈條,連接幾十個家庭,給一個

  • person in each a new lease on life.

    人在每個人身上都有新的生命。

  • So what's donating a kidney like for the donor?

    那麼對於捐腎者來說,捐腎是怎樣的呢?

  • Donating a kidney is a serious operation, but not usually one with any complications.

    捐腎是一項嚴肅的手術,但通常不會出現任何併發症。

  • While some surgeries are more invasive than others, with minimally invasive laparoscopic

    雖然有些手術的創傷性比其他手術大,但隨著微創腹腔鏡

  • surgery becoming more popular, it's common for a hospital stay for a donor to be between

    手術變得越來越流行,捐贈者住院的時間通常介於

  • four and six days.

    四天和六天。

  • Afterwards, it's mostly a matter of letting the incision heal, and heavy lifting and contact

    之後,主要是讓切口癒合,重物搬運和接觸的問題

  • sports should be avoided for about six weeks.

    約六週內應避免運動。

  • The most common risk during the surgery is serious bleeding, but it's a rare complication

    手術中最常見的風險是嚴重出血,但這是一種罕見的併發症。

  • and doctors are good at preventing damage.

    而醫生善於預防損傷。

  • After the surgery, donors can live a normal life - although they should be more careful

    手術後,捐獻者可以過上正常的生活--雖然他們應該更加小心謹慎

  • to protect themselves from injury, as they only have one kidney remaining.

    以保護自己不受傷害,因為他們只剩下一個腎臟。

  • And there is one perk of donating a kidney - if you should need a kidney donation later

    而且捐腎還有一個好處--如果你以後需要捐腎的話

  • in life, being a previous living donor bumps you up the list.

    在生活中,作為以前的活體捐獻者,你的名單就會被提升。

  • But have doctors perfected the art of living donations for any other organs?

    但醫生們是否已經完善了其他器官的活體捐獻技術?

  • Yes and no.

    是,也不是。

  • Most of our organs, we only have one or need both - like lungs.

    我們大多數的器官,我們只有一個或者需要兩個--比如肺。

  • But for liver transplants, it is possible to transplant a lobe from a living donor's

    但是對於肝臟移植來說,可以從活體供體的肝葉移植。

  • liver to someone who is dying of end-stage liver disease.

    肝臟給臨終肝病的人。

  • This was originally common for parents to give a part of their liver to save their sick

    這原本是父母捐出部分肝臟救治病人的常見做法。

  • child, who wouldn't need a full-sized adult liver.

    孩子,誰也不需要一個全尺寸的成人肝臟。

  • As this involves cutting into an organ, the risk of complications for the donor is higher

    由於這涉及到切開器官,捐贈者出現併發症的風險較高。

  • than with kidney donation, but the need for blood transfusions are still rare and most

    比捐獻腎臟的情況要好,但需要輸血的情況仍然很少,而且大部分的人都是通過輸血來實現的。

  • donors recover in two to three months.

    捐贈者在兩到三個月內恢復。

  • Sounds like living donors are usually pretty safe.

    聽起來活體捐贈者通常很安全。

  • And you only need one kidney, right?

    而且你只需要一個腎臟,對嗎?

  • Many people have asked the question - if I can save a life with a kidney and I only need

    很多人都問過這樣的問題--如果我能用腎臟救人,而我只需

  • one, can't I sell my kidney to someone in need?

    一,我不能把我的腎賣給需要的人嗎?

  • Well, that's illegal.

    嗯,這是非法的。

  • Despite a worldwide shortage of organs available for transplantation, organ donation for profit

    儘管世界範圍內可供移植的器官短缺,但以盈利為目的的器官捐獻

  • isn't allowed in any country but Iran.

    除了伊朗,任何國家都不允許。

  • While some have argued that the potential good outweighs the ethical issues, experts

    雖然有些人認為,潛在的好處大於道德問題,但專家們認為,他們的觀點是:"如果我們不這樣做,我們就不會有這樣的機會。

  • say that allowing the sale of organs would encourage corruption, lead to the poor selling

    說允許買賣器官會助長腐敗,導致窮人賣官。

  • organs to survive, and give a boost to the black market where kidneys could be harvested

    器官來生存,並推動了黑市的發展,在黑市上可以收穫腎臟

  • from trafficking victims.

    販賣人口的受害者;

  • The oversight on this is serious - while the medical costs of donors are usually paid for

    這方面的疏漏是很嚴重的--雖然捐獻者的醫療費用通常都是自費的

  • through insurance, any financial incentive such as a gift from the recipient family could

    通過保險,任何經濟激勵,如來自接受家庭的饋贈,都可以;

  • be seen as a bribe, and is grounds for the transplant to be called off by the hospital's

    被視為賄賂,是醫院叫停移植手術的理由。

  • ethics team.

    道德操守小組。

  • As of 2020, there are over a hundred thousand candidates on the waiting list for organ transplants

    截至2020年,器官移植的候選者名單上有十幾萬人。

  • in the United States alone.

    僅在美國就有。

  • The wait for a heart or liver transplant can be close to half a year, while those with

    心臟或肝臟移植手術的等待時間可能接近半年,而那些患

  • the highest priority rating on the heart transplant list can still wait over two months on average.

    心臟移植名單上優先級最高的人,平均仍可等待兩個多月。

  • So the people at UNOS are hoping everyone who qualifies checks yes on that organ donation

    所以UNOS的人希望每個符合條件的人都能在器官捐獻上打鉤

  • form - they need every organ they can get.

    形式--他們需要每一個他們能得到的器官。

  • For more on the black market organ trade, check outHow Much Is an Entire Human Body

    關於黑市器官交易的更多資訊,請查看《一具完整的人體要多少錢》。

  • Worth?”, or check out this video instead.

    值嗎?",或者看看這個視頻,而。

No one likes being at the DMV, but it's time to fill out that license renewal form.

沒有人喜歡在車管所,但現在是填寫駕照更新表的時候。

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B2 中高級 中文 移植 捐贈 手術 腎臟 血型 醫生

捐獻器官的後果是什麼? (This is What Happens When You Donate Your Organs)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 07 日
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