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  • October 22, 1962.

    1962 年10 月 22 日,

  • US President John F Kennedy deploys a fleet of warships to Cuba.

    美國總統 John F Kennedy 向古巴部署了一支軍艦艦隊。

  • To intercept Soviet cargo ships, which are already on the way, transporting nuclear missiles to the island.

    攔截已經在路上將把核導彈運送到島上的蘇聯貨船。

  • Kennedy strategically called the impending showdown:

    Kennedy 在戰略上稱即將進行的決戰:

  • "A strict quarantine of all offensive military equipment.”

    「嚴格隔離所有攻擊性的軍事裝備。」

  • What it really was, was a blockadewhich is an act of aggression.

    它實際上,是一種封鎖 (一種侵略性的行為)。

  • One wrong move on either side would trigger an all out nuclear war.

    任何一方的一個錯誤舉動都會引發全面的核戰爭。

  • And it all started here, a week earlier.

    而這一切都始於一週前的這裡。

  • With an aerial photograph that doesn't seem to show much, unless you're looking for something specific.

    一張似乎沒有顯示出什麼的航拍照片,但是仔細看就會找到特定的東西。

  • Pretty much immediately following the allied victory in World War II, the United States and Soviet Union became bitter enemies,

    盟軍在二戰勝利後,美國和蘇聯幾乎是立刻就成為了死敵,

  • kicking off a decades-long struggle for global influence known as theCold War”.

    並掀起了一場影響全球長達數十年的鬥爭,即所謂的 「冷戰」。

  • Espionage and intelligence were at the center of this conflict, most crucially surrounding the mutual buildup of nuclear arsenals capable of unprecedented levels of destruction.

    間諜和情報是這場衝突的中心,而最關鍵的是圍繞在相互都能建立出能造成空前破壞的核武庫。

  • But the US initially had a hard time keeping track of their nemesis.

    但美國最初很難掌握他們勁敵的行蹤。

  • The Soviet Union was notoriously secretive, and hid itself, and its actions from the world.

    蘇聯是出了名的神祕,並向世界隱藏自己及其行動。

  • "An iron curtain has descended across the continent."

    「鐵幕已經在整個大陸落下。」

  • Nobody knows what Soviet Russia intends to do in the immediate future."

    「沒有人知道蘇俄在近期內打算做什麼。」

  • Then-US President Dwight D Eisenhower saw a solution that built on experimental intelligence gathering from World War II:

    時任美國總統的 Dwight D Eisenhowe 看到了一個建立在二戰實驗性情報收集基礎上的解決方案,

  • Aerial photo analysis.

    即航拍分析。

  • In the late 1950s, the new high-altitude U-2 spy plane took photo reconnaissance to the next level.

    1950 年代末,新型高空 U-2 間諜機將攝影偵察提高到一個新的水準。

  • It was equipped with a powerful camera and could fly at a staggering height of 70,000 feet or roughly 13 miles above Earth's surface.

    它配備了強大的攝像頭,並可在離地球表面 7 萬英尺或約 13 英里的驚人高度飛行。

  • These cameras are described as capable of spotting a golf ball on a putting-green from 40,000 feet.”

    「這些攝影機稱作能在 4 萬英尺的地方發現在果嶺上的高爾夫球。」

  • In 1961, Eisenhower authorized the creation of a new surveillance arm of the CIA:

    1961 年,Eisenhower 授權成立中情局新的監視部門,

  • the National Photographic Interpretation Center, or NPIC.

    即國家攝影解說中心,簡稱 NPIC。

  • This small team of photo interpreters was trained in photogrammetry the science of determining measurements from photographs.

    這支小型的照片解說團隊接受了攝影測量培訓,可以從照片中確定測量結果。

  • Using this method, an expert photo interpreter could identify specific equipment hidden in the tiny details of photographs

    使用這種方法,專業的照片解說員可以識別隱藏在照片微小細節中的特定設備,

  • and recognize signs of nuclear missile site construction.

    並識別核導彈基地建設的跡象。

  • So what's all this got to do with Cuba?

    所以,這和古巴有什麼關係?

  • After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, where the US attempted to overthrow Cuba's communist government, ties between the Soviet Union and Cuba strengthened.

    在 1961 年入侵豬灣失敗後,美國試圖推翻與蘇聯關係增強的古巴共產政府。

  • The US worried that the Soviets might use Cuba as a nuclear missile base.

    美國擔心蘇聯會把古巴作為核導彈基地。

  • If so, they would suddenly have the Western Hemisphere within range of nuclear weapons.

    如果是這樣,他們就能驟然地將西半球納入核武器的射程之內。

  • The CIA began flying U-2 missions over Cuba and bringing the imagery to the NPIC,

    中央情報局開始在古巴上空執行 U-2 飛行任務,並將影像帶到國家情報局。

  • whose photo interpreters pored over every detail, searching for evidence of Soviet presence on the island.

    其照片解說員仔細檢查每一個細節,尋找蘇聯在島上存在的證據。

  • It was like looking for a needle in a mile-long haystackthat's how much film a single U-2 mission yields, covering huge amounts of land.

    這就像在一英里長的乾草堆裡找一根針,這就是 U-2 一次的任務所產生的膠卷數量,覆蓋大量土地。

  • But on October 15th, 1962, Dino Brugioni, a senior photo interpreter, found something.

