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  • In the 1950s, a flight from London to New York was a grueling 13 hours.

    1950年代,搭一趟倫敦到紐約的飛機得煎熬13小時(道格拉斯 DC-7)

  • All the while enduring the noise and vibration of piston engines and that occasional white-knuckle

    而且還得忍受活塞發動機的噪音、震動,還有因為要飛越北大西洋

  • ride through a North Atlantic storm.

    上空的風暴而擔驚受怕

  • And then

    之後...

  • Along came jetliners.

    噴射客機來了(波音707)

  • They flew above the weather, and a flight from London to New York was cut

    噴射機可以在雲層上空不受天氣影響的飛行,而且兩地飛行時間也

  • to just seven hours.

    縮短到7小時了

  • The Jet Age revolutionized air travel.

    噴射機時代改變了航空運輸業的形態

  • But an even bigger leap forward was just around the corner.

    但是另一個更大的躍進就近在眼前

  • In the upcoming supersonic age, airliners would travel twice the speed of sound, and

    在即將來臨的超音速年代,客機可以以音速兩倍(M 2.0,2馬赫)的速度飛行

  • fly right at the edge of space.

    而且還可以在太空的邊緣飛行

  • Cutting a trip from London to New York down to just three and half hours.

    把兩地的飛行時間更進一步縮到三個半小時

  • It was supposed to be the next giant leap forward.

    它理應是下一個大躍進

  • But instead, going supersonic would end up as one of biggest missteps

    不過事實證明,超音速反倒是航空業史上

  • in commercial history.

    走錯的其中一大步

  • In 1947, a rocket-powered plane breaks through the sound barrier.

    你搭不起的飛機-協和號的故事

  • The first time in history an aircraft is recorded flying faster than the speed of sound.

    1947年,一架火箭動力的飛機突破了音障(貝爾 X-1)

  • The monumental achievement tputs to rest doubts about whether man or machine could even withstand

    也是紀錄中史上首次有飛行器飛的比音速還要快

  • supersonic flight.

    這項里程碑般的成就打消了人們對於人跟飛機到底能不能

  • And it was just the start.

    撐過超音速的疑慮

  • New speed records quickly followed as supersonic flight became widely understood.

    這才只是開始

  • And it wasn't long before military aircraft were routinely flying

    隨著超音速飛行變得更廣為人知,紀錄也陸續被打破

  • well beyond the sound barrier.

    沒多久之後軍用機就經常

  • If a commercial airliner could be built to do the same, a trip across the Atlantic could

    以超音速飛行了

  • be cut down to just a couple hours, pulling the world closer together.

    如果民航機可以做到一樣的速度的話,那樣跨大西洋航班的飛行時間

  • But flying at supersonic speeds requires engines at least twice as powerful

    就只需要幾個小時就好了,也可以讓世界各地更緊密的連在一起

  • as those on subsonic jets.

    不過以超音速飛行也需要比亞音速飛機

  • Streamlined wings and airframes, and materials that can withstand the high temperatures caused

    強最少兩倍的引擎

  • by air friction.

    流線型機翼跟機身,還有可以承受空氣摩擦而造成的

  • With these technical hurdles, there were doubts about whether supersonic

    高溫的新材料

  • air travel made any sense.

    有著這些技術難點之下,對於民航機能否超音速飛行,

  • But only a decade earlier, there was similar skepticism around the switch

    人們開始有了顧慮

  • from props to jets.

    不過在10年前左右,從螺旋槳升級到噴射機

  • Even so, the transition to jet age happened quickly and it left many aircraft builders

    的時候人們也有同樣的顧慮

  • behind.

    就算如此,轉變到噴射機時代的步伐如此之快,讓很多製造商都

  • The upcoming supersonic age could end up doing the same.

    跟不上步伐

  • In 1949, the British stunned the world with the first jet airliner.

    接下來的超音速時代也有可能得出同樣的結果

  • It flew faster and higher than any airliner before it.

    1949年,英國人造出了讓世界震撼的首款噴射客機(德哈維蘭 彗星式)

  • The Comet was revolutionary, and with it, the British were going to lead the world into

    它比之前的任何一款客機都要快要高

  • the jet age.

