字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 It was one of those dark days during the medieval Inquisitions. 那是中世紀審訊期間的黑暗日子之一。 A group of Inquisitors were looking at a man who was strapped to a chair. 一群審神者正看著一個被綁在椅子上的男人。 He'd not only been accused of heresy, but his captors also believed this guy had been 他不僅被指控為異端，而且他的俘虜也認為這傢伙已經 dabbling in the dark arts, what they referred to as “maleficium.” 涉足黑暗的藝術，他們稱之為 "maleficium"。 The captive sat with his head in his hands, sobbing, pleading to the Inquisitors. 俘虜抱著頭坐著，抽泣著向審訊官求情。 He was well aware that even though he'd confessed to a crime he hadn't committed, 他很清楚，雖然他承認了自己沒有犯罪。 he was due for another round of torture. 他應該受到新一輪的折磨。 This time he was expected to give the names of the witches he'd allegedly been working 這一次，他要說出他所謂的女巫的名字。 with. 與： There were no witches, of course, but what's a man supposed to do when he is presented 當然，沒有女巫，但當一個人被介紹給他時，他該怎麼做呢？ with one of most monstrous torture devices ever created. 有史以來最可怕的酷刑設備之一。 Today we're going to talk about three devices in one show. 今天我們要在一檔節目中講三個設備。 The reason for that is because their application was quite similar in that they were designed 原因是他們的應用很相似，他們的設計是 to crush or mutilate a part of the body in order to extract a confession or information. * 壓碎或殘害身體的一部分，以獲取供詞或資訊； The other reason is it's thought they were all used during the Inquisitions. 另一個原因是，人們認為它們都是在審訊期間使用的。 When many of you hear the word “inquisition” the thing that likely springs to mind is a 當你們中的許多人聽到 "宗教裁判所 "這個詞時，很可能會想到的是一個 bunch of barbaric Spanish Roman Catholics in the Late Middle Ages investigating anyone 蠻子 accused of not practicing their religion, whether they were pagans or folks belonging 被指控不信教，無論他們是異教徒還是鄉親，都會被指控不信教。 to another religion. 皈依另一宗教。 It's true that many Jewish people in Spain were brutally tortured and killed, and even 的確，在西班牙，許多猶太人被殘酷地折磨和殺害，甚至是 if they did convert, life was often still very difficult for those people. 如果他們真的改變了信仰，對這些人來說，生活往往還是非常困難的。 Those “conversos” still met with suspicion and experienced discrimination. 這些 "對話者 "仍然受到懷疑和歧視。 Muslims were also persecuted, killed, or just kicked out of Spain. 穆斯林也被迫害、殺害，或者直接被趕出西班牙。 Under Tomás de Torquemada, Spain's Grand Inquisitor, many hundreds of accused heretics 在西班牙的大審訊官托馬斯-德-托克馬達的上司下，數百名被指控為異端的人。 were burned at the stake. 被燒死在火刑柱上。 During the late 15th century and early 16th century it was a bad time not to be Roman 在15世紀末16世紀初，這是個不做羅馬人的壞日子。 Catholic, and as you'll soon see, being burned at the stake was sometimes just a blood-stained 天主教徒，你很快就會看到，被燒死在火刑柱上，有時只是一個沾滿鮮血的 "血人"。 cherry on top of a very ugly cake. 在一個非常醜陋的蛋糕上的櫻桃。 The Spanish Inquisition was a monster with very long tentacles, so wherever Spain had 西班牙宗教裁判所是一個觸角很長的怪物，所以無論西班牙在哪裡有 interests abroad, there was bloodshed in the name of the Catholic Church. 國外的利益，以天主教會的名義進行了流血。 We don't want you to think it was only people inside Spain that suffered. 我們不希望你認為只有西班牙境內的人受苦。 That's far from the truth. 這與事實相差甚遠。 Then there was the Portuguese Inquisition and the Roman Inquisition and prior to that 然後是葡萄牙宗教裁判所和羅馬宗教裁判所，在這之前還有 the Medieval Inquisitions, and those went back to the 12th century and spanned much 中世紀的審問，而這些可以追溯到12世紀，並跨越了大部分時間。 of Europe. 歐洲的。 The torture and executions and persecutions only really stopped in the 19th century, so 酷刑和處決以及迫害在19世紀才真正停止，所以 when we are talking about the Inquisition, well, it's complicated. 當我們在談論宗教裁判所的時候, 嗯, 這很複雜. Anyone deemed non-Catholic could have been a target, and that included so-called witches 任何被認為不是天主教徒的人都可能成為目標，包括所謂的女巫。 