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  • This video is made possible by audible get a free audiobook from audible.com

    這個視頻是由audible提供的,從audible.com獲得免費的有聲讀物。

  • Slash real life floor

    削減現實生活中的地板

  • Russia is huge the country spans through eleven different time zones across two different

    俄羅斯幅員遼闊,跨越兩個不同的時區,共有11個時區。

  • Continents and takes up about one-eighth of all the land on earth

    大陸,約佔地球上所有土地的八分之一。

  • Despite all of this though. Russia has a critical problem. Russia is shrinking it's not shrinking in land

    不過儘管如此。俄羅斯有一個很關鍵的問題。俄羅斯在縮減它的土地並沒有縮減。

  • Russia has plenty of that

    俄羅斯有很多這樣的人

  • Instead russia's shrinking problem is with her population, which has been nearly

    相反,俄羅斯的人口萎縮問題是她的人口,她的人口幾乎已經被淘汰了。

  • Continuously going down for nearly 30 years

    持續下跌近30年

  • Now when you're only looking at the size of countries based on how much land they have Russia clearly wins that race

    如果你只看國家的大小,看他們有多少土地,俄羅斯顯然是贏家

  • but when you factor in Russia's population of about one hundred and forty four million people

    但如果算上俄羅斯的人口,大約有一億四千四百萬人

  • Russia comes in as only the ninth largest country in the world behind a lot of other countries that are

    俄羅斯僅以世界第九大國的身份出現在很多其他國家之後,而這些國家是

  • Significantly smaller in land like Pakistan Nigeria and most interestingly

    像巴基斯坦尼日利亞這樣的土地明顯小了很多,最有趣的是。

  • Bangladesh a country that is

    孟加拉國

  • 118 times

    118次

  • Smaller than Russia but has over 20 million more people living there an even stranger case is the island of Java

    比俄羅斯小,但卻有兩千多萬人生活在那裡 更奇怪的情況是爪哇島。

  • Inside of Indonesia. Java is

    印尼的內部。爪哇是

  • 123 times smaller than Russia is but the islands population of

    是俄羅斯的123倍,但該島人口為

  • 141 million easily compares with Russia's entire population of

    1.41億人,與俄羅斯的全部人口相比,很容易就能達到。

  • 144 million and it didn't used to always be this way as recently as

    1.44億,而過去並不是一直這樣,就在最近

  • 1900 the territory of modern Russia itself without factoring in the rest of the Russian empires

    1900年

  • population at the time had the third highest

    當時的人口比例為第三位。

  • population of any country in the world only remaining behind

    世界上任何一個國家的人口中,僅有一個國家的人口落後於其他國家。

  • Qing China and British controlled India

    清中英三國

  • there were more Russians at the time than there were Americans but within a century all of that had

    當時俄國人比美國人還多,但在一個世紀內,所有這些都已經消失了。

  • Completely changed and the biggest reason why it changed and the reason why modern Russia is still struggling so much with this

    完全改變了,也是改變的最大原因,也是現代俄羅斯還在如此掙扎的原因。

  • problem is largely because of the second world war a war which absolutely

    問題主要是由於第二次世界大戰一場絕對

  • devastated the Soviet Union and Russia specifically in just four years of war between 1941 and

    在1941年至1945年的短短四年戰爭中,蘇聯和俄國都遭到了毀滅性的打擊。

  • 1945 the USSR lost a mind-boggling

    1945年,蘇聯失去了一個令人難以置信的。

  • 13.7 percent of her entire

    佔其全部的13.7%。

  • Population if we divide the USSR up into its separate Republic's we can see that Russia itself lost

    人口 如果我們把蘇聯分為不同的共和國 我們可以看到,俄羅斯自己也失去了... ...

  • 12.7% of

    12.7%

  • all of her people more than one out of every four people in Belarus died while Ukraine

    在白俄羅斯,每四個人中就有一個人死亡,而在烏克蘭,每四個人中就有一個人死亡。

  • Lithuania Latvia Armenia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia

    立陶宛 拉脫維亞 亞美尼亞、哈薩克斯坦、阿塞拜疆、格魯吉亞

  • Estonia and Moldova also all took heavy losses

    愛沙尼亞和摩爾多瓦也都遭受了重大損失

  • along with other Eastern European countries like Poland the fact of the matter is is Eastern Europe in general took a

    和其他東歐國家,如波蘭,事實上是東歐總體上採取了一個

  • Massive population hit in only four years and the scars that that war left upon society here can still be felt today