    而這也是革命性的,有了它,英國人就可以在

  • That is, until a design flaw caused a string of deadly accidents, temporarily grounding

    噴射機時代獨領群雄了

  • the Comet.

    直到某個設計缺陷導致一連串致命事故

  • Which gave the rest of the world time to catch up.

    導致彗星式要暫時停飛

  • By 1960, for every Comet sold, the Americans were selling another ten jetliners of their

    也讓世界其他國家開始跟上來了

  • own.

    到了1960年代,每賣出一架彗星式,美國人就已經賣出

  • And the British quickly lost their early lead in the jet age.

    了10架國產的噴射客機

  • But if supersonic air travel was the next evolution, Britain would have another chance

    而英國就這樣失去了噴射機時代的先發優勢

  • to retake the lead.

    如果超音速航空旅行這項革命性改變成真的話,英國

  • By 1961, the British had come up with an early design for a supersonic airliner.

    還是有機會再領先的

  • At the same, the French were also working on a similar concept.

    到了1961年,英國人設計出了超音速客機的早期設計

  • As both efforts advanced, it made sense to join forces.

    與此同時,法國人的概念機也差不多成型

  • And after a little creative deal-making and political maneuvering, the two countries partnered

    隨著各自的進展,他們一起搞也就很合邏輯了

  • to launch the Concorde program, signing a treaty in 1962.

    經歷一連串“交易的藝術”跟政治動作之後,英法兩國

  • Britain and France, once fierce aircraft-building rivals would now work together to reinvent

    共同在1962年簽訂啟動協和計劃

  • air travel.

    他們倆,曾經在飛機製造方面鬥個你死我活,現在居然坐下來一起

  • Thousands of the brightest French and British engineers were put to work making supersonic

    改變航空旅行了

  • air travel a reality.

    多位抱樂觀態度的英法兩國的工程師開始

  • Aside from maybe the Apollo moon landings, Concorde was the most technically ambitious

    把超音速航空旅行變成現實

  • project of the century.

    可以說除了阿波羅登月計劃之外,協和計劃算得上是20世紀在技術上

  • It would cruise at twice the speed of sound, with enough range to fly across the Atlantic.

    最有野心的計劃

  • Although it would burn more fuel, Concorde would make two flights in the same time a

    飛機可以在帶夠燃料飛行的情況下以音速兩倍的速度跨大西洋飛行

  • regular jet could make just one.

    雖然會更耗油,不過協和式可以用別人飛一趟單程的時間

  • Offsetting higher fuel costs by reducing the number of aircraft needed for each route.

    就完成一次來回了

  • By 1963, mockups were capturing the world's imagination and dazzling the press.

    以每條航線更少的飛機來抵消高昂的燃油費

  • And Airlines placed orders for more than 70 Concordes.

    1963年,這台飛機的模型已經吸引到全世界的想像力,還讓媒體感到很亮眼

  • A number expected to grow to at least 200 by 1975.

    航空公司更下訂了70架以上的協和式

  • And beneath Concorde's elegant lines was triumph of engineering.

    到了1975年更是加訂到最少200架飛機

  • It's delta wing took over 5,000 hours of wind tunnel testing to perfect.

    協和式優美的線條簡直高居工程學上的王座

  • An ingenious shape that allowed Concorde to fly beyond Mach 2, but also slow enough to

    這對三角翼是用了超過5000小時的風洞測試才調整好的

  • fly into existing airports.

    一個可以讓協和飛出音速兩倍以上的速度,但是又可以讓它

  • Afterburning turbojets were sourced from a Cold War-era bomber.

    在現有機場起降的絕頂設計

  • But they were re-engineered with an innovative intake system that allowed for cruise at supersonic

    而那四個渦輪噴射引擎是從冷戰時期的轟炸機搞來的(發展自阿芙羅 火神 的發動機-奧林匹斯593)

  • speeds for longer than aircraft in history.

    重新設計後的發動機有一個創新的進氣道系統

  • With a streamlined airframe, Concorde's sleek nose obscured the pilot's view.

    能讓協和式比歷史上任何一台航空器更能保持在超音速速度

  • The solution was a nose cone that lowered to provide better visibility during takeoff

    流線型的機身也導致了協和式的飛行員視野會被修長的機鼻擋住

  • and landing.