and even scientists. 甚至科學家。 You might recall the fact that the brilliant scientist Galileo Galilei got on the wrong 你可能還記得，傑出的科學家伽利略-伽利萊上錯了車。 side of the Catholic Church. 天主教會方面。 This “father of modern physics” was accused of heresy by the Inquisitors, but he kept 這位 "現代物理學之父 "被審訊官指控為異端，但他卻保持著 his head and his knees and accepted a life sentence of house arrest. 他的頭和膝蓋，並接受了終身軟禁的判決。 He was never tortured like some unlucky heretics, but he was threatened with torture. 他從來沒有像一些倒黴的異教徒那樣受到酷刑，但他卻受到了酷刑的威脅。 We are telling you all this because when we're talking about brutality handed down by those 我們之所以告訴你們這些，是因為當我們在談論由那些人傳下來的暴行時 inquisitive Catholics, it went on for centuries, often behind closed doors, and the inquisitors 它持續了好幾個世紀，常常是閉門造車，而審問者們 used all kinds of ways to hurt people. 用各種方式來傷害人。 How many people were tortured or executed or both is a matter of mystery since historians 有多少人被拷打或被處決或兩者兼而有之，這是一個謎，因為歷史學家 can't agree. 不能同意。 Some say as many as 30,000 people were executed during the Spanish Inquisitions alone, while 有人說，僅在西班牙審訊期間，就有多達3萬人被處死，而。 others put the number much higher, others lower. 其他人把這個數字放得更高，其他人則更低。 How many people died at the hands of inquisitors from the 12th to the 19th century is a bigger 從12世紀到19世紀，有多少人死在審訊官手裡，這是一個更大的。 mystery. 神祕的。 Maybe it was hundreds of thousands, but some historians would disagree. 也許是幾十萬，但有些歷史學家會不同意。 So, that brings us to today's torture devices. 所以，這就有了今天的刑具。 As you know from some of our other punishment shows, there is a chance that some torture 你從我們其他的一些懲罰節目中也知道，有可能會出現一些酷刑 devices sitting in museums today weren't even used, or not used often. 今天放在博物館裡的設備甚至沒有被使用過，或者不經常使用。 Stories of how other unusual torture devices were used could have been greatly exaggerated 關於如何使用其他不尋常的酷刑手段的故事可能被大大誇大了。 by people who talked about them a century or two after they were supposedly employed 被那些在他們被僱傭後一兩個世紀還在談論他們的人所接受。 for the last time. 最後一次。 Ok, so in terms of crappy things that can happen to you in this life, having your head 好吧，所以在蹩腳的事情，可以發生在你在這個生活中，有你的頭。 slowly crushed has to be in the top five. 慢慢的被碾壓，必須要進入前五名。 You might have seen what the first stages of such an act looks like if you've ever 你可能已經看到了這種行為的第一階段是什麼樣子的，如果你曾經有過。 seen the movie, “Casino.” 看過電影，"賭場"。 A scene in that film shows a man's head being crushed in a vise, something that was 在那部電影中，有一幕是一個人的頭被老虎鉗壓碎了，那是什麼？ based on fact. 以事實為依據。 Apparently, in real life the mobster named Anthony Spilotro actually did that until the 顯然，在現實生活中，那個叫安東尼-斯皮洛羅的黑幫老大其實也是這麼做的，直到後來的 man's eye popped out. 男人的眼珠子跳了出來。 The guy soon talked, so the torture wasn't taken to it messy conclusion. 這傢伙很快就開口了，所以拷問並沒有被帶到亂七八糟的結局。 He did, however, have his throat cut after being set on fire. 不過，他確實在被火燒後被割斷了喉嚨。 That would have been quite a fitting way to die at the hands of Catholic interrogators. 如果死在天主教審訊員的手裡，那是相當合適的方式。 During the Inquisition the instrument used to crush a head was slightly different, in 在宗教裁判所期間，用來壓碎人頭的工具略有不同，在。 that the head would be placed under a kind of dome-shaped lid. 頭部會被放在一種圓頂形的蓋子下。 The chin would be supported on something below, so the head was held firm. 下巴會被下面的東西支撐著，所以頭部被牢牢地固定住。 Through the top of the helmet a screwed iron bar would then be twisted which would drive 通過頭盔頂部的螺絲鐵條，然後將其扭動，這將推動。 itself into the skull of the victim. 它本身就是受害者的頭骨。 You can only imagine how much pain this would cause. 你可以想象這會造成多大的痛苦。 Once the skull was pierced, another twist or two and it would be game over. 