    但在 1962 年 10 月 15 日,資深的照片解說員 Dino Brugioni 發現了一些東西。

  • This photo proved, beyond doubt, that the Soviets were building nuclear missile sites in Cuba.

    這張照片毫無疑問地證明,蘇聯人正在古巴建造核導彈基地。

  • Brugioni identified military tents and trucks, arranged in known-Soviet patterns.

    Brugioni 確定了軍用帳篷和卡車按照已知的蘇聯模式排列,

  • Launcher equipment.

    以及發射器設備。

  • And, most critically, missile transport trailers measuring 65 feet in length.

    而且,最關鍵的是,飛彈運輸拖車的長度為 65 英尺,

  • Which, when compared to a photo taken in Moscow, made it a perfect match for the Soviet SS-4,

    這與在莫斯科拍攝的照片對比後,發現它與蘇聯的 SS-4 完全吻合。

  • which had a range of 1,100 nautical miles, meaning American cities as far as Washington, DC would be in reach.

    它的射程為 1100 海里,這意味著遠至華盛頓特區的美國城市都可以到達。

  • When the NPIC briefed Kennedy on what they'd found, the president ordered a scaling up of U-2 missions to photograph and analyze all of Cuba.

    當 NPIC 向 Kennedy 彙報他們的發現時,總統下令擴大 U-2 任務的規模,以拍攝並分析整個古巴。

  • Photo analysts updated Kennedy daily and in secret on their progress, which gave them time to decide how to confront the Soviet Union.

    照片分析員每天祕密地向 Kennedy 彙報最新進展,這讓他們有時間決定如何與蘇聯對抗。

  • Given the evidence, Kennedy was strongly advised to launch air strikes against the missile sites and invade Cuba.

    鑑於證據確鑿,Kennedy 被強烈建議對導彈基地發動空襲,並入侵古巴。

  • But he took a more measured approach with his "strict quarantine of all offensive military equipment.”

    但他採取了更謹慎的方式,就是他的「嚴格隔離所有攻擊性軍事裝備」的政策。

  • Which kicked off 6 intense days between the US and the Soviet Union,

    這拉開了美蘇之間 6 天緊張關係的序幕,

  • with Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev calling Kennedy's movean act of aggression that pushes mankind to the abyss of world nuclear missile war.”

    且蘇聯總理 Nikita Krushchev 稱 Kennedy 的舉動是 「將人類推向世界核導彈戰爭深淵的侵略行為。」

  • "Round the clock processing of their film shows that work on the missile sites is being accelerated."

    「對他們的膠捲進行 24 小時不間斷的處理,表明飛彈發射場的工作正在加快進行。」

  • The damning photos were revealed to allies at the United Nations, as the US military rapidly mobilized and was placed on high alert, and Cuba prepared for another invasion.

    當美軍迅速動員起來並處於高度戒備狀態,且古巴為再次入侵做準備的同時,證據確鑿的的照片在聯合國向盟友曝光。

  • But when Soviet freighters reached the quarantine line….

    但當蘇聯貨輪到達檢疫線時....

  • "A Soviet-chartered vessel Amaruchla is stopped, boarded, and inspected, then cleared to proceed to Cuba."

    「一艘蘇聯租用的 Amaruchla 號船被攔截並登船檢查,然後獲准前往古巴。」

  • "Apparently the Soviet vessels loaded with offensive weapons have turned back."

    「顯然,裝載攻擊性武器的蘇軍艦艇已經折返。」

  • A few days later, Kennedy received a message from Kruschev.

    幾天後,Kennedy 收到了 Kruschev 的消息。

  • The Soviet Union had agreed to withdraw from Cuba in exchange for the US removing missiles it had placed in Turkey and Italy.

    蘇聯已同意從古巴撤軍,以換取美國拆除其在土耳其和意大利放置的飛彈。

  • So, the nuclear missile sites were dismantled and the Soviets left.

    於是,核導彈基地被拆除,蘇聯人離開了,

  • Transporting their nuclear missiles with them back across the Iron Curtain.

    將他們的核導彈一起運回鐵幕。

  • In a personal thank you letter to the NPIC, Kennedy emphasized the importance of the analysis

    Kennedy 在給 NPIC 的私人感謝信中,強調了分析的重要性,

  • and interpretation of the Cuban photography in advising the US's response in what is now called the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    和對古巴照片的解說,為美國在現在所謂的古巴導彈危機中的回應提供建議。

  • "In summary: the Soviet Union did embark upon a bold venture to establish clandestinely in the Western Hemisphere a major offensive weapons base."

    「綜上所述,蘇聯確實進行了一次大膽的冒險,在西半球祕密建立了一個重要的攻擊性武器基地。」

  • "That they were deterred in this effort is in large part attributable to the type of reconnaissance photography that we have just reviewed."

    「他們之所以受到阻嚇,在很大程度上歸因於我們剛剛回顧過的偵察攝影。」

October 22, 1962.

1962 年10 月 22 日,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 美國腔 Vox 蘇聯 古巴 照片 攝影 基地

這張照片幾乎引發了一場核戰爭 (This photo almost started a nuclear war)

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    zoe 發佈於 2021 年 02 月 06 日
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