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  • one of the hardest stones to mine out of the earth is a diamond.

    地球上最難開採的石頭之一就是鑽石。

  • But what if we could just make it out of thin air?

    但如果我們能憑空製造呢?

  • Literally, Ah UK Company named Sky Diamond, hopes to revolutionize the traditional diamond mining industry by using carbon capture technology.

    從字面上看,阿英國公司名為Sky Diamond,希望利用碳捕集技術,徹底改變傳統的鑽石開採行業。

  • The company calls it a zero impact diamond because the process pulls carbon dioxide right out of the air.

    該公司稱其為零衝擊鑽石,因為這一過程會直接從空氣中抽出二氧化碳。

  • Although a diamond traps only a modest amount of carbon, one carrot contains just 200 mg.

    雖然一顆鑽石只能捕捉到最少量的碳,但一根胡蘿蔔只含有200毫克。

  • Pure carbon can take many forms.

    純碳可以有多種形式。

  • It really all depends on how the atoms are arranged.

    其實這一切都取決於原子的排列方式。

  • Graphite is arranged in multiple layers, graphene in a single layer, and if it's rolled up, it forms carbon nanotubes.

    石墨是多層排列的,石墨烯是單層排列的,如果把它捲起來,就會形成碳納米管。

  • But when each carbon forms for strong bonds in a tetra hydro structure, it becomes a diamond.

    但當每個碳在四氫結構中形成為強鍵時,就變成了金剛石。

  • Most natural diamonds were formed over a billion years ago, more than 120 kilometers beneath the earth's surface.

    大多數天然鑽石是在10億年前形成的,在地表下120多公里處。

  • This is where intense temperature and pressure caused carbon atoms to strongly bought together and arrange into crystal structures.

    這就是強烈的溫度和壓力使碳原子強烈地買在一起,排列成晶體結構。

  • Volcanic eruptions bring these crystals embedded in magma to the surface.

    火山噴發將這些嵌在岩漿中的晶體帶到地表。

  • When the magma cools, it hardens, and long vertical shafts called kimberlite pipes and these pipes air what's not after in the mining industry, they're found in countries like Russia, Botswana, Canada and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    當岩漿冷卻時,它會變硬,長長的垂直豎井被稱為金伯利岩管,這些管子的空氣是什麼不後的採礦業,他們發現在俄羅斯,波扎那,加拿大和剛果民主共和國等國家。

  • When a source of diamonds is found, there are three common ways.

    當發現鑽石的來源時,有三種常見的方式。

  • Their mind open pit marine and alluvial, which is the mining of screen bed deposits.

    他們心目中的露天海洋和沖積物,這是篩床礦床的開採。

  • And all three can have quite dramatic environmental consequences, not to mention it also takes a huge toll on the people in these mining communities.

    而這三者都會對環境造成相當大的影響,更何況它還會給這些礦區的人們帶來巨大的損失。

  • The term conflict diamond was first coined in reference to a series of wars that broke out in diamond rich countries in Western and central Africa during the nineties.

    衝突鑽石一詞最早是指九十年代在西部和中部非洲鑽石資源豐富的國家爆發的一系列戰爭。

  • The illicit trade in diamonds has funded wars and human rights abuses for decades, and conflict diamonds continue to leak out to this day.

    幾十年來,非法鑽石貿易為戰爭和侵犯人權行為提供了資金,衝突鑽石至今仍在外流。

  • Now, synthetic diamonds offer an alternative to traditional mining practices.

    現在,合成鑽石為傳統的開採方式提供了一個替代方案。

  • They're chemically identical to the Earth mine counterparts.

    它們的化學成分與地球上的地雷相同。

  • But instead of forming over the course of billions of years, labs can create them in just a few days.

    但是,實驗室不需要經過數十億年的時間來形成,而只需要幾天就可以創造出它們。

  • One of the common way synthetic diamonds are made is through a process called chemical vapor deposition, also known as CBD.

    合成鑽石的常見方式之一是通過一種叫做化學氣相沉積的過程,也就是CBD。

  • A thin layer is cut from a starter diamond to form what's called the seed.

    從初生鑽石上切下薄薄的一層,形成所謂的種子。

  • The seed is then polished to an exact thickness and placed inside a reactor with a carbon containing gas.

