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  • It was one of those dark days during the medieval Inquisitions.

    那是中世紀審訊期間的黑暗日子之一。

  • A group of Inquisitors were looking at a man who was strapped to a chair.

    一群審神者正看著一個被綁在椅子上的男人。

  • He'd not only been accused of heresy, but his captors also believed this guy had been

    他不僅被指控為異端,而且他的俘虜也認為這傢伙已經

  • dabbling in the dark arts, what they referred to asmaleficium.”

    涉足黑暗的藝術,他們稱之為 "maleficium"。

  • The captive sat with his head in his hands, sobbing, pleading to the Inquisitors.

    俘虜抱著頭坐著,抽泣著向審訊官求情。

  • He was well aware that even though he'd confessed to a crime he hadn't committed,

    他很清楚,雖然他承認了自己沒有犯罪。

  • he was due for another round of torture.

    他應該受到新一輪的折磨。

  • This time he was expected to give the names of the witches he'd allegedly been working

    這一次,他要說出他所謂的女巫的名字。

  • with.

    與:

  • There were no witches, of course, but what's a man supposed to do when he is presented

    當然,沒有女巫,但當一個人被介紹給他時,他該怎麼做呢?

  • with one of most monstrous torture devices ever created.

    有史以來最可怕的酷刑設備之一。

  • Today we're going to talk about three devices in one show.

    今天我們要在一檔節目中講三個設備。

  • The reason for that is because their application was quite similar in that they were designed

    原因是他們的應用很相似,他們的設計是

  • to crush or mutilate a part of the body in order to extract a confession or information.

    * 壓碎或殘害身體的一部分,以獲取供詞或資訊;

  • The other reason is it's thought they were all used during the Inquisitions.

    另一個原因是,人們認為它們都是在審訊期間使用的。

  • When many of you hear the wordinquisitionthe thing that likely springs to mind is a

    當你們中的許多人聽到 "宗教裁判所 "這個詞時,很可能會想到的是一個

  • bunch of barbaric Spanish Roman Catholics in the Late Middle Ages investigating anyone

    蠻子

  • accused of not practicing their religion, whether they were pagans or folks belonging

    被指控不信教,無論他們是異教徒還是鄉親,都會被指控不信教。

  • to another religion.

    皈依另一宗教。

  • It's true that many Jewish people in Spain were brutally tortured and killed, and even

    的確,在西班牙,許多猶太人被殘酷地折磨和殺害,甚至是

  • if they did convert, life was often still very difficult for those people.

    如果他們真的改變了信仰,對這些人來說,生活往往還是非常困難的。

  • Thoseconversosstill met with suspicion and experienced discrimination.

    這些 "對話者 "仍然受到懷疑和歧視。

  • Muslims were also persecuted, killed, or just kicked out of Spain.

    穆斯林也被迫害、殺害,或者直接被趕出西班牙。

  • Under Tomás de Torquemada, Spain's Grand Inquisitor, many hundreds of accused heretics

    在西班牙的大審訊官托馬斯-德-托克馬達的上司下,數百名被指控為異端的人。

  • were burned at the stake.

    被燒死在火刑柱上。

  • During the late 15th century and early 16th century it was a bad time not to be Roman

    在15世紀末16世紀初,這是個不做羅馬人的壞日子。

  • Catholic, and as you'll soon see, being burned at the stake was sometimes just a blood-stained

    天主教徒,你很快就會看到,被燒死在火刑柱上,有時只是一個沾滿鮮血的 "血人"。

  • cherry on top of a very ugly cake.

    在一個非常醜陋的蛋糕上的櫻桃。

  • The Spanish Inquisition was a monster with very long tentacles, so wherever Spain had

    西班牙宗教裁判所是一個觸角很長的怪物,所以無論西班牙在哪裡有

  • interests abroad, there was bloodshed in the name of the Catholic Church.

    國外的利益,以天主教會的名義進行了流血。

  • We don't want you to think it was only people inside Spain that suffered.

    我們不希望你認為只有西班牙境內的人受苦。

  • That's far from the truth.