    僅僅用了四年的時間,大量的人口就受到了衝擊,而那場戰爭給這裡的社會留下的傷痕,至今還能感受到。

  • one statistic that I'm reminded about that is

    有一個數據讓我想起了,那就是

  • Particularly haunting is the one about males born inside of the Soviet Union during

    尤其令人難忘的是關於蘇聯境內出生的男性在蘇聯期間

  • 1923 if you were born a boy

    1923年,如果你是男孩

  • Anywhere inside of the USSR that year then right at Birth. You would only be given a

    當年蘇聯境內的任何地方,那麼就在出生時。你只會得到一個

  • 20% chance of staying alive long enough to see your 23rd birthday in

    有20%的機率活到23歲的生日。

  • 1946 80

    1946 80

  • Percent of all boys born in the USSR that year would be dead by the time of January 1st

    蘇聯當年出生的所有男孩在1月1日之前死亡的百分比。

  • 1946 just

    1946年剛

  • 23 years later

    23年後

  • if we take a look at Russia's population pyramid a chart which shows

    如果我們看一下俄羅斯的人口金字塔圖,它顯示的是

  • people living inside of a country of all ages

    國人

  • You can see healthy growth at first and then a massive gash during the years of World War two in the years immediately

    你可以看到最初的健康成長,然後在第二次世界大戰期間,在緊接著的幾年裡,你可以看到一個巨大的傷口。

  • Following the war the population began to rebound but slowed down in the late 1960s

    戰後,人口開始回升,但在1960年代後期放緩。

  • this slowdown was the first echo of the Second World War all

    這種放緩是第二次世界大戰的第一次迴響,所有的

  • Those millions of young people who died in the 1940s who didn't have any children of their own

    那幾百萬在40年代死去的年輕人 他們沒有自己的孩子。

  • meant that all of their millions of unborn children

    意味著他們所有數以百萬計的未出生的孩子。

  • Weren't alive to have their own children twenty to twenty-five years later by the time of the late 1960s

    到六十年代末的時候,還沒有活到二十到二十五年後有自己的孩子。

  • Which caused population growth to slag?

    哪些原因導致人口增長成渣?

  • fast-forward another 20 to 25 years to the early

    時光倒流,轉眼間到了二十五年前。

  • 1990s and you can see the second echo of World War 2 where the great-grandchildren of

    20世紀90年代,你可以看到第二次世界大戰的第二個回聲,在那裡,曾孫子們的

  • Everybody who died during the war would have been born had they survived the echo of wars effect on

    每個在戰爭中死去的人都會出生,如果他們能活下來的話,戰爭的回聲對他們的影響是什麼?

  • Population at the time was worsened by the fact that in 1991 the USSR

    當時的人口情況更加惡化,1991年,蘇聯的

  • itself collapsed which through Russia into deep economic and social

    崩潰,從而使俄羅斯陷入深重的經濟和社會問題。

  • upheaval the birthrate plummeted while the death rates soared Russia experienced its first actual drop in population since

    俄羅斯的出生率急劇下降,死亡率急劇上升。

  • 1945 in

    1945年在

  • 1992 the first year after the Soviet Union's collapse

    1992年蘇聯解體後的第一年

  • Massive economic and social hardships experienced in the chaos of that collapse

    在這種崩潰的混亂中經歷了巨大的經濟和社會困難。

  • contributed to many people just deciding not to have children or to migrate away from the country and

    導致許多人決定不生孩子,或者移民到國外去。

  • Combined with a second echo of the war Russia's population

    結合第二次戰爭的迴響,俄羅斯的民眾

  • continued to shrink every single year from 1992 up until 2012 Russia began to grow again between

    從1992年到2012年,俄羅斯每年都在持續萎縮,直到2012年才又開始增長,在這期間,俄羅斯的經濟增長速度是非常快的。

  • 2013 and 2015 but then has shrunk more every year from

    2013年和2015年,但之後每年都縮水較多,從

  • 2016 up to the present some of this modern shrinkage can be attributed to the second world wars third echo on russian society

    2016年至今,這種現代的萎縮有些可以歸結為第二次世界大戰對俄羅斯社會的第三次迴響。

  • Which is happening right now

    現在就在發生

  • the

  • Great-great-grandchildren the people who died without children in the war would normally be getting born right now. And since that's obviously not happening

