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  • this video was made possible by brilliant learned complex topic simply for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up at brilliant or slash real life floor.

    這個視頻是由輝煌學會複雜的主題可能只是20%的折扣,由1 1 200人在輝煌或斜線現實生活地板簽署。

  • Simple math Mistake's have caused massive engineering catastrophes in the past, and they probably will again because humans are fantastic at making mistakes.

    簡單的數學 錯誤在過去造成了巨大的工程災難,他們很可能會再次發生,因為人類在犯錯方面是非常奇妙的。

  • In 1983 a simple conversion error led to an airplane with 69 passengers on board to run out of fuel while 30,000 ft high in the sky.

    1983年,一個簡單的轉換錯誤導致一架載有69名乘客的飛機在3萬英尺高空時燃料耗盡。

  • In 2004, a NASA probe returning back to Earth from space crashed into the deserts of Utah without ever deployed.

    2004年,美國宇航局的一個從太空返回地球的探測器墜落在猶他州的沙漠中,沒有部署。

  • It's parachute because a team of engineers installed a pair of parts backwards.

    這是降落傘,因為一個工程師團隊把一對零件裝反了。

  • Simple mathematical mistakes sometimes have catastrophic consequences, and in this video we're going to be talking about one of the worst instances, and it happened nearly 400 years ago in Sweden.

    簡單的數學錯誤有時會帶來災難性的後果,在這個視頻中,我們要講的是一個最嚴重的例子,它發生在近400年前的瑞典。

  • Back then, Sweden was a lot different than the Sweden we know and love today.

    那時候的瑞典和我們今天所熟知和喜愛的瑞典有很多不同。

  • 17th century Sweden was a European great power, practically dominated the entire Baltic Sea and was one of the most militaristic empires that the world has ever seen in the 16 twenties, the Swedish Empire was actively fighting two wars simultaneously against the Polish Lithuanian commonwealth in Poland, naturally and against the imperial Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Empire in Germany.

    17世紀的瑞典是歐洲的大國,幾乎統治了整個波羅的海,是16世紀20年代世界上有史以來最窮兵黷武的帝國之一,瑞典帝國同時積極地與波蘭的波蘭立陶宛聯邦進行兩場戰爭,自然也與德國的神聖羅馬帝國的帝國天主教勢力進行戰爭。

  • And Sweden's naval situation looked pretty grim.

    而瑞典的海軍形勢看起來也很嚴峻。

  • The polls were defeating the Swedish navy in nearly every battle in the Baltic, and worse, the Catholic forces from the empire had invaded Denmark and were poised to take control of the Danish Straits, potentially blocking and confining the Swedish navy into the Baltic Sea, Sweden clearly needed a powerful navy with big ships to secure her interests.

    民調幾乎在波羅的海的每一場戰役中都擊敗了瑞典海軍,更糟糕的是,帝國的天主教勢力已經入侵丹麥,並且準備控制丹麥海峽,有可能將瑞典海軍封鎖和限制在波羅的海,瑞典顯然需要一支強大的海軍,擁有大船來保證自己的利益。

  • And so in 16 26 they came up with an idea.

    於是在1626年,他們想出了一個主意。

  • In 16 26 the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus was leading the Swedish army in Poland.

    16 26年瑞典國王古斯塔夫斯-阿道夫斯(Gustavus Adolphus)率領瑞典軍隊進駐波蘭。

  • Sweden was winning the battle on land, but like I mentioned previously, they were losing pretty badly on the seas.

    瑞典在陸地上取得了勝利,但就像我之前提到的,他們在海上輸得很慘。

  • Up until this point, the Swedish navy was utilizing pretty small warships with only a single gun deck.

    直到這時,瑞典海軍還在利用相當小的戰艦,只有一個炮甲板。

  • There were more prioritized for ramming and boarding enemy ships than blowing them up with cannons.

    比起用大炮炸燬敵艦,更多的是優先衝撞和登船。

  • Gustavus Adolphus decided that he wanted to dramatically upgrade the navy in order to meet the challenges of the time so he ordered the construction of five brand new, larger warships that would be the first in the Swedish Navy to contain to gun decks and the first of these to be constructed.