    這與事實相差甚遠。

  • Then there was the Portuguese Inquisition and the Roman Inquisition and prior to that

    然後是葡萄牙宗教裁判所和羅馬宗教裁判所,在這之前還有

  • the Medieval Inquisitions, and those went back to the 12th century and spanned much

    中世紀的審問,而這些可以追溯到12世紀,並跨越了大部分時間。

  • of Europe.

    歐洲的。

  • The torture and executions and persecutions only really stopped in the 19th century, so

    酷刑和處決以及迫害在19世紀才真正停止,所以

  • when we are talking about the Inquisition, well, it's complicated.

    當我們在談論宗教裁判所的時候, 嗯, 這很複雜.

  • Anyone deemed non-Catholic could have been a target, and that included so-called witches

    任何被認為不是天主教徒的人都可能成為目標,包括所謂的女巫。

  • and even scientists.

    甚至科學家。

  • You might recall the fact that the brilliant scientist Galileo Galilei got on the wrong

    你可能還記得,傑出的科學家伽利略-伽利萊上錯了車。

  • side of the Catholic Church.

    天主教會方面。

  • Thisfather of modern physicswas accused of heresy by the Inquisitors, but he kept

    這位 "現代物理學之父 "被審訊官指控為異端,但他卻保持著

  • his head and his knees and accepted a life sentence of house arrest.

    他的頭和膝蓋,並接受了終身軟禁的判決。

  • He was never tortured like some unlucky heretics, but he was threatened with torture.

    他從來沒有像一些倒黴的異教徒那樣受到酷刑,但他卻受到了酷刑的威脅。

  • We are telling you all this because when we're talking about brutality handed down by those

    我們之所以告訴你們這些,是因為當我們在談論由那些人傳下來的暴行時

  • inquisitive Catholics, it went on for centuries, often behind closed doors, and the inquisitors

    它持續了好幾個世紀,常常是閉門造車,而審問者們

  • used all kinds of ways to hurt people.

    用各種方式來傷害人。

  • How many people were tortured or executed or both is a matter of mystery since historians

    有多少人被拷打或被處決或兩者兼而有之,這是一個謎,因為歷史學家

  • can't agree.

    不能同意。

  • Some say as many as 30,000 people were executed during the Spanish Inquisitions alone, while

    有人說,僅在西班牙審訊期間,就有多達3萬人被處死,而。

  • others put the number much higher, others lower.

    其他人把這個數字放得更高,其他人則更低。

  • How many people died at the hands of inquisitors from the 12th to the 19th century is a bigger

    從12世紀到19世紀,有多少人死在審訊官手裡,這是一個更大的。

  • mystery.

    神祕的。

  • Maybe it was hundreds of thousands, but some historians would disagree.

    也許是幾十萬,但有些歷史學家會不同意。

  • So, that brings us to today's torture devices.

    所以,這就有了今天的刑具。

  • As you know from some of our other punishment shows, there is a chance that some torture

    你從我們其他的一些懲罰節目中也知道,有可能會出現一些酷刑

  • devices sitting in museums today weren't even used, or not used often.

    今天放在博物館裡的設備甚至沒有被使用過,或者不經常使用。

  • Stories of how other unusual torture devices were used could have been greatly exaggerated

    關於如何使用其他不尋常的酷刑手段的故事可能被大大誇大了。

  • by people who talked about them a century or two after they were supposedly employed

    被那些在他們被僱傭後一兩個世紀還在談論他們的人所接受。

  • for the last time.

    最後一次。

  • Ok, so in terms of crappy things that can happen to you in this life, having your head

    好吧,所以在蹩腳的事情,可以發生在你在這個生活中,有你的頭。

  • slowly crushed has to be in the top five.

    慢慢的被碾壓,必須要進入前五名。

  • You might have seen what the first stages of such an act looks like if you've ever

    你可能已經看到了這種行為的第一階段是什麼樣子的,如果你曾經有過。

  • seen the movie, “Casino.”

    看過電影,"賭場"。

  • A scene in that film shows a man's head being crushed in a vise, something that was

    在那部電影中,有一幕是一個人的頭被老虎鉗壓碎了,那是什麼?

  • based on fact.

