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  • Octopusesyes, that is an appropriate pluralare some of the most beautiful,

    章魚--是的,這是一個合適的複數--是最美麗的一些。

  • mysterious, and absurdly intelligent creatures on this planet.

    神祕而又荒誕的智慧生物在這個星球上。

  • They can change color. They can change shape and texture. They strategize, play, and solve

    它們可以改變顏色。他們可以改變形狀和質地。他們會制定戰略、玩耍和解決

  • puzzles. They've got three hearts, their skin can see, their blood is blue, their magic

    謎題。他們有三顆心,他們的皮膚可以看到,他們的血液是藍色的,他們的魔法。

  • trick is disappearing, and over half of their brain is not in their head. Instead, it's

    伎倆正在消失,他們一半以上的大腦不在腦中。相反,它是

  • in these things. No, they're not tentacles. They're arms!

    在這些東西。不,他們不是觸手。它們是手臂!

  • And because they're some of the most fascinating arms in the animal kingdom, today, we're

    因為它們是動物王國中最迷人的武器,今天,我們要介紹的是

  • gonna wrestle with those.

    會與這些摔跤。

  • So, first, a quick taxonomic rundown. In the

    所以,先來個快速的分類概述。在

  • cephalopoda class, you've got squid, octopuses, and cuttlefish. Cephalopod literally means

    頭足類,你有烏賊,章魚,墨魚。頭足類的字面意思是

  • head footin Greek, and I mean, it kinda works.

    "頭腳 "在希臘語中,我的意思是,它有點工作。

  • Octopuses are a bit different from other cephalopods: squid and cuttlefish actually do have tentacles.

    章魚與其他頭足類動物有些不同:烏賊和墨魚其實是有觸角的。

  • Two of those bad boys, specifically, which they use for hunting. Tentacles are often

    其中有兩個壞小子,專門用來打獵的。觸手往往是

  • longer and kinda slimy, with suckers or hooks at their tips.

    較長,有點粘稠,頂端有吸盤或鉤子。

  • All those other lanky limbs are arms, used for grappling, grasping, galloping, and generally

    其他那些粗壯的四肢都是手臂,用於抓取,抓取,奔跑,以及一般的

  • getting up to mischief. The first thing it's important to know about

    搞起了惡作劇。首先要知道的是......。

  • octopus arms is that they can think on their own. While that might not sound too surprising

    章魚臂是,它們可以自己思考。雖然這聽起來可能並不太令人驚訝

  • when it comes to the third-right arm that, incidentally, functions like a penis, it's

    說到右三臂,順便說一下,功能像陰莖,它是... ...

  • a complete departure from how most animals that we considerintelligentoperate.

    與我們認為 "聰明 "的大多數動物的運作方式完全不同。

  • Look at your hand. Before you pick up a snack, you think about it. And then your hangry brain

    看看你的手。在你拿起零食之前,你會想一想。然後你那飢腸轆轆的大腦

  • sends messages through your spinal cord to your hand, and your fingertips use their few

    通過你的脊髓向你的手發送信息,而你的指尖則用它們的幾個

  • hundred mechanical receptors to achieve the task.

    百個機械受體來實現任務。

  • Now, if you were an octopus, your fingers would first find the snack, sniff it, decide

    如果你是章魚,你的手指會先找到零食,聞一聞,再決定是否要吃

  • if it's worth your time, and grab ahold of it, and then, maybe, be kind enough to inform

    如果它值得你的時間,並抓住它,然後,也許,是好心告知

  • your brain about the entire thing. Well, the rest of your brain, that is.

    你的大腦對整個事情。嗯,你的大腦的其餘部分,這是。

  • See, about two thirds of what we call an octopus's “brain,” or its neurons at least, are

    你看,我們所說的章魚的 "大腦",或者說它的神經元,大約有三分之二都是

  • located in its eight arms. For them, this meansthinkingis a full-body experience.

    位於其八條手臂中。對他們來說,這意味著 "思考 "是一種全身的體驗。

  • Compared to those few hundred mechanical receptors in your fingertip, each sucker on an octopus

    與你指尖的幾百個機械感受器相比,章魚上的每一個吸盤

  • has tens of thousands of both chemical and mechanical receptors. This means that

    擁有數以萬計的化學和機械受體。這意味著

  • they can essentially taste an object as well as feel its texture and weight, and decide

    他們基本上可以嚐到一個物體的味道,也能感覺到它的質地和重量,並決定。

  • what to do with it without waiting for a command from the central brain.

    不用等中樞大腦的指令,就能知道該怎麼做。

  • While the amount varies, the average number of suckers on each arm is over two hundred.