    古斯塔夫斯-阿道夫決定要大幅提升海軍的實力,以應對當時的挑戰,所以他下令建造五艘全新的大型戰艦,這將是瑞典海軍中第一艘包含到炮甲板的戰艦,也是第一艘建造的戰艦。

  • The Vasa was intended to severely overcompensate for the Swedish navies embarrassing string of defeats because it was going to be built to be the most powerful warship anywhere in the world, so that nothing else could come close to challenging it.

    瓦薩號的目的是為了嚴重彌補瑞典海軍一連串尷尬的失敗,因為它將被建造成世界上最強大的戰艦,所以沒有任何其他的戰艦可以接近挑戰它。

  • While the Vasa was initially designed to hold 36 bronze cannons divided between 24 pounder guns on the lower deck and smaller 12 pounders on the upper deck, the king demanded that the number be doubled up to 72 cannons and that they all were the larger 24 pounder guns.

    瓦薩號最初的設計是容納36門青銅炮,分為下層甲板上的24磅炮和上層甲板上的小型12磅炮,但國王要求將數量增加一倍,達到72門炮,而且都是大型24磅炮。

  • This armament would have given the Vaasa the highest firepower of any ship in the world at the time, capable of blasting a metal wall the way nearly £900 out of a single side, straight out whatever enemy was unfortunate enough to come across its path.

    這種武器裝備會讓瓦薩號擁有當時世界上最高的火力,能夠以單面近900英鎊的方式轟擊金屬牆,直擊任何不幸碰到它的敵人。

  • This massive amount of firepower coming from a relatively small ship is pretty goofy historically, because the U.

    這種大量的火力來自於一艘相對較小的艦艇,在歷史上是非常愚蠢的,因為美。

  • S s Constitution, an American frigate that fought against the British in the War of 18 12, nearly two centuries later possessed on almost identical level of firepower but was also almost 700 tons heavier.

    S's憲法號,一艘美國護衛艦,在1812年的戰爭中與英國人作戰,近兩個世紀後擁有幾乎相同水準的火力,但也重了近700噸。

  • But the king was impatient while fighting an act of war that he was losing at sea.

    但國王在打一場在海上失利的戰爭行為時,卻很不耐煩。

  • And so he kept on demanding that the construction of the world's most powerful ship be hastened.

    所以他一直要求加快建造世界上最強大的飛船。

  • So rather than building a brand new ship from scratch that could actually safely fits 72 heavy 24 pounder cannons aboard, they had to cut some corners and decided to cram all 72 of them in a ship that was only designed for half of that amount.

    所以,他們沒有從頭開始建造一艘全新的艦艇,實際上可以安全地將72門24磅重炮裝上艦艇,而是不得不偷工減料,決定將72門重炮全部塞進一艘只設計了一半的艦艇裡。

  • Instead, these cannons were also all made out of bronze, which is more dense than iron, and it was also beautifully decorated by roughly 500 sculptures depicting the king's family and figures from Roman mythology and Swedish history and some of which were huge and over 10 ft tall.

    相反,這些大炮也都是用青銅製成的,青銅的密度比鐵還要大,而且它還被大約500個雕塑裝飾得非常漂亮,這些雕塑描繪了國王的家族和羅馬神話及瑞典歷史上的人物,有些雕塑的體積很大,有10多英尺高。

  • The Swedish Empire was effectively building the early 17th centuries version of The Death Star, and just like the Death Star, it came complete with one really stupid flaw.

    瑞典帝國實際上是在建造17世紀初的《死星》,就像《死星》一樣,它也有一個非常愚蠢的缺陷。

  • In this case.

    在這種情況下:

  • It was just a simple matter of physics, though, rather than an obvious exhaust port.

    不過這只是一個簡單的物理問題,而不是明顯的排氣口。

  • But it also took way less enemies to destroy it.

    但也少了很多敵人才將其摧毀。

  • The upper gun deck of the Vasa was initially supposed to house just 18 12 pounder cannons.

    瓦薩號的上層炮臺最初應該只放置18門12磅炮。

  • But due to the king's commands, that number was increased to 36 of the larger 24 pounder cannons without significantly changing the design structure of the ship itself.

