Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • Soil...

    土壤...

  • it's one the most underrated, and little-understood,

    這是一個最被低估的,也是最不被理解的。

  • wonders on our fragile planet.

    我們脆弱的星球上的奇蹟。

  • Here's why

    這就是為什麼...

  • Far from being lifeless dirt,

    遠不是沒有生命的泥土。

  • it's estimated that in a single gram of soil,

    據估計,在一克土壤中。

  • there could be as many as 50,000 species

    五萬種之多

  • of microscopic organisms, or microorganisms.

    的微觀生物,或微生物。

  • And in one teaspoon of soil,

    而在一茶匙的土壤。

  • there are more microorganisms than there are people on the Earth.

    有更多的微生物 比有地球上的人。

  • But much of what lies beneath, in this hidden and deep universe,

    但在這隱祕而深邃的宇宙中,很多東西都在下面。

  • is still alien to us.

    對我們來說還是陌生的。

  • Despite being literally under our feet,

    儘管在我們的腳下。

  • humans have so far only identified a tiny fraction

    迄今為止,人類只識別了一小部分

  • of the extraordinary life teeming underground.

    的非同尋常的生活在地下湧動。

  • But these animals and microorganisms provide an invaluable role.

    但這些動物和微生物提供了寶貴的作用。

  • Millions of years of evolutionary competition

    數百萬年的進化競爭

  • have led the microorganisms to produce antibiotic compounds

    導致微生物產生抗生素化合物。

  • to fight their neighbours.

    以對抗他們的鄰居。

  • And these compounds form the basis

    而這些化合物構成了基礎

  • of many of the antibiotics used by us humans.

    我們人類使用的許多抗生素的。

  • We literally make medicine from our soil.

    我們真的是用我們的土壤做藥。

  • No-one knows how many new treatments could be lying under our feet,

    沒有人知道我們腳下會有多少新的治療方法。

  • waiting to be discovered.

    等待著被發現。

  • One of the most special creatures living in soil is the earthworm.

    生活在土壤中最特殊的生物之一就是蚯蚓。

  • Darwin was fascinated by them and said:

    達爾文被它們迷住了,他說。

  • "It may be doubted if there are any other animals

    "可能會懷疑是否還有其他動物

  • which have played such an important part

    扮演重要角色的

  • in the history of the world,"

    在世界歷史上,"

  • due to their importance in making and sustaining soil.

    由於它們對製造和維持土壤的重要性。

  • Earthworms journey down and around,

    蚯蚓的旅程下來,周圍。

  • creating breathing holes, like lungs in the soil.

    形成呼吸孔,就像土壤中的肺。

  • This creates space for plant roots to grow and keeps soil alive.

    這就為植物根系的生長創造了空間,保持了土壤的活力。

  • Under the soil, there are also vast and intricate webs of fungal threads.

    在土壤下,還有龐大而複雜的菌絲網。

  • Plants and fungi need each other to thrive, and so they do a deal.

    植物和真菌需要彼此生長,所以它們做了一筆交易。

  • Fungi can't capture carbon dioxide to grow like plants can,

    真菌不能像植物那樣捕捉二氧化碳來生長。

  • but they're better than plants at mining the soil for nutrients,

    但它們比植物更能挖掘土壤中的養分。

  • so they trade.

    所以他們交易。

  • Plants give fungi carbon to grow,

    植物給真菌生長提供碳。

  • and fungi give plants nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorus.

    和真菌給植物提供養分,如氮和磷。

  • It's a mutually beneficial relationship.

    這是一種互惠互利的關係。

  • And just one example of the interconnected ecosystem

    而這僅僅是相互關聯的生態系統的一個例子。

  • we're all part of.

    我們都是其中的一部分。

  • Plant matter decays and provides food for microbes.

    植物物質會腐爛,為微生物提供食物。

  • They provide food for worms.

    它們為蟲子提供食物。

  • Worms are food for birds and so on

    蟲子是鳥類的食物等等... ...

  • Soil provides us humans with almost everything we eat.

    土壤為我們人類提供了幾乎所有的食物。

  • But it's not just about what soils can do for us.