    而解決方案則是鼻錐可以在起降期間

  • The sheer number of innovations was astounding.

    往下降以便提供更佳視野

  • But by 1967 Concorde was ready to be unveiled to the public.

    在這架飛機上創新的東西多得讓人震驚

  • As Concorde landed, dozens of people telephoned the airport to complain about the noise.

    但到了1967年協和式對外亮相的時候

  • For those who live near the runways at Kennedy Airport claim it's just the noiset plane

    它降落的時候倒是讓很多人打電話去機場抗議飛機的噪音

  • in the world.

    對於住在肯尼迪機場(KJFK)跑道附近的居民來說,這架更是

  • Zero Zero Two didn't help with matters when it left with the loudest takeoff ever recorded

    史上最吵的飛機

  • at Tokyo Airport.

    “002號機(G-BSST)在東京國際機場(RJTT,羽田機場)起飛的時候

  • This magnificent machine is a prime producer of a sound that nobody wants.

    更是留下了當地最吵的記錄,對噪音問題更是無補於事”

  • The sonic boom.

    “這台美麗的機器是一台聲音製造器——不過是沒人想要的那種噪音”

  • So far, 7,000 people have complained.

    “也就是音爆的聲音”

  • The National Science Foundation of the United States Government has...has indicated that

    “到目前為止,有7000人抗議過(協和式的噪音)”

  • there will be severe environmental damage to the ozone layer...

    “美國國家科學基金會已經顯示出”

  • In fact they say the plane is all wrong.

    “(協和式)會對臭氧層造成嚴重的環境損害”

  • Too dare, too small, too dirty, and too noisy.

    “人們都說這飛機的存在就是個錯誤”

  • Your biggest customers have...have gone down the drain.

    “太大膽,太小,太髒,而且太吵了”

  • No they haven't gone down the drain, they...they've….

    “你的大客戶都...付之東流了”

  • The Concorde has always seemed to me to be part of particularly French patriotism….

    “沒沒沒,他們還沒流失呢,就是....”

  • If you kill it, what do you put in its place.

    “在我看來協和式計劃就是當成法國人的愛國主義的存在”

  • I do not kill it....It never lived...It never lived.

    “如果你斃掉它的話,你會用什麼頂替它”

  • There was no future for Concorde from the beginning.

    “我可沒有斃了它...這台飛機早就胎死腹中了...”

  • By the early 1970s, Concorde was facing a perfect storm.

    “從一開始協和式就沒有未來了”

  • There were even doubts about whether the plane would make it into service.

    到了1970年代,協和式的情況更是雪上加霜了

  • For one, Concorde's afterburning turbojets were twice as loud on takeoff compared to

    甚至有質疑覺得這台飛機有沒有辦法可以如期服役

  • jetliners of the day And it led to protests around the world.

    其一,它自帶後燃器的引擎在起飛的時候比當時的噴射機都要

  • And like all supersonic aircraft, Concorde generated sonic booms.

    吵兩倍,更引起了世界各地的抗議

  • Loud bangs heard by anyone under the supersonic flight path.

    而且跟所有超音速飛行器一樣,它會產生音爆

  • Public tolerance for sonic booms had clearly been underestimated because one by one, countries

    這是一種可以讓飛行路徑正下方的人都聽到的響聲

  • started banning supersonic flights over their airspace.

    公眾對於音爆的容忍程度很明顯是被低估了,因為國家們一個接著一個

  • Evidence was also mounting that Concorde could damage the environment.

    開始禁止民航機超音速飛越其領空了

  • If hundreds entered into service...regular high-altitude supersonic flights could destroy

    而且也有板上釘釘的證據顯示協和式會對環境造成影響

  • the ozone layer.

    如果真的有上百台服役的話,頻繁的高空超音速航班會把臭氧層

  • But the biggest challenge facing the program was economics.

    給毀掉

  • Concorde had been designed in the 1960s, when jet fuel was just pennies per gallon.

    不過事實上計劃面臨的最大問題是經濟問題

  • But it would enter commercial service in the mid-to-late 1970s, just as the price of oil

    在協和式誕生的1960年,那時候噴射機燃料每加侖才幾便士

  • began to skyrocket.