    曾曾孫... ...那些在戰爭中死去而沒有孩子的人... ...通常會在現在出生。既然這顯然是不可能的

  • It's having a marked effect, but there are other factors at work as well

    它有明顯的效果,但也有其他因素在起作用。

  • Another is that Russia is currently experiencing more economic hardships in 2014

    另一個是俄羅斯目前在2014年經濟上遇到的困難比較多

  • Russia annexed the Crimean Peninsula a move which added over 2 million people into Russia's population

    俄羅斯吞併了克里米亞半島,使俄羅斯人口增加了200多萬。

  • pool and which still wasn't enough to boost Russia's population back to the level seen in

    而這仍不足以使俄羅斯的人口恢復到當年的水準。

  • 1991 with several sanctions passed against Russia by several countries around the world as a consequence of this annexation

    1991年,由於這次吞併,世界上一些國家通過了對俄羅斯的若干制裁。

  • Russia shrunk from the world's ninth largest economy in 2014 a position equal to Russia's rank in population

    俄羅斯從2014年的世界第九大經濟體縮水到與俄羅斯人口排名相當的位置。

  • Down to the world's 12th largest economy five years later in 2019 with via Canada and South Korea

    5年後的2019年降至世界第12大經濟體,經加拿大和韓國。

  • overtaking her another problem that hasn't been mentioned yet and that

    超越她的另一個問題還沒有被提及,那就是......。

  • Certainly plays a factor is Russia's geography and the fact that most of it is pretty inhospitable in modern times 77

    當然,俄羅斯的地理環境也是一個因素,事實上,它的大部分地區在現代是相當荒涼的77。

  • percent of Russia's entire population or

    佔俄羅斯總人口的百分比或

  • 110 million people live inside just the European part of Russia where the temperatures are more mild

    1.1億人生活在俄羅斯的歐洲地區,那裡的氣溫比較溫和。

  • But this part of Russia only accounts for 23 percent of Russia's land the rest belongs to a huge region called

    但俄羅斯的這部分土地只佔俄羅斯土地的23%,其餘的屬於一個巨大的地區,叫做

  • Siberia which is the inverse of European Russia it accounts for

    西伯利亞是歐洲俄羅斯的反面,它佔到了

  • 77 percent of Russia's land, but only 23 percent of Russia's population if

    俄羅斯77%的土地,但只有俄羅斯23%的人口,如果說

  • Siberia was an independent country. It would still be the largest country on earth in size

    西伯利亞是一個獨立的國家。它仍將是地球上面積最大的國家。

  • But it would have a smaller population than California

    但它的人口會比加州少

  • Siberia is largely

    西伯利亞主要是

  • Undeveloped and extremely hostile to human habitation with brutal and long winters with absurdly cold temperatures

    不發達,極不適合人類居住,冬季殘酷漫長,氣溫低得離譜。

  • because of this most of Siberia is

    是以,西伯利亞的大部分地區是

  • completely empty without many human settlements and as a result Russia doesn't really have as much land that can be settled by people as

    完全是空的,沒有太多的人類居住地,是以,俄羅斯真正能讓人定居的土地並沒有那麼多。

  • It may seem at first

    乍看之下

  • Bangladesh and the island of Java may be over a hundred times smaller than Russia in total land

    孟加拉和爪哇島的國土面積可能是俄羅斯的一百多倍。

  • But they arguably have more easily settleable and rich

    但他們可以說有更容易解決和豐富的。

  • Agricultural land than Russia does which in part helps to explain why they have higher or similar populations

    農業用地比俄羅斯多,這在一定程度上幫助解釋了為什麼他們有更多或類似的人口。

  • Russia's geography has in a way always been one of the country's greatest challenges to overcome

    俄羅斯的地理環境在某種程度上一直是該國需要克服的最大挑戰之一。

  • And it continues to be a massive hurdle for the country to overcome in order to expand her

    而這仍然是該國為擴大其規模而需要克服的巨大障礙。

  • population when you combine all of these factors together along with other issues like a

    當你把所有這些因素和其他問題結合在一起時,比如說,你會發現,在你的生活中,有很多人都是這樣的。

  • moderately low rate of immigration in regards to Russia's size and it begins to paint an overall picture if the current shrinking

    俄羅斯的移民率相對於俄羅斯的國土面積來說是適度偏低的,它開始描繪出一幅整體的圖景,如果目前俄羅斯的移民數量萎縮,那麼俄羅斯的移民數量就會減少。

  • Population trend continues up until 2050 Russia will find itself in a position where she is only the 14th largest country in the world