一旦頭骨被刺穿，再轉一兩圈就會遊戲結束。 According to some sources we found, the torturer would often only twist enough to cause unbearable 根據我們找到的一些資料顯示，施刑者往往只會扭曲到讓人無法忍受的地步 pain, and that was about the time the person wearing the helmet would give up his allies 痛苦，而這時戴頭盔的人就會放棄他的盟友。 – if indeed he had any. - 如果他真的有任何。 It's likely he'd tell you anything at that point, so anyone tortured would later 那時候他很可能什麼都會告訴你，所以任何人受了酷刑以後都會 have to confess again when he was in better shape. 等他狀態好一點的時候，又要表白。 There were variations of the head crusher. 頭部破碎機有各種變化。 One of them we found doesn't have a part that pierces the skull, so the top part is 我們找到的其中一個沒有穿透頭骨的部分，所以上面的部分是。 just like a regular helmet. 就像一個普通的頭盔。 The more turns of the screw in this case would no doubt crush the jaw first and ruin a perfectly 在這種情況下，螺桿轉的圈數越多，無疑會先壓壞鉗口，毀掉一個完美的。 good set of teeth. 一副好牙。 Eyes would likely roll and if the screw was turned more then the entire head would be 眼睛很可能會轉動，如果螺絲轉得更大，那麼整個頭就會被轉動。 crushed. 碾壓。 The victim's brain would ooze out of the helmet like melting strawberry ice scream. 受害者的大腦會像融化的草莓冰尖叫一樣從頭盔中滲出。 Yep, that sounds about as grim as you can get, even compared to a lot of other punishments 是的，這聽起來很殘酷，甚至比起很多其他的懲罰來都要殘酷 we've mentioned in the series. 我們在系列中提到的。 If the torturer put on the breaks before everything was crushed, it's highly unlikely that person 如果施刑者在所有東西被壓碎之前就把斷裂的東西放上去，那麼這個人的可能性就很小。 would make any kind of recovery. 會做出任何形式的恢復。 With their jaw in pieces and their eyes missing, life wouldn't have been much fun. 他們的下巴支離破碎，眼睛也不見了，生活就沒有什麼樂趣了。 We actually found one website that told us one of these machines actually had a trough 其實我們發現有一個網站告訴我們，其中有一臺機器其實是有槽的。 attached to it to collect the eyes when they burst out. 附在上面，以便在眼睛爆裂時收集。 But did it happen like this? 但是，是否有這樣的情況呢？ Were these stories the work of Protestant propagandists that came later or are they 這些故事是後來的新教宣傳家的作品，還是他們的 creations of imaginative people that have only ever seen photos of the devices online? 只在網上看到過設備照片的想象力豐富的人的作品？ That's the million dollar question. 這就是一百萬美元的問題。 We can find plenty of sources stating the torture happened this way, but they don't 我們可以找到很多資料，說明酷刑是這樣發生的，但他們沒有 supply any evidence such as written accounts or even sketches. 提供任何證據，如書面說明甚至素描； One thing we do know is that the devices exist today, most of which are in museums. 我們知道的一件事是，這些設備如今已經存在，其中大部分都在博物館裡。 Still, the iron maiden can be found in museums and not many serious historians think that 不過，在博物館裡還是可以找到鐵娘子的身影，沒有多少嚴肅的歷史學家認為。 diabolical contraption was ever used on anyone. 邪惡的裝置曾經使用在任何人身上。 Then again, people back then were pulled apart on racks. 話又說回來，那時候的人都是在架子上拉開的。 They were sawn in half from the groin up and they were flayed alive, so it's not unthinkable 他們被從腹股溝處鋸成兩半，還被活活剝了皮，所以這不是不可想象的。 that the head crusher was used. 即使用了頭部破碎機。 You can find other devices in museums that kind of did the same thing. 你可以在博物館裡找到其他的設備，算是做了同樣的事情。 One of those is what's called the “skull splitter.” 其中一個就是所謂的 "頭骨分割器"。 The skull splitter looks kind of like a metal halo filled with spikes. 骷髏分身看起來有點像一個充滿尖刺的金屬光環。 This would be put on the person's head and then a key would tighten the halo. 這個會戴在人的頭上，然後用鑰匙將光環擰緊。 The spikes would start crushing the skull and if the key was turned more the top of 釘子會開始壓碎頭骨，如果鑰匙轉得更多，頭骨的頂部就會被壓碎。 the head would be crushed. 腦袋會被壓碎。 Again, we can find plenty of sources that state such a contraption was used during the 同樣，我們可以找到大量的資料表明，這樣的裝置是使用期間的。 Middle Ages to extract information or execute a person, but we can't find the original 中世紀提取資訊或處死一個人，但我們找不到原件。 