    但由於國王的命令,在沒有明顯改變艦船本身設計結構的情況下,這個數量增加到了36門24磅大炮。

  • Throw in a bunch of heavy wooden sculptures to the upper gun deck as well, and the Vasa was all set to become dangerously unstable, with a rollover risk of an 800 horsepower Jeep Wrangler.

    把一堆沉重的木雕也扔到上層炮臺,瓦薩號都將變得危險的不穩定,翻車風險堪比800馬力的Jeep Wrangler。

  • To further complicate things, the shipbuilder that the sweets and higher to build the thing was some Dutch guy named Henryk who had a pretty shoddy resume because there's absolutely zero historical evidence that he had ever actually built a ship with two or more gun decks ever before in his life.

    更加複雜的是,建造這艘船的是一個叫Henryk的荷蘭人,他的履歷非常糟糕,因為絕對沒有任何歷史證據表明他一生中曾經建造過一艘有兩層或更多炮甲板的船。

  • So he only sort and knew what he was doing.

    所以他只排序,知道自己在做什麼。

  • Modern archaeologists have also found evidence that separate teams involved in the construction of the ship were using different systems of measurement.

    現代考古學家還發現,有證據表明,參與建造這艘船的不同團隊在使用不同的測量系統。

  • A classic mistake's one team working on one side of the ship was using the Swedish foot in 12 inches, while another team working on the other side of the ship was using the Amsterdam foot in 11 inches.

    一個典型的錯誤是,在船的一側工作的一個團隊使用的是12英寸的瑞典腳,而在船的另一側工作的另一個團隊使用的是11英寸的阿姆斯特丹腳。

  • Nobody noticed this discrepancy during the hurried construction under wartime pressure, and as a result, the Vasas Mass was distributed asymmetrically and was heavier over on the port side.

    在戰時的壓力下匆忙施工時,沒有人注意到這一差異,是以,瓦薩品質分佈不對稱,左舷較重。

  • Further, the headroom in the decks themselves was built higher than necessary for crewman at the time, who on average were only 5 ft and 5.5 inches tall.

    此外,甲板本身的淨空也被建造得比當時的船員所需要的要高,他們平均身高只有5英尺5.5英寸。

  • The weight of the decks themselves.

    卡牌本身的重量。

  • The design errors while constructing the whole, along with the heavier weight of the bigger guns than initially designed for as well as the increased weight from bringing along 1000 Big £24 cannonballs and their accompanying gunpowder, meant that the ship center of gravity, when launched and fully armed, would be dangerously high in the ship's upper area.

    整體建造時的設計失誤,加上比最初設計的大炮更重的重量,以及帶著1000枚大24鎊炮彈和附帶的火藥所增加的重量,意味著艦艇重心在發射和全副武裝時,艦艇上部區域將危險地偏高。

  • In other words, the Vasa was critically unstable, and many of the officers on board knew it when conducting a test to prove its stability.

    換句話說,"瓦薩 "號嚴重不穩定,在進行試驗證明其穩定性時,艦上許多軍官都知道這一點。

  • Just prior to launching, an officer made 30 men run up and down the deck to see how well it could handle it.

    就在下水之前,一名軍官讓30人在甲板上跑來跑去,看看它的承受能力如何。

  • It didn't handle well, it all.

    沒處理好,這一切。

  • And after just three runs, the officer ordered a halt out of fear of making the boat capsized if they continued any further.

    而只跑了三趟,軍官就下令停了下來,因為擔心再繼續下去會讓船翻。

  • There are letters from a Swedish admiral present where he wrote about how he wished the king was there to see how unready it was and not often war, demanding that the ship be launched anyway.

    有一位在場的瑞典上將的信,他在信中寫道,他希望國王在那裡看看,是多麼的沒有準備好,而不是經常戰爭,要求無論如何都要下船。

  • In the end, the political pressure to launch the ship was just too great, and nobody was brave enough to challenge the king.

    最後,下水的政治壓力實在太大,沒有人敢於挑戰國王。

  • And so, on the 10th of August 16 28 after two long years of construction, the Vasa was ordered out of Stockholm port on her maiden voyage to take a per position as the new flagship of the Swedish Navy, and within just one nautical mile of this maiden journey, it would already be completely destroyed.