    然後將種子打磨成精確的厚度,並將其放置在含碳氣體的反應器內。

  • Microwaves generate intense heat in the reactor, forming an electrically charged plasma.

    微波在反應器中產生強烈的熱量,形成帶電的等離子體。

  • Carbon atoms break away from the plasma in deposit on the diamond seed, causing them to form a bigger crystal.

    碳原子從等離子體中脫離出來沉積在金剛石種子上,使其形成更大的晶體。

  • Conditions have to be just right, or you'll end up with very expensive pencil leg instead of a sparkly diamond.

    條件必須恰到好處,否則你最終會得到非常昂貴的鉛筆腿,而不是一顆閃亮的鑽石。

  • Unfortunately, this process has some pretty intensive energy needs.

    不幸的是,這個過程有一些相當密集的能源需求。

  • It's even been argued that lab diamonds can produce three times as much greenhouse gas as mining naturally occurring diamonds.

    甚至有人認為,實驗室鑽石產生的溫室氣體是開採天然鑽石的三倍。

  • But some synthetic gem labs like Sky Diamond think they have a better approach.

    但一些合成寶石實驗室,如Sky Diamond認為他們有更好的方法。

  • They use the same CBD process, but with 100% renewable energy made from wind and solar sky.

    他們使用同樣的CBD工藝,但使用的是100%由風能和太陽能天空製造的可再生能源。

  • Diamond is taking the process one step further by using a little more than air and rainwater to make diamonds.

    鑽石正在進一步利用空氣和雨水來製造鑽石。

  • Their facility extracts carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, then liquefies and purifies it through electrolysis.

    他們的設施從大氣中提取二氧化碳,然後通過電解將其液化和淨化。

  • Rainwater is split into hydrogen and oxygen, the hydrogen from the water and the carbon from the CO to make methane.

    雨水抽成氫氣和氧氣,水中的氫氣和CO中的碳生成甲烷。

  • This methane becomes plasma in the reactor and ultimately provides the carbon atoms could stick to the seed, transforming it toe a beautiful stone.

    這種甲烷在反應器中變成了等離子體,最終提供的碳原子可以粘在種子上,把它變成一塊美麗的石頭。

  • Things has been a years long journey, and the company is finally planning to start production in 2021.

    事情已經走了好幾年,公司終於計劃在2021年開始生產。

  • While Sky Diamond is focused on jewelry, diamonds with ethical and environmental profiles may 1 day help clean up another place.

    雖然Sky Diamond專注於珠寶,但具有道德和環境特徵的鑽石可能有一天會幫助清理另一個地方。

  • Diamonds are used in industry.

    鑽石在工業上的應用。

  • Diamonds are used in computer chip production, construction and machinery manufacturing.

    鑽石被用於計算機芯片生產、建築和機械製造。

  • Synthetics are especially popular because they're easy to produce, can be quality control and be custom made for specific applications.

    合成材料特別受歡迎,因為它們易於生產,可以進行品質控制,並可為特定應用定製。

  • In the U.

    在美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • 99% of industrial grade diamonds are synthetic, but most are made with brown energy from fossil fuels.

    99%的工業級鑽石都是人工合成的,但大部分都是用化石燃料中的棕色能源製造的。

  • But with companies like Sky Diamond putting the focus on renewable energy and carbon capture, perhaps this 21st century bling is a tiny step towards a brighter future.

    但是,隨著像天鑽這樣的公司將重點放在可再生能源和碳捕集上,也許這種21世紀的金光閃閃的東西是走向光明未來的一小步。

  • Or we work with the environment instead of against it.

    或者我們與環境合作,而不是與環境作對。

  • If you like the splashy episode on diamonds, check out how diamond anvil cells are helping us figure out what's inside Earth's core.

    如果你喜歡關於鑽石的精彩情節,看看鑽石砧細胞是如何幫助我們弄清地球核心內部的情況的。

  • If you have a science topic you want us to cover, let us know.

    如果你有一個科學主題,你希望我們覆蓋,讓我們知道。

one of the hardest stones to mine out of the earth is a diamond.

地球上最難開採的石頭之一就是鑽石。

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B1 中級 中文 鑽石 開採 合成 形成 晶體 離子體

科學家如何利用二氧化碳排放製造鑽石 (How Scientists Are Creating Diamonds From CO2 Emissions)

  • 7 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 30 日
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