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  • If you come to the UK for the first time

    如果你是第一次來英國的話

  • you may be surprised that people don't speak the same

    你可能會驚訝於人們不說同樣的話。

  • as the recordings in your English language textbook

    如同您的英語課本中的錄音

  • English - like every other languageexhibits variation

    英語--就像所有其他語言一樣--表現出不同的變化

  • People speak with different accents

    人們說話的口音不同

  • If you're aware of how people speak differently

    如果你意識到人們說話的方式是不同的

  • you'll find it easier to understand a wider range of native English speakers

    你會發現它更容易理解更廣泛的英語為母語的人。

  • To help, I've made a 3-part video series

    為了幫助大家,我做了一個3部分的視頻系列。

  • exploring the phonetic diversity across the UK's four nations

    探討英國四個國家的語音多樣性。

  • England

    英國

  • Wales

    威爾士

  • Scotland

    蘇格蘭

  • and Northern Ireland

    北愛爾蘭

  • This video is about consonants

    這個視頻是關於輔音的

  • the next will be on vowels

    接下來將是元音

  • and the final video

    和最後的視頻

  • will focus on sounds characteristic of certain accents

    將專注於某些口音的聲音特徵

  • Let's get started by focusing on 5 consonant features

    我們先來關注一下5個輔音的特點吧

  • that distinguish UK accents

    辨別英國口音

  • Rhoticity deals with /r/ sounds

    Rhoticity處理/r/聲音

  • Rhotic speakers will always pronounce the letter "r" as /r/

    羅氏語系的人總是把字母 "r "念成/r/。

  • For example

    比如說

  • Here, there are four /r/ sounds

    這裡,有四個/r/的聲音

  • Non-rhotic speakers only pronounce the letter "r" as /r/

    非霍亂語者只將字母 "r "讀成/r/。

  • when there is a vowel sound afterwards

    後置元音時

  • For example:

    例如:

  • Here, there are no /r/ sounds in the second word

    在這裡,第二個詞中沒有/r/的音。

  • We find rhotic speakers

    我們發現羅生門發言人

  • (those who always pronounce the "r")

    (那些總是念 "r "的人)

  • in Scotland

    在蘇格蘭

  • Northern Ireland

    北愛爾蘭

  • and South West England

    和英格蘭西南部

  • I was born in the southern part of England

    我出生在英國南部

  • and you'll hear that my accent is non-rhotic

    你會聽到我的口音是無聲的。

  • I only pronounce the letter "r"

    我只念 "r "字

  • if there's a vowel afterwards

    後置元音

  • Most speakers in England

    英國的大多數發言者

  • and Wales

    和威爾士

  • are non-rhotic

    非無規

  • This is a map produced by the University of Cambridge in 2016

    這是劍橋大學在2016年製作的地圖。

  • Orange marks areas where there are more rhotic speakers

    橙色標誌著有較多羅生門發言者的區域。

  • Green where there are more non-rhotic speakers

    綠色,其中有更多的非流言蜚語者

  • And yellow where there is roughly an equal mix of both

    而黃色的地方,兩者的混合度大致相同。

  • It's true that we find rhotic speakers in Scotland

    蘇格蘭確實有講羅生門語的人。

  • but we also find non-rhotic speakers there too

    但我們也發現非羅生門發言者也在那裡。

  • Linguists have documented non-rhotic speakers in Scotland

    語言學家已經記錄了蘇格蘭的非羅生門語者

  • since the1970s

    七十年代以來

  • In south west England,

    在英格蘭西南部。

  • the situation has changed significantly in recent times

    近況大變

  • When a survey was conducted in the 1950s,

    上世紀50年代進行調查時。

  • this area was strongly rhotic

    該地區具有強烈的流變性

  • but nowadays there are far fewer rhotic speakers here

    但現在這裡講羅生門的人少多了

  • If you're travelling within the UK,

    如果你在英國境內旅行。

  • then expect to hear both rhotic and non-rhotic speech

    那就有望同時聽到羅音和非羅音的聲音了

  • You may have heard of Received Pronunciationor RP

    你可能聽說過 "Received Pronunciation"--或RP。

  • Different people have different definitions of what RP refers to

    不同的人對RP指的是什麼有不同的定義

  • but for many it describes an old-fashioned English accent

    但對很多人來說,它描述的是一種老式的英語口音。

  • In this video series I'm going to refer to the modern successor of RP

    在這個系列視頻中,我將提到RP的現代繼承者。

  • called Standard Southern British English

    南英英語

  • or SSBE

    或SSBE

  • I'm speaking in this accent now

    我現在說的就是這個口音

  • and you'll find lots of people with this accent

    你會發現很多人都有這種口音。

  • throughout the south of England

    遍佈英格蘭南部

  • SSBE is a non-rhotic accent

    SSBE是一種非rhotic口音。

  • In some accents, the [h] sound

    在某些口音中,[h]的音是

  • is always pronounced at the start of sentences

    在句子的開頭總是讀作""。

  • or stressed syllables

    或重音節

  • like "hair", "hear", "behind"

    如 "發"、"聽"、"背"

  • In other accents, this sound is dropped

    在其他口音中,這個音會被去掉

  • "air", "ear", "be-ind"

    "air"、"ear"、"be-ind"