    於是,在經過兩年漫長的建造之後,16 28年8月10日,"瓦薩 "號在首航時奉命離開斯德哥爾摩港,作為瑞典海軍的新旗艦,按位,而就在這次首航的一海里內,它就已經被徹底摧毀了。

  • A crowd of thousands gathered in Stockholm toe watch, the most powerful ship ever built, sail off on her first journey.

    數千名觀眾聚集在斯德哥爾摩,觀看有史以來最強大的船,駛向她的第一次旅程。

  • The ship's gun ports were left open toe fire office salute as they left the harbor, and within minutes the first signs of trouble appeared a sudden gust of wind just a little stronger than a breeze was strong enough to tip Vaasa over significantly on her port side because of her high center of gravity.

    艦上的炮口在離開港口的時候是敞開的腳趾火辦禮炮,幾分鐘內就出現了麻煩的苗頭,突然颳起的一陣比微風還強一點的風足以讓瓦薩號因為重心過高而在左舷大幅傾倒。

  • But this was thankfully able to be reversed by the crew.

    不過幸好這一點能夠被劇組逆轉。

  • However.

    然而,

  • Shortly afterwards, a second and slightly more powerful gust of wind tip the ship over again, and this time it dipped far enough over that, the lower gun deck with the open gun ports slept just beneath the water line, and it was all over from their water rushed in.

    不久之後,第二陣稍強的風又把船掀翻了,這一次,它遠遠地浸過了水線,下層的炮甲板上,敞開的炮口就睡在水線之下,他們的水衝進去就全完了。

  • And the greatest ship ever built that took two years to build took probably just a few minutes to sink.

    而花了兩年時間建造的最偉大的船,可能只用了幾分鐘就沉沒了。

  • In the full view of thousands of shocked and disappointed Swedes, it was effectively the equivalent of the Challenger disaster in the 17th century and a catastrophe for the Swedish king.

    在成千上萬震驚和失望的瑞典人的眾目睽睽之下,這實際上相當於17世紀的挑戰者災難,也是瑞典國王的一場災難。

  • Had the gun ports been closed, it's possible that Vaasa wouldn't have sunk almost immediately right after it began to sail.

    如果炮口關閉,瓦薩號有可能不會在開始航行後幾乎立即沉沒。

  • But the flaws in her design and engineering were so apparent that the ship never would have lasted for long anyway.

    但她的設計和工程上的缺陷是如此明顯,以至於這艘船無論如何也不會持續很久。

  • The wind would have destroyed the ship sooner or later, simply because of the laws of physics that the shipbuilders just didn't quite completely understand.

    風遲早會毀掉這艘船,只是因為物理定律的原因,只是造船師們沒有完全理解。

  • While the Vasa was a catastrophe for Sweden in the 17th century, it would end up becoming a triumph for Sweden over 300 years later in the 20th.

    雖然瓦薩對17世紀的瑞典來說是一場災難,但它最終會在300多年後的20世紀成為瑞典的勝利。

  • In the 19 sixties, technology had finally progressed far enough to where the Swedish government could pull the Vasa out from beneath the depths, where it was 95% still intact.

    在1960年代,技術終於發展到瑞典政府可以將瓦薩號從深海之下拉出來,在那裡,95%的瓦薩號仍然完好無損。

  • Even after all that time.

    即使過了這麼久。

  • And rather than pressing the ship back into the service of the Swedish Navy of the 19 sixties, they decided that it would probably end up being more useful in a museum.

    而他們並沒有把這艘船壓回1960年代的瑞典海軍服役,而是決定這艘船最終可能在博物館裡更有用。

  • And so they drug it here to the Vaasa Museum in Stockholm, where you could go today and gawk at the aftermath of one of the greatest engineering disasters of all time.

    所以他們把它運到了斯德哥爾摩的瓦薩博物館 今天你就可以去那裡,看看有史以來最偉大的工程災難的後果。

  • When dealing with complicated problems like constructing a ship, it's easier than you think to make mistake's.

    在處理複雜的問題時,比如建造一艘船,比你想象的要容易犯錯。

  • Kings, engineers, governments, myself and everyone else are all prone to making easy errors that can create problems both big and small.