    不過它要在1970年代中後期才服役,剛剛好碰上

  • And Concorde burned nearly four times more fuel than even a first generation jetliner,

    油價暴漲的年代

  • while carrying fewer passengers.

    而且一台協和式要耗上比初代噴射民航機接近四倍的燃油

  • The economics made no sense.

    可是載客量卻更少

  • And by the end of 1973 nearly every airline cancelled their options.

    根本完全不划算

  • Leaving just a tiny handful of orders.

    到1973年之前下訂單的航空公司都取消了各自的訂單

  • Nowhere near the 150 planes the program needed to sell just to break even.

    只剩下寥寥可數的訂單

  • All the while, development costs were spiralling out of control.

    跟原計劃賣150台就可以盈虧平衡的美夢差很遠

  • To more than ten times the original estimate by the early 1970s.

    與此同時,研發費用也開始失控了

  • But with the Concorde treaty, neither France nor Britain could back out of the program

    比起1970年代早期的預算高出整整10倍以上

  • without paying the other massive penalties.

    不過因為兩國簽訂過協和協議,英法兩國均不能

  • So with or without orders, the Concorde program would have to push forward.

    在不支付天價違約金的情況下退場

  • After 14 years of development, Concorde was finally ready to enter service, and on January

    不管有無訂單,協和式計劃還是得繼續推進

  • 21, 1976, two Concordes simultaneously lifted off carrying their first passengers.

    14年過後,協和式終於準備好服役了

  • It was a huge milestone for the program, but hardly the bold new era of mass supersonic

    在1976年1月21日,兩架協和式同時搭載著各自的第一批乘客翱翔天際了

  • air travel that many had once predicted.

    對於計劃來說是個很大的里程碑,但是對於之前的大規模超音速航空旅行

  • Because British Airways and Air France were the only airlines to put Concordes into service.

    的預想來說還差很遠

  • And both nationally owned airlines had been more or less been forced to.

    因為就只有英航跟法航用協和式執飛

  • Each taking delivery of just a few planes.

    而兩家國有的航空公司都可謂是迫於無奈的

  • With limited range and over land flight restrictions, there were few route options available.

    兩家都得拿走幾台飛機

  • Every time Concorde takes off, British Airways loses money, if it's half empty as it is

    在有限的航程跟陸上飛行的限制之下,只有幾條航線能執飛

  • on the Bahrain route, it's costing them up to twenty thousand Pounds a flight...

    每一架協和式起飛,英航都得虧錢,如果飛去

  • In just the first few years, British Airways and Air France lost tens of millions operating

    巴林的飛機只有載滿半架飛機的人,那就是一趟虧兩萬英鎊了

  • Concordes….

    幾年之後,英航跟法航都因為使用協和式

  • And by 1980….rumors were swirling that planes would be retired early.

    而虧了好幾千萬

  • It might seem a strange decision to have the government subsidizing one of the most expensive

    到1980年,更是有傳協和式要提早退役

  • forms of transport in the world.

    “可能這決定看起來很奇怪,就是要讓政府給全世界其中一種最

  • But a dramatic turnaround was just around the corner.

    昂貴的運輸方式提供補助”

  • By the mid-1980s, British Airways and Air France were not only still operating their

    但是更戲劇性的轉折點就近在眼前了

  • Concordes, they had figured out how to make huge profits with them.

    到了1980年代中期,兩家航空公司不但繼續執飛他們的協和式

  • With the prospect of supersonic air travel for the masses having come and gone, and with

    而且他們也找到發大財的辦法了

  • only fourteen Concordes in service, the plane was transformed into more than just faster

    隨著大規模超音速航空旅行的願景不復存在

  • air travel.

    而且也就那麼14台協和式,這款飛機代表著的不只是

  • Instead, Concorde was rebranded into an ultra exclusive travel experience.

    航空旅行那麼簡單了

  • Aimed at a new kind of passengerwith much deeper pockets.

    它,代表的是頂級的獨有豪華旅行體驗

  • By the mid-1980s, the price of Concorde tickets had doubled from they were in the 1970s.