    以事實為依據。

  • Apparently, in real life the mobster named Anthony Spilotro actually did that until the

    顯然,在現實生活中,那個叫安東尼-斯皮洛羅的黑幫老大其實也是這麼做的,直到後來的

  • man's eye popped out.

    男人的眼珠子跳了出來。

  • The guy soon talked, so the torture wasn't taken to it messy conclusion.

    這傢伙很快就開口了,所以拷問並沒有被帶到亂七八糟的結局。

  • He did, however, have his throat cut after being set on fire.

    不過,他確實在被火燒後被割斷了喉嚨。

  • That would have been quite a fitting way to die at the hands of Catholic interrogators.

    如果死在天主教審訊員的手裡,那是相當合適的方式。

  • During the Inquisition the instrument used to crush a head was slightly different, in

    在宗教裁判所期間,用來壓碎人頭的工具略有不同,在。

  • that the head would be placed under a kind of dome-shaped lid.

    頭部會被放在一種圓頂形的蓋子下。

  • The chin would be supported on something below, so the head was held firm.

    下巴會被下面的東西支撐著,所以頭部被牢牢地固定住。

  • Through the top of the helmet a screwed iron bar would then be twisted which would drive

    通過頭盔頂部的螺絲鐵條,然後將其扭動,這將推動。

  • itself into the skull of the victim.

    它本身就是受害者的頭骨。

  • You can only imagine how much pain this would cause.

    你可以想象這會造成多大的痛苦。

  • Once the skull was pierced, another twist or two and it would be game over.

    一旦頭骨被刺穿,再轉一兩圈就會遊戲結束。

  • According to some sources we found, the torturer would often only twist enough to cause unbearable

    根據我們找到的一些資料顯示,施刑者往往只會扭曲到讓人無法忍受的地步

  • pain, and that was about the time the person wearing the helmet would give up his allies

    痛苦,而這時戴頭盔的人就會放棄他的盟友。

  • if indeed he had any.

    - 如果他真的有任何。

  • It's likely he'd tell you anything at that point, so anyone tortured would later

    那時候他很可能什麼都會告訴你,所以任何人受了酷刑以後都會

  • have to confess again when he was in better shape.

    等他狀態好一點的時候,又要表白。

  • There were variations of the head crusher.

    頭部破碎機有各種變化。

  • One of them we found doesn't have a part that pierces the skull, so the top part is

    我們找到的其中一個沒有穿透頭骨的部分,所以上面的部分是。

  • just like a regular helmet.

    就像一個普通的頭盔。

  • The more turns of the screw in this case would no doubt crush the jaw first and ruin a perfectly

    在這種情況下,螺桿轉的圈數越多,無疑會先壓壞鉗口,毀掉一個完美的。

  • good set of teeth.

    一副好牙。

  • Eyes would likely roll and if the screw was turned more then the entire head would be

    眼睛很可能會轉動,如果螺絲轉得更大,那麼整個頭就會被轉動。

  • crushed.

    碾壓。

  • The victim's brain would ooze out of the helmet like melting strawberry ice scream.

    受害者的大腦會像融化的草莓冰尖叫一樣從頭盔中滲出。

  • Yep, that sounds about as grim as you can get, even compared to a lot of other punishments

    是的,這聽起來很殘酷,甚至比起很多其他的懲罰來都要殘酷

  • we've mentioned in the series.

    我們在系列中提到的。

  • If the torturer put on the breaks before everything was crushed, it's highly unlikely that person

    如果施刑者在所有東西被壓碎之前就把斷裂的東西放上去,那麼這個人的可能性就很小。

  • would make any kind of recovery.

    會做出任何形式的恢復。

  • With their jaw in pieces and their eyes missing, life wouldn't have been much fun.

    他們的下巴支離破碎,眼睛也不見了,生活就沒有什麼樂趣了。

  • We actually found one website that told us one of these machines actually had a trough

    其實我們發現有一個網站告訴我們,其中有一臺機器其實是有槽的。

  • attached to it to collect the eyes when they burst out.

    附在上面,以便在眼睛爆裂時收集。

  • But did it happen like this?

    但是,是否有這樣的情況呢?