    國王、工程師、政府、我和大家都容易犯容易犯的錯誤,會產生大大小小的問題。

  • Luckily, though you and I both have a resource today that the ship builders and engineers of the 17th century didn't the Internet, it's easy to look up things you're curious about on places like Wikipedia.

    幸運的是,雖然你我今天都有17世紀的造船師和工程師們沒有互聯網的資源,但在維基百科這樣的地方,很容易查到你好奇的東西。

  • But honestly, when I was researching this video, I visited the Wikipedia page on Center of Mass, and the equations there may as well have been written in a foreign language.

    但說實話,當我在研究這個視頻時,我訪問了維基百科上關於品質中心的頁面,那裡的方程式可能也是用外語寫的。

  • I hated math growing up in high school, and I've always struggled learning about it when I have to just read about it on a piece of paper or on a screen without anyone there to help guide me through the steps.

    我在高中時就很討厭數學,當我只能在一張紙上或螢幕上讀到有關數學的內容,而沒有人在旁邊幫助指導我完成步驟時,我一直在努力學習數學。

  • And I'm certain that I'm not alone there.

    而且我確信我不是一個人在那裡。

  • But thankfully, there is a perfect alternative toe learning about math and science for people like you or me who might normally be struggling.

    但值得慶幸的是,對於像你或我這樣平時可能會有困難的人來說,有一個完美的選擇來學習數學和科學知識。

  • It's called brilliant, and their simple introductory classes on science essentials and physics of the every day helped me out tremendously with understanding how the Vaasa came to sink 400 years ago, while also teaching me even more than I learned about while in college.

    這就是所謂的精彩,他們簡單的科普入門課,每天的科學要領和物理學知識,對我理解400年前的瓦薩號是如何沉沒的有很大的幫助,同時也讓我學到了比大學時更多的知識。

  • There are tons, of course, is that you can take on brilliant, ranging from beginner difficulty ones like these up to more complex subjects like statistics, calculus, computer science and more.

    有噸,當然,是你可以採取輝煌的,從初學者難度的這些到更復雜的科目,如統計,微積分,計算機科學和更多。

  • Now, on online course, teaching you more than a college course in something pretty complex might seem pretty scary.

    現在,在網絡課程上,教你比大學課程更復雜的東西可能看起來非常可怕。

  • But the main reason why brilliant to so great is because they take the's huge, scary subjects and break them down into a little easy chunks, which they teach by explaining you the fundamentals.

    但為什麼輝煌到如此之大的主要原因是,他們採取的巨大的,可怕的科目,並打破他們到一個小的容易塊,他們教通過解釋你的基本面。

  • So pretty much.

    所以差不多。

  • Even if you're the furthest thing from a math expert like me, you can finally understand these subjects that you previously looked at with fear or maybe even low thing.

    即使你和我一樣是最遠的數學專家,你也終於可以理解這些你以前用恐懼甚至低級的東西來看待的科目。

  • So if you want to learn the subjects that you hated in school, but you actually enjoy the process than brilliant is the best place for you to go to right now by heading to brilliant or slash real life floor, or by clicking the link in the description.

    所以,如果你想學習你在學校裡討厭的科目,但你實際上享受的過程比輝煌是最好的地方,你現在去輝煌或斜線現實生活地板,或通過點擊描述中的鏈接。

  • You can not only sign up for free, but if you also decide upgrade to premium the 1st 200 people to use.

    你不僅可以免費註冊,但如果你也決定升級到高級的第200人使用。

  • That same link will additionally get 20% off and you'll be supporting the channel at the same time.

    同樣的鏈接將額外獲得8折優惠,同時你也會支持這個管道。

this video was made possible by brilliant learned complex topic simply for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up at brilliant or slash real life floor.

這個視頻是由輝煌學會複雜的主題可能只是20%的折扣,由1 1 200人在輝煌或斜線現實生活地板簽署。

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B1 中級 中文 瑞典 建造 海軍 戰艦 國王 數學

歐洲最偉大的戰艦是如何被三分鐘熱度摧毀的? (How Europe's Greatest Warship Was Destroyed by a Breeze)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 30 日
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