  • This is known as H-Dropping

    這就是所謂的H-Dropping

  • The H sound is pronounced

    H音的發音是

  • by speakers of SSBE

    由SSBE的發言者提供

  • and people in Scotland and Northern Ireland

    蘇格蘭和北愛爾蘭的人民

  • But many speakers in England and Wales

    但在英格蘭和威爾士,許多發言者

  • drop this H sound

    掉這個H音

  • H-droppers may not be consistent in their H-dropping

    滴滴司機的H滴滴可能不一致。

  • For example, somebody may pronounce a word with H

    例如,有人可能會把一個單詞的發音讀成 H

  • and later pronounce the same word without the H

    而後將同一單詞讀成不含H的音。

  • For these speakers,

    對於這些發言者:

  • the H is variable

    庚辰

  • If you're in England or Wales

    如果您在英格蘭或威爾士

  • then expect to hear words pronounced

    然後就會聽到

  • with and without H

    有無H

  • A glottal stop is made

    喉頭停頓是由

  • when the vocal folds inside the larynx (or voice box)

    喉頭內的聲帶

  • firmly come together for a short period of time

    摶扶搖而上

  • It sounds like an abrupt pause

    聽起來像一個突然的停頓

  • For example,

    例如:

  • if I replace the [t] sound in "better"

    如果我把[t]音換成 "更好的"。

  • with a glottal stop

    喉音

  • it becomes "be[ʔ]er", "be[ʔ]er"

    變成 "be[ʔ]er","be[ʔ]er"

  • Glottal stops are often used

    喉頭停頓經常被使用

  • to replace a [t] sound at the end of a word

    替換詞尾的[t]音。

  • in many accents across England,

    在英國的許多口音中。

  • Wales

    威爾士

  • and Scotland

    和蘇格蘭

  • Even members of the royal family

    即使是皇室成員

  • use glottal stops

    喉音

  • Glottal stops are also used to replace a [t] sound between vowels

    喉停也用於替換元音之間的[t]音。

  • It's perceived negatively by some people,

    這被一些人認為是負面的。

  • but it's normal for many in England, Wales and Scotland

    但對英格蘭、威爾士和蘇格蘭的許多人來說,這很正常。

  • If you're in England, Wales or Scotland

    如果您在英格蘭、威爾士或蘇格蘭。

  • you might hear a [t] sound

    你可能會聽到[嘀]的一聲

  • being replaced by a glottal stop

    喉塞

  • There are two TH sounds in English

    英語中有兩個TH音

  • They're made with the tongue touching the teeth

    他們是用舌頭接觸牙齒做的。

  • Linguists call them "dental fricatives"

    語言學家稱之為 "牙擦音"

  • More and more speakers around the UK

    英國各地越來越多的演講者

  • pronounce these TH sounds

    發這些TH音

  • as an F or V instead

    為F或V

  • These sounds are made with the lower lip touching the upper teeth

    這些聲音是用下脣接觸上牙發出的。

  • At the start of a word,

    在一個詞的開頭。

  • [ð] is sometimes replaced by [d]

    [ð]有時用[d]代替。

  • particularly by some speakers in London

    特別是倫敦的一些發言者

  • Most speakers in the UK

    英國的大多數發言者

  • do not pronounce a [g] sound

    不發[g]音

  • in words ending NG

  • like "sing" and "song"

    如 "唱"、"歌"

  • There's still no [g] if a suffix is added

    如果加上後綴,仍然沒有[g]。

  • "singer", "songs", "singing"

    "歌手"、"歌曲"、"歌唱"

  • But in the Midlands and the North of England,

    但在英格蘭中部和北部地區。

  • some speakers will pronounce a [g]

    有些人的發音是[g]。

  • For example

    比如說

  • Speakers in different parts of the UK

    英國不同地區的演講者

  • use different consonant features

    異曲同工

  • There is nothing wrong or right about this

    這沒有錯,也沒有對

  • it's just part of normal variation within the language

    語焉不詳

  • If you're aware of this phonetic diversity,

    如果你意識到這種語音的多樣性。

  • you'll find it easier to understand native speakers

    你會發現它更容易理解母語人士的意思。

  • Expect to hear:

    期待聽到。

  • The next time you listen to a native speaker from the UK,

    下次聽英國本土人說話的時候。

  • see if you can identify some of the features listed in this video

    看看你是否能識別出這段視頻中列出的一些特徵。

  • If you're a non-native English speaker

    如果你不是英語母語者

  • and you want to improve your English pronunciation skills,

    而你想提高自己的英語發音能力。

  • then sign up for my online course

    然後報名參加我的在線課程

  • It's tailored to your native language,

    這是為您的母語量身定做的。

  • prioritises sounds that improve your intelligibility

    優先處理能提高您的理解力的聲音

  • and uses SSBE as its model

    並以SSBE為模型

  • Click the link to find out more

    點擊鏈接瞭解更多

  • Make sure you subscribe and click the notification bell

    請確保您訂閱並點擊通知鈴

  • so you know when I release my next video

    所以你知道當我發佈我的下一個視頻

If you come to the UK for the first time

如果你是第一次來英國的話

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如何理解英國口音(第一部分) (How to Understand UK Accents (Part 1))

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 31 日
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