source of the information. 資訊的來源。 Still, during that period there was such a thing as an Inquisitor advice manual which 不過，在那個時期，還是有審神者建議手冊這樣的東西，它的內容是 told inquisitors the best ways to torture someone. 告訴審訊官最好的折磨人的方法。 Rather than talk about crushing heads, though, it focuses on advice about how to interrogate 不過，它並沒有談及粉碎性的頭顱，而是著重於如何審訊的建議。 really tricky prisoners. 真正棘手的囚犯。 There's even stuff in there about the cost of rope that was used to tie up a person about 裡面甚至有一些東西，關於繩子的成本，用來捆綁一個人，關於 to be burned at the stake. 要被燒死在火刑柱上。 Here's a snippet from the manual, something that sounds similar to what authorities do 這是手冊上的一段話，聽起來和當局的做法很相似。 these days: “Be sitting there. 這幾天。"要坐在那裡。 Have a huge stack of documents in front of you. 在你面前有一大堆文件。 And as the person is answering questions, flip through the documents as if you have 而在對方回答問題的時候，翻閱文件，就像你有了 more information than this person could dream of. 比這個人夢想的資訊更多。 And every so often, shake your head as if you can't believe what they're saying.” 而且每隔一段時間，就搖搖頭，好像不敢相信他們說的話。" That's quite enlightening information, but after an exhaustive search, we couldn't 這是相當有啟發性的資訊，但經過詳盡的搜索，我們無法做到。 find anything about head crushing. 找到任何關於頭部粉碎。 After a bit of a deeper dive into this it seems that such grizzly torture instruments 深入瞭解了一下，似乎這樣的灰熊刑具 were not used very often, but for sure the person being interrogated would know what 不經常使用，但可以肯定的是，被審訊的人將知道什麼。 was going to happen to them if they didn't spill the beans. 會發生在他們身上，如果他們不說出來。 Can you imagine how'd feel walking into an interrogation room and seeing a head crusher 你能想象走進審訊室看到一個頭顱破碎機的感覺嗎？ sitting on a desk? 坐在桌子上？ It's very likely these instruments were mostly used to scare people rather than crush 很有可能這些工具主要是用來嚇唬人的，而不是用來碾壓人的。 heads. 腦袋。 When people were sitting in front of the instrument of torture this part of the interrogation 當人們坐在刑具前的時候，這部分的審訊工作 was called, “in conspectus tormentorum.” 被稱為，"在conspectus tormentorum"。 A loose translation of that could be, “tormented by what's in front of you.” 粗略的翻譯可以是，"被眼前的事物折磨著"。 The inquisitors kept notes of their deeds, and it seems for the most part the torture 審訊官們對他們的行為進行了記錄，似乎大部分的刑訊 employed was hanging people up from ropes or stretching them on the rack. 受僱於人的是用繩子把人吊起來，或者在架子上拉伸。 There are records of what people said when they were stretched, such as this, “Oh God, 記載了人們在被拉長時說的話，比如這樣說："天啊。 Oh God, there's no mercy. 哦，上帝，沒有憐憫。 Oh God, help me, help me.” 哦，上帝，幫幫我，幫幫我。" Yep, they actually took the minutes of the torture. 是的，他們真的拍下了拷問的記錄。 In conclusion, it doesn't take a great leap of faith to believe the head crusher might 總而言之，不需要太大的信念跳躍，就能相信頭部破碎機可能會有 have been pulled out now and again for certain people. 已經時不時地被某些人拉出來。 This brings us to the device known as the knee splitter, something that looks like the 這就有了被稱為膝關節分離器的裝置，這個東西看起來就像 gaping mouth of a monster. 怪獸的大嘴。 Again, it's highly likely the inquisitors would have done something like waterboarding 同樣，審訊官極有可能會做類似水刑的事情 a person – yep, they did that – before they started splitting knees. 一個人--是的，他們做了--在他們開始分膝之前。 Unlike the head crusher, the knee splitter wouldn't have caused a quick death. 與頭顱粉碎機不同，膝關節分裂機不會造成快速死亡。 The victim might have died later from blood loss, but the crushing of some bones would 受害者可能後來因失血過多而死，但一些骨骼的粉碎會 not lead directly to the grave. 不直接通向墳墓。 What would happen is a person's knees were placed inside the jaws of the device and then 會發生的情況是，一個人的膝蓋被放置在設備的鉗口內，然後... a handle would be turned so the jaws closed on the knees. 