  • Were these stories the work of Protestant propagandists that came later or are they

    這些故事是後來的新教宣傳家的作品,還是他們的

  • creations of imaginative people that have only ever seen photos of the devices online?

    只在網上看到過設備照片的想象力豐富的人的作品?

  • That's the million dollar question.

    這就是一百萬美元的問題。

  • We can find plenty of sources stating the torture happened this way, but they don't

    我們可以找到很多資料,說明酷刑是這樣發生的,但他們沒有

  • supply any evidence such as written accounts or even sketches.

    提供任何證據,如書面說明甚至素描;

  • One thing we do know is that the devices exist today, most of which are in museums.

    我們知道的一件事是,這些設備如今已經存在,其中大部分都在博物館裡。

  • Still, the iron maiden can be found in museums and not many serious historians think that

    不過,在博物館裡還是可以找到鐵娘子的身影,沒有多少嚴肅的歷史學家認為。

  • diabolical contraption was ever used on anyone.

    邪惡的裝置曾經使用在任何人身上。

  • Then again, people back then were pulled apart on racks.

    話又說回來,那時候的人都是在架子上拉開的。

  • They were sawn in half from the groin up and they were flayed alive, so it's not unthinkable

    他們被從腹股溝處鋸成兩半,還被活活剝了皮,所以這不是不可想象的。

  • that the head crusher was used.

    即使用了頭部破碎機。

  • You can find other devices in museums that kind of did the same thing.

    你可以在博物館裡找到其他的設備,算是做了同樣的事情。

  • One of those is what's called theskull splitter.”

    其中一個就是所謂的 "頭骨分割器"。

  • The skull splitter looks kind of like a metal halo filled with spikes.

    骷髏分身看起來有點像一個充滿尖刺的金屬光環。

  • This would be put on the person's head and then a key would tighten the halo.

    這個會戴在人的頭上,然後用鑰匙將光環擰緊。

  • The spikes would start crushing the skull and if the key was turned more the top of

    釘子會開始壓碎頭骨,如果鑰匙轉得更多,頭骨的頂部就會被壓碎。

  • the head would be crushed.

    腦袋會被壓碎。

  • Again, we can find plenty of sources that state such a contraption was used during the

    同樣,我們可以找到大量的資料表明,這樣的裝置是使用期間的。

  • Middle Ages to extract information or execute a person, but we can't find the original

    中世紀提取資訊或處死一個人,但我們找不到原件。

  • source of the information.

    資訊的來源。

  • Still, during that period there was such a thing as an Inquisitor advice manual which

    不過,在那個時期,還是有審神者建議手冊這樣的東西,它的內容是

  • told inquisitors the best ways to torture someone.

    告訴審訊官最好的折磨人的方法。

  • Rather than talk about crushing heads, though, it focuses on advice about how to interrogate

    不過,它並沒有談及粉碎性的頭顱,而是著重於如何審訊的建議。

  • really tricky prisoners.

    真正棘手的囚犯。

  • There's even stuff in there about the cost of rope that was used to tie up a person about

    裡面甚至有一些東西,關於繩子的成本,用來捆綁一個人,關於

  • to be burned at the stake.

    要被燒死在火刑柱上。

  • Here's a snippet from the manual, something that sounds similar to what authorities do

    這是手冊上的一段話,聽起來和當局的做法很相似。

  • these days: “Be sitting there.

    這幾天。"要坐在那裡。

  • Have a huge stack of documents in front of you.

    在你面前有一大堆文件。

  • And as the person is answering questions, flip through the documents as if you have

    而在對方回答問題的時候,翻閱文件,就像你有了

  • more information than this person could dream of.

    比這個人夢想的資訊更多。

  • And every so often, shake your head as if you can't believe what they're saying.”

    而且每隔一段時間,就搖搖頭,好像不敢相信他們說的話。"

  • That's quite enlightening information, but after an exhaustive search, we couldn't

    這是相當有啟發性的資訊,但經過詳盡的搜索,我們無法做到。

  • find anything about head crushing.