    但這不僅僅是土壤對我們的作用。

  • It's important we value, appreciate -

    重要的是我們要重視、欣賞----------。

  • and crucially protect - soil for a whole load of other reasons too.

    而且至關重要的是,保護土壤也有很多其他原因。

  • Think about this for a moment.

    思考一下這個問題。

  • It takes more than 100 years to build just 5 millimetres -

    僅僅是5毫米的建築就需要100多年的時間--。

  • half a centimetre - of soil.

    半釐米的土壤;

  • But just moments to destroy,

    但就在毀滅的瞬間。

  • through chemical contamination, urbanisation,

    通過化學汙染、城市化。

  • landslides, erosion and more.

    滑坡、水土流失等。

  • Some soil is really ancient - dating back millions and millions of years.

    有些土壤真的很古老--可以追溯到數百萬年前。

  • The oldest soil on Earth is thought to be in South Africa

    地球上最古老的土壤被認為是在南非。

  • and dates back three billion years.

    並可追溯到30億年前。

  • In the UK, our soil is around 15,000 years old,

    在英國,我們的土壤大約有15000年的歷史。

  • and it formed after the last ice age.

    它形成於上一個冰河時代之後。

  • Soil is also a really valuable carbon store -

    土壤也是一個非常有價值的碳庫----------。

  • capturing carbon and locking it away in stable forms

    捕捉碳並以穩定的形式將其鎖住

  • deep underground.

    深入地下。

  • It stores three times as much carbon as all the plants on Earth combined,

    它儲存的碳量是地球上所有植物總和的三倍。

  • including trees.

    包括樹木。

  • But because it grows so slowly, we need to protect what we have.

    但因為它生長得太慢,我們需要保護我們所擁有的東西。

  • We are not succeeding.

    我們沒有成功。

  • We know many of the problems.

    我們知道很多問題。

  • Intensive farming is one of them.

    集約化農業就是其中之一。

  • It releases carbon from our soils

    它從我們的土壤中釋放碳

  • and we're losing soil 50 to 100 times faster than it's able to re-build.

    我們失去土壤的速度是它重建速度的50到100倍。

  • In Europe, 60-70% of soils are thought to be unhealthy.

    在歐洲,60-70%的土壤被認為是不健康的。

  • And in croplands in the UK,

    而在英國的耕地裡。

  • in less than 30 years from the end of the 1970s,

    從上世紀70年代末開始,在不到30年的時間裡。

  • we lost more than 10% of the carbon the soil had stored for us.

    我們失去了超過10%的碳 土壤為我們儲存。

  • And since then? Well, we just don't know,

    從那以後呢?嗯,我們只是不知道。

  • because in many countries there's little data on soil.

    因為在很多國家,土壤的數據很少。

  • It's poorly protected and regulated.

    它的保護和監管不力。

  • We grow on it, build on it, build from it.

    我們在它的基礎上成長,在它的基礎上發展,在它的基礎上建設。

  • It filters and cleans our waters,

    它能過濾和清潔我們的水。

  • reduces flooding, and regulates our atmosphere.

    減少洪水,調節我們的大氣。

  • It's one of the most biodiverse habitats on Earth

    這裡是地球上生物多樣性最豐富的棲息地之一。

  • and a vital part of the nitrogen and carbon cycle on our planet.

    也是我們地球上氮碳循環的重要組成部分。

  • But the sad truth is,

    但可悲的是

  • right now, soil hasn't enough champions fighting for it.

    現在,土壤還沒有足夠的冠軍為它而戰。

  • We literally treat it like dirt.

    我們真的把它當做泥土。

  • And yet there is so much untapped potential,

    然而還有很多潛力沒有被挖掘出來。

  • so much wonder, and so many secrets, just waiting to be discovered

    這麼多的奇蹟,這麼多的祕密,就等著被發現。

  • in the ground beneath our feet.

    在我們腳下的土地上。

Soil...

土壤...

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 土壤 植物 微生物 生長 地球 蚯蚓

為什麼土壤是地球上最神奇的東西之一? (Why soil is one of the most amazing things on Earth | BBC Ideas)

  • 1 0
    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 28 日
影片單字