    他們的新目標客戶...是富得流油的人

  • At one point costing upwards of 20,000 in today's dollars for a London to New York

    到了1980年代中期,協和式的機票已經比1970年代時翻兩倍了

  • round trip.

    在某段時間點倫敦到紐約的來回機票

  • Concorde might've failed to revolutionize air travel, but it also opened up a profitable

    更是要價現今的20000元美金

  • new market serving celebrities and the ultra-rich.

    可能協和式沒成功顛覆航空旅行的方式,但是它開創了一個有錢賺

  • And with only a handful of aircraft in service, public concern over the environment and noise

    的新市場,服務那些名人跟超級富豪

  • faded.

    也因為就這十幾台飛機服役,公眾也沒

  • Instead for nearly three decades, Concorde served as a symbol of pride for

    怎麼再把噪音問題放在眼內了

  • the British and French.

    30多年來,協和式成為了英法兩國

  • But much like it's development and introduction, Concorde's final years would prove difficult.

    的驕傲

  • A tragic crash in July 2000, caused by a piece of runway debris, tarnished Concorde's impeccable

    不過,跟它的開發歷程一樣,協和式的晚年還是挺困難的

  • safety record.

    2000年7月的一次悲劇事故(法航4590班機)中,僅僅因為區區一塊跑道雜物(譯者註:美國大陸航空DC-10的起落架的某條金屬條),就把協和式無懈可擊

  • A year later the events of September the 11th led to a huge decline in air travel.

    的安全記錄給打破了

  • And then there were the challenges of maintaining such complex and aging planes.

    一年後的911襲擊更是把航空業領到寒冬

  • In 2003, after 27 years of service, the most recognizable and iconic aircraft in history

    而隨著維護這款複雜,又日益老化的飛機的挑戰越來越大

  • was retired by Air France and British Airways.

    在2003年,歷經27年歲月,最廣為人知跟標誌性的它

  • Closing the final chapter on the most ambitious aviation project of the century.

    被兩家航空公司一同退役了

  • There's a lot more to Concorde's story.

    為上世紀最具野心的航空計劃的終章畫上句號

  • And you can keep watching on Nebula, where I cover the extraordinary effort to try to

    協和式的故事還有很多可以說

  • win over skeptical airlines and fascinating plans for a second-generation Concorde that

    (廣告時間)你可以在Nebula上看我的下一部影片,涵蓋了有關兩國努力

  • never was.

    說服疑心重重的航空公司還有推廣這款

  • Nebula is where you can watch Mustard videos before they're on YouTube.

    胎死腹中的第二代協和式計劃

  • Without any ads or sponsor messages.

    Nebula可以讓你早於YT看到本頻道的影片

  • It's also home to a growing number of Nebula Originals and exclusive content from your

    也不會有什麼廣告或是贊助商廣告

  • favorite Youtube Creators.

    也是逐漸壯大的Nebula Originals系列影片跟您所訂閱的YTB創作者

  • Right now, you can get free access to Nebula whenever you sign up for CuriosityStream.

    的獨家影片之家

  • For just $2.99 a month, CuriosityStream gets you access to thousands of high quality documentaries,

    現在你可以用申請CuriosityStream帳號的方式免費瀏覽Nebula

  • and an ever expanding catalog of topics.

    每個月只需$2.99,就可以讓您收看成千上萬的優質紀錄片

  • From History to Nature to Science and Design.

    還有龐大的主題影片

  • Sign up for CuriosityStream for just $2.99 a month and you'll get access to Nebula

    從歷史到自然,再從科學到設計影片均有提供

  • for free by going to CuriosityStream.com/mustard and using

    每月只需$2.99即可註冊成CuriosityStream 會員並享有免費瀏覽Nebula的權力

  • the promo 'mustard' when you sign up.

    只需使用CuriosityStream.com/mustard鏈接並

In the 1950s, a flight from London to New York was a grueling 13 hours.

1950年代,搭一趟倫敦到紐約的飛機得煎熬13小時(道格拉斯 DC-7)

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 飛機 航空 音速 計劃 噪音 旅行

你搭不起的飛機——協和式的故事(Why You Couldn’t Afford To Fly Concorde)

  • 23 1
    OolongCha 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 31 日
影片單字