    找到任何關於頭部粉碎。

  • After a bit of a deeper dive into this it seems that such grizzly torture instruments

    深入瞭解了一下,似乎這樣的灰熊刑具

  • were not used very often, but for sure the person being interrogated would know what

    不經常使用,但可以肯定的是,被審訊的人將知道什麼。

  • was going to happen to them if they didn't spill the beans.

    會發生在他們身上,如果他們不說出來。

  • Can you imagine how'd feel walking into an interrogation room and seeing a head crusher

    你能想象走進審訊室看到一個頭顱破碎機的感覺嗎?

  • sitting on a desk?

    坐在桌子上?

  • It's very likely these instruments were mostly used to scare people rather than crush

    很有可能這些工具主要是用來嚇唬人的,而不是用來碾壓人的。

  • heads.

    腦袋。

  • When people were sitting in front of the instrument of torture this part of the interrogation

    當人們坐在刑具前的時候,這部分的審訊工作

  • was called, “in conspectus tormentorum.”

    被稱為,"在conspectus tormentorum"。

  • A loose translation of that could be, “tormented by what's in front of you.”

    粗略的翻譯可以是,"被眼前的事物折磨著"。

  • The inquisitors kept notes of their deeds, and it seems for the most part the torture

    審訊官們對他們的行為進行了記錄,似乎大部分的刑訊

  • employed was hanging people up from ropes or stretching them on the rack.

    受僱於人的是用繩子把人吊起來,或者在架子上拉伸。

  • There are records of what people said when they were stretched, such as this, “Oh God,

    記載了人們在被拉長時說的話,比如這樣說:"天啊。

  • Oh God, there's no mercy.

    哦,上帝,沒有憐憫。

  • Oh God, help me, help me.”

    哦,上帝,幫幫我,幫幫我。"

  • Yep, they actually took the minutes of the torture.

    是的,他們真的拍下了拷問的記錄。

  • In conclusion, it doesn't take a great leap of faith to believe the head crusher might

    總而言之,不需要太大的信念跳躍,就能相信頭部破碎機可能會有

  • have been pulled out now and again for certain people.

    已經時不時地被某些人拉出來。

  • This brings us to the device known as the knee splitter, something that looks like the

    這就有了被稱為膝關節分離器的裝置,這個東西看起來就像

  • gaping mouth of a monster.

    怪獸的大嘴。

  • Again, it's highly likely the inquisitors would have done something like waterboarding

    同樣,審訊官極有可能會做類似水刑的事情

  • a personyep, they did thatbefore they started splitting knees.

    一個人--是的,他們做了--在他們開始分膝之前。

  • Unlike the head crusher, the knee splitter wouldn't have caused a quick death.

    與頭顱粉碎機不同,膝關節分裂機不會造成快速死亡。

  • The victim might have died later from blood loss, but the crushing of some bones would

    受害者可能後來因失血過多而死,但一些骨骼的粉碎會

  • not lead directly to the grave.

    不直接通向墳墓。

  • What would happen is a person's knees were placed inside the jaws of the device and then

    會發生的情況是,一個人的膝蓋被放置在設備的鉗口內,然後...

  • a handle would be turned so the jaws closed on the knees.

    轉動手柄,使下顎閉合在膝蓋上。

  • If the inquisitors were happy with the confession someone gave them, perhaps they would relieve

    如果審訊官們對某人給他們的供詞感到滿意,也許他們會減輕

  • the victim of his or her agony and the knees would stay in one piece.

    受害者的痛苦,膝蓋會保持完整。

  • If those jaws closed all the way, well, the knees would be completely crushed, and the

    如果那些下巴全部閉合,那麼,膝蓋就會被完全壓碎,而那

  • person would never walk again.

    人就再也走不動了。

  • This device was said to have manifold applications, so arms or feet or hands could have been the

    據說這個裝置有多方面的用途,所以手臂或腳或手都有可能被用來做 "手"。

  • body part of choice.

    身體部位的選擇。

  • Some sources explain that this device may have come into existence in Germany in the

    有資料解釋說,這種裝置可能是在德國出現的。

  • year 1530, but yet again after upturning a lot of stones, we struggled to find historical

    但是,在翻了很多石頭之後,我們又一次艱難地找到了歷史的痕跡。

  • records of when the knee splitter was used.