    雖然數量不一,但平均每條手臂上的吸盤數量都在兩百個以上。

  • So, do a little math and that's hundreds of millions of sensory cells to explore the world.

    所以,算一算,那就是幾億個感覺細胞來探索世界。

  • That's a lot of information! Each sucker is made of two regions: the disk-like

    這信息量可真大啊!每個吸盤都是由兩個區域組成的:盤狀的...

  • part you can see is the infundibulum, while the center cavity is called the acetabulum.

    你可以看到的部分是下頜骨,而中心腔被稱為髖臼。

  • When an octopus reaches for something, the infundibulum will flatten to feel the surface first.

    當章魚伸手去拿東西的時候,下頜骨會先放平摸到表面。

  • The octopus uses its sucker's acetabulum to attach to the object,

    章魚用它的吸盤的髖臼附著在物體上。

  • with a combination of radial and

    結合徑向和

  • meridional muscles and tiny hairs that maintain the connection like velcro.

    經絡肌肉和細小的毛髮,像魔術貼一樣維持著連接。

  • This makes the animal's grip so strong that the largest suckers out there can lift about

    這使得動物的抓地力很強,最大的吸盤能舉起約1.

  • one Dolores worth of weighteach. And oh, um, did I mention their arms can regenerate, too?

    每個人... 都有一個Dolores的價值。哦,嗯,我有沒有提到他們的手臂也能再生?

  • With all of their incredible abilities, humans

    人類擁有不可思議的能力

  • are looking to octopuses to not only better understand intelligence and consciousness,

    正在尋找章魚,不僅可以更好地瞭解智力和意識。

  • but to inspire innovations in materials science, medicine, and especially, soft robotics.

    但要激發材料科學、醫學,特別是軟機器人技術的創新。

  • There's so many challenging questions in the engineering side that we don't know the answers.

    工程方面有很多挑戰性的問題,我們不知道答案。

  • Nature has already figured it out. So, in particular, regarding octopus, they've

    大自然已經想好了。所以,特別是關於章魚,它們已經...

  • got eight arms, of course. Think about each of these arms have technically infinite

    當然,有八條手臂。想一想這些手臂在技術上都是無限的。

  • degrees of freedom. And controlling even a single arm with so many degrees of freedom

    自由度。而控制哪怕是一隻手臂,也有這麼多的自由度。

  • is a very challenging task for us as engineers. That's why Hamid and his team are working

    對我們工程師來說,是一項非常具有挑戰性的任務。這就是為什麼哈米德和他的團隊正在努力工作

  • on developing robots made of hydrogel, which mimic the structure of an octopus' arm.

    關於開發由水凝膠製成的機器人,它模仿章魚的手臂結構。

  • The interesting thing about hydrogel is you can make it so that it responds to light,

    關於水凝膠的有趣之處在於,你可以讓它對光做出反應。

  • mechanical, electrical and chemical stimulation, just like an octopus. And then what

    機械、電和化學刺激,就像章魚一樣。 然後呢

  • we proposed was to 3D print the entire structure using hydrogel, in one shot, with embedded

    我們提出的建議是使用水凝膠3D打印整個結構,一次完成,並嵌入了大量的水凝膠。

  • neurons made of silver.

    銀製的神經元。

  • If they're successful, this octo-bot could make huge strides in fields from manufacturing

    如果他們成功了,這個八角機器人可以在製造等領域取得巨大進步。

  • to medicine. Think sensitive, flexible machines that could assist with assembly or surgery.

    到醫學。想想敏感、靈活的機器,可以協助裝配或手術。

  • So, let's take care of our oceans today to make sure they're healthy for generations

    所以,讓我們今天就來愛護我們的海洋,確保它們世代健康成長

  • to come. Because with so many incredible, strange creatures with such amazing capabilities,

    來的。因為有了這麼多不可思議的、能力如此驚人的奇異生物。

  • who knows where the mysteries of the deep will take us next?

    誰知道下一步深海的奧祕會把我們帶到哪裡?

  • Thanks for joining us for this first season of Tusks to Tails. Keep coming back to Seeker

    謝謝你加入我們第一季的《牙牙學語》。請繼續關注 "探索者"。

  • for all your science deep-dives, and we'll see you next time!

    為你所有的科學深潛,我們下次再見!

Octopusesyes, that is an appropriate pluralare some of the most beautiful,

章魚--是的,這是一個合適的複數--是最美麗的一些。

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B2 中高級 中文 章魚 手臂 大腦 機械 動物 指尖

章魚能聞到、感覺到,還能用手臂思考,等等什麼? (Octopuses Can Smell, Feel, AND Think With Their Arms, Wait What?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 26 日
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