轉動手柄，使下顎閉合在膝蓋上。 If the inquisitors were happy with the confession someone gave them, perhaps they would relieve 如果審訊官們對某人給他們的供詞感到滿意，也許他們會減輕 the victim of his or her agony and the knees would stay in one piece. 受害者的痛苦，膝蓋會保持完整。 If those jaws closed all the way, well, the knees would be completely crushed, and the 如果那些下巴全部閉合，那麼，膝蓋就會被完全壓碎，而那 person would never walk again. 人就再也走不動了。 This device was said to have manifold applications, so arms or feet or hands could have been the 據說這個裝置有多方面的用途，所以手臂或腳或手都有可能被用來做 "手"。 body part of choice. 身體部位的選擇。 Some sources explain that this device may have come into existence in Germany in the 有資料解釋說，這種裝置可能是在德國出現的。 year 1530, but yet again after upturning a lot of stones, we struggled to find historical 但是，在翻了很多石頭之後，我們又一次艱難地找到了歷史的痕跡。 records of when the knee splitter was used. 使用膝關節分離器的時間記錄； If it was used, then we guess it was only on special occasions. 如果用了，那我們估計只有在特殊場合才會用。 Most of the time a heretic or a relapsed heretic would have not met with such creative torture, 大多數時候，一個異端或復發的異端是不會遇到這種創造性的折磨的。 but that doesn't mean they wouldn't have ended up being burned at the stake. 但這並不意味著他們不會最終被燒死在火刑柱上。 Lastly, we come to the breast ripper, a similar device that caused disfigurement, but this 最後，我們來看看開胸器，這是一種類似的設備，造成了毀容，但這一 time used only on women. 只用於女性的時間。 Those women might have been accused of aborting a baby or cheating on their husband. 這些婦女可能被指控墮胎或出軌。 Sometimes called “The Spider”, it's thought the instrument was used in Germany 有時被稱為 "蜘蛛"，據說這種樂器是在德國使用的。 in the 15th century. 在15世紀。 Inquisitors may also have used the breast ripper on women accused of witchcraft, or 審訊官也可能對被控施展巫術的婦女使用開胸器，或對被控施展巫術的婦女使用開胸器。 heresy, or perhaps even blasphemy. 異端，甚至可能是褻瀆。 Sometimes the claws on the device would be heated up until they were glowing red, which 有時，設備上的爪子會被加熱，直到它們發紅，這就是所謂的 "紅色"。 would inflict much more pain and damage. 會造成更大的痛苦和傷害。 The result would be total mutilation of the accused's breasts. 其結果是被告人的乳房被完全切除。 Yet again, finding evidence of when such an apparatus was used isn't easy at all. 然而，要找到這種儀器在什麼時候使用的證據，又一點也不容易。 The instruments certainly existed, and they were likely used, especially during the witch 這些工具肯定是存在的，而且它們很可能被使用過，特別是在巫師的時候。 hunts. 狩獵。 There's plenty of evidence of so-called witches being tortured on areas of their bodies 有很多證據表明，所謂的女巫在身體的各個部位都受到了拷打 they don't usually show to anyone but their lovers. 他們通常不給任何人看，但他們的情人。 You might know the name King James from the bible he sponsored, but the man also wrote 你可能知道詹姆士王這個名字來自於他所贊助的聖經，但這個人也寫了 an absolutely crazy book called, “Daemonologie, in Forme of a Dialogue.” 一本絕對瘋狂的書叫 "Daemonologie, in Forme of a Dialogue". This was basically an absurd treatise on demons and witchcraft. 這基本上是一篇關於妖怪和巫術的荒謬論述。 James was obsessed with witches and he seemed to take great pleasure in ruthlessly torturing 詹姆士迷戀女巫 他似乎以無情地折磨女巫為樂 those accused of dancing with the devil. 那些被指控與魔鬼共舞的人。 When he was King of Scotland and not yet King of both Scotland, England and Ireland, James 當他還是蘇格蘭國王，還沒有成為蘇格蘭、英格蘭和愛爾蘭的國王時，詹姆斯 was there for the North Berwick witch trials. 在那裡參加了北伯裡克的女巫審判。 Many times, he oversaw the torture of accused female witches and sometimes the dreaded breast 很多時候，他監督了對被指控的女巫的拷問，有時還監督了可怕的乳房。 rippers were used, among other nasty things. 使用了開膛手，還有其他討厭的東西。 Now you need to watch this, “"Bloody Mary" Mary I of England.” 現在你需要看這個，""血腥瑪麗 "英國的瑪麗一世。" Or, have a look at this, “Why Did The King Of England Execute His Wives?” 或者，看看這個 "英國國王為什麼要處死他的妻子？"