    使用膝關節分離器的時間記錄;

  • If it was used, then we guess it was only on special occasions.

    如果用了,那我們估計只有在特殊場合才會用。

  • Most of the time a heretic or a relapsed heretic would have not met with such creative torture,

    大多數時候,一個異端或復發的異端是不會遇到這種創造性的折磨的。

  • but that doesn't mean they wouldn't have ended up being burned at the stake.

    但這並不意味著他們不會最終被燒死在火刑柱上。

  • Lastly, we come to the breast ripper, a similar device that caused disfigurement, but this

    最後,我們來看看開胸器,這是一種類似的設備,造成了毀容,但這一

  • time used only on women.

    只用於女性的時間。

  • Those women might have been accused of aborting a baby or cheating on their husband.

    這些婦女可能被指控墮胎或出軌。

  • Sometimes calledThe Spider”, it's thought the instrument was used in Germany

    有時被稱為 "蜘蛛",據說這種樂器是在德國使用的。

  • in the 15th century.

    在15世紀。

  • Inquisitors may also have used the breast ripper on women accused of witchcraft, or

    審訊官也可能對被控施展巫術的婦女使用開胸器,或對被控施展巫術的婦女使用開胸器。

  • heresy, or perhaps even blasphemy.

    異端,甚至可能是褻瀆。

  • Sometimes the claws on the device would be heated up until they were glowing red, which

    有時,設備上的爪子會被加熱,直到它們發紅,這就是所謂的 "紅色"。

  • would inflict much more pain and damage.

    會造成更大的痛苦和傷害。

  • The result would be total mutilation of the accused's breasts.

    其結果是被告人的乳房被完全切除。

  • Yet again, finding evidence of when such an apparatus was used isn't easy at all.

    然而,要找到這種儀器在什麼時候使用的證據,又一點也不容易。

  • The instruments certainly existed, and they were likely used, especially during the witch

    這些工具肯定是存在的,而且它們很可能被使用過,特別是在巫師的時候。

  • hunts.

    狩獵。

  • There's plenty of evidence of so-called witches being tortured on areas of their bodies

    有很多證據表明,所謂的女巫在身體的各個部位都受到了拷打

  • they don't usually show to anyone but their lovers.

    他們通常不給任何人看,但他們的情人。

  • You might know the name King James from the bible he sponsored, but the man also wrote

    你可能知道詹姆士王這個名字來自於他所贊助的聖經,但這個人也寫了

  • an absolutely crazy book called, “Daemonologie, in Forme of a Dialogue.”

    一本絕對瘋狂的書叫 "Daemonologie, in Forme of a Dialogue".

  • This was basically an absurd treatise on demons and witchcraft.

    這基本上是一篇關於妖怪和巫術的荒謬論述。

  • James was obsessed with witches and he seemed to take great pleasure in ruthlessly torturing

    詹姆士迷戀女巫 他似乎以無情地折磨女巫為樂

  • those accused of dancing with the devil.

    那些被指控與魔鬼共舞的人。

  • When he was King of Scotland and not yet King of both Scotland, England and Ireland, James

    當他還是蘇格蘭國王,還沒有成為蘇格蘭、英格蘭和愛爾蘭的國王時,詹姆斯

  • was there for the North Berwick witch trials.

    在那裡參加了北伯裡克的女巫審判。

  • Many times, he oversaw the torture of accused female witches and sometimes the dreaded breast

    很多時候,他監督了對被指控的女巫的拷問,有時還監督了可怕的乳房。

  • rippers were used, among other nasty things.

    使用了開膛手,還有其他討厭的東西。

  • Now you need to watch this, “"Bloody Mary" Mary I of England.”

    現在你需要看這個,""血腥瑪麗 "英國的瑪麗一世。"

  • Or, have a look at this, “Why Did The King Of England Execute His Wives?”

    或者,看看這個 "英國國王為什麼要處死他的妻子?"

It was one of those dark days during the medieval Inquisitions.

那是中世紀審訊期間的黑暗日子之一。

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B2 中高級 中文 女巫 酷刑 審訊 設備 頭骨 西班牙

頭部粉碎機--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰措施 (Head Crusher - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 26 日
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