    人口趨勢一直持續到2050年,俄羅斯將發現自己的位置,她只是世界上第14大國。

  • far behind countries like Nigeria Pakistan

    遠遠落後於尼日利亞巴基斯坦等國

  • Ethiopia Bangladesh the Philippines

    衣索匹亞 孟加拉國 菲律賓

  • Mexico the Democratic Republic of the Congo and even Egypt

    墨西哥、剛果民主共和國、甚至埃及

  • Those estimates are the official estimates of the United Nations though, and they're far from the most pessimistic

    不過這些估計是聯合國的官方估計,遠不是最悲觀的。

  • other estimates by other demographers believe that if the population shrinkage returns to the same levels that Russia experienced during the

    其他人口學家的其他估計認為,如果人口萎縮恢復到俄羅斯在20世紀90年代所經歷的同樣水準,那麼就會有更多的人加入進來。

  • 1990s the population could dwindle down to as little as

    20世紀90年代,人口可能會減少到只剩下一個人。

  • 110 million making Russia about equal to what Iran will probably look like at the same time in terms of population

    1.1億,使俄羅斯的人口與伊朗同期的人口差不多。

  • Numbers the next 30 years will almost certainly be an interesting and decisive time for the Russian nation

    未來30年的數字對俄羅斯民族來說,幾乎肯定是一個有趣的和決定性的時間。

  • Understanding Russia is complicated especially from an outsider's perspective

    瞭解俄羅斯是很複雜的,尤其是從外人的角度來看

  • Winston Churchill once said of Russia that it is a riddle wrapped up in a mystery inside of an enigma

    溫斯頓-丘吉爾曾說過,俄羅斯是一個謎,謎中之謎,謎中之謎。

  • So if you really want to go into some serious depth behind

    所以,如果你真的想去一些嚴重的深度背後的

  • understanding Russian history and civilization

    通曉俄羅斯歷史文明

  • There's no better book than a history of Russia from Peter the Great to Gorbachev written and narrated by Mark Steinberg

    最好的書莫過於馬克-斯坦伯格撰寫並講述的《從彼得大帝到戈爾巴喬夫的俄國史》。

  • The entire audio book is offered on audible and it's nearly 19 hours long

    整本有聲書是在有聲書上提供的,它有近19個小時的長度

  • The book would usually cost 41 95, but you can listen to all of it completely for free at audible

    這本書通常需要41 95美元,但你可以在audible完全免費收聽。

  • Honorable is a leading provider of audiobooks and other spoken word entertainment

    Honorable是一家領先的有聲讀物和其他口語娛樂的供應商。

  • They have an unmatched selection of great titles covering everything from science fiction and fantasy to history and business

    他們有一個無與倫比的選擇的偉大的標題,涵蓋了從科幻小說和幻想,歷史和商業的一切。

  • I

    I

  • Really love audiobooks because you can essentially listen to and learn about anything

    真的很喜歡有聲讀物,因為你基本上可以聽,瞭解任何東西

  • While you're doing anything if you're stuck in a commute to work

    當你在做任何事情的時候,如果你被困在上下班的路上。

  • It can become a great opportunity to listen to your favorite book or subject and you can actually begin to enjoy

    它可以成為一個很好的機會,聽你喜歡的書或主題,你可以真正開始享受

  • Yourself best of all though is that you can start listening with a 30-day free trial and choose to listen to any one book

    不過自己最好的是,你可以從30天的免費試用開始聽,並選擇聽任何一本書。

  • They have for free. It doesn't even have to be about Russian history. But if you're into that hey

    他們有免費的。甚至不一定是關於俄羅斯歷史的。但如果你對這個感興趣的話

  • And you'll get to audible originals for free, too

    而且你會得到免費的有聲原版,太

  • You just need to visit audible.com slash real life lore or text real life floor 2 5 0 0 - 5 0

    你只需要訪問audible.com斜線真人傳說或文字真人樓2 5 0 0 - 5 0 0。

  • 0 and as always thank you for watching

    0,一如既往地感謝你的觀看

This video is made possible by audible get a free audiobook from audible.com

這個視頻是由audible提供的,從audible.com獲得免費的有聲讀物。

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B1 中級 中文 俄羅斯 人口 蘇聯 土地 國家 戰爭

俄羅斯為何快速萎縮? (Why Russia is Shrinking Fast)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 30 日
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