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  • We're lucky to live in an age where the sum total of human knowledge

    我們很幸運地生活在一個人類知識總和的時代。

  • is pretty much available at the click of a button.

    是幾乎可以一鍵搞定的。

  • We've never had access to so much information.

    我們從來沒有接觸過這麼多的資訊。

  • But not all of what's out there is quite what it seems.

    但並不是所有的東西都像它看起來那樣。

  • So here's a few strategies to navigate your way through.

    所以,這裡有幾個策略可以為你導航。

  • And avoid falling out with people along the way.

    並避免與沿途的人鬧翻。

  • We all enjoy that sweet dopamine hit of feeling like we're right.

    我們都很享受那種甜蜜的多巴胺衝擊,感覺自己是對的。

  • In repeated experiments, psychologists have shown

    在反覆的實驗中,心理學家表明

  • we're much more likely to accept something as evidence

    人云亦云

  • if it confirms what we already think we know.

    如果它證實了我們已經認為我們知道的東西。

  • And much more likely to discount information

    而且更容易對資訊打折扣

  • if it contradicts our views.

    如果它與我們的觀點相悖。

  • It's what's known asconfirmation bias”.

    這就是所謂的 "確認偏差"。

  • It's one of the keycognitive biasesthat humans have,

    這是人類重要的 "認知偏差 "之一。

  • and it operates at an unconscious level -

    而且它是在無意識的層面上運作的------------------------。

  • affecting our ability to process information.

    影響我們處理資訊的能力。

  • This is especially true for issues which are emotionally charged,

    尤其是對於那些情緒化的問題,更是如此。

  • or where our views are deeply held.

    或我們的觀點深入人心的地方。

  • But it can come into play at any time.

    但它可以隨時發揮作用。

  • So don't rush to decide,

    所以不要急於決定。

  • and be actively prepared to change your mind.

    並積極準備改變自己的想法。

  • So many of our discussions take place on social media platforms

    我們的許多討論都是在社交媒體平臺上進行的。

  • where algorithms reward our desire to see and hear our views confirmed.

    其中,算法獎勵我們希望看到和聽到我們的觀點得到證實的願望。

  • But in life, most situations are nuanced and complicated

    但在生活中,大多數情況都是細微而複雜的--------。

  • acknowledging that can enrich the way that we view the world.

    承認這一點可以豐富我們看待世界的方式。

  • For example, what colour is the sky? Well, the obvious answer is blue.

    比如說,天空是什麼顏色?嗯,答案很明顯是藍色。

  • But at sunrise or sunset, it can be red.

    但在日出或日落時,它可以是紅色的。

  • On a cold misty morning, white or grey.

    在一個寒冷的霧霾的早晨,白色或灰色。

  • At night, midnight blue or black.

    夜晚,午夜的藍色或黑色。

  • But imagine for a moment the blue of the sky on a sunny day.

    但想象一下晴天的天空的藍色。

  • Is it really blue?

    真的是藍色的嗎?

  • The colour blue has a short wavelength,

    藍色的波長很短。

  • meaning it scatters more than other colours -

    意味著它比其他顏色更容易散射--

  • making it more visible to the human eye.

    使人的眼睛更容易看到。

  • So the sky looks blue to us humans,

    所以在我們人類看來,天空是藍色的。

  • even though there's a whole spectrum of colours out there.

    即使有一個完整的光譜的顏色在那裡。

  • Even something that seems totally self-evident

    即使是一些看起來完全不言自明的事情

  • can be more nuanced than you think.

    可以比你想象的更細微。

  • One approach to, well, arguing,

    一種方法,就是爭論。

  • is to let go of the idea of beingright”.

    就是要放下 "對 "的想法。

  • Or at least seriously consider that you might actually be wrong.

    或者至少認真考慮一下,你可能真的錯了。

  • Putting yourself in the other person's shoes

    設身處地為對方著想。

  • can lead to much more productive outcomes.

    可以帶來更多的成果。

  • Really try to understand where the other person is coming from.

    真正試著去了解對方的來歷。

  • It's what's calledintellectual empathy”.

    這就是所謂的 "智力共鳴"。

  • It can be challenging, but that's the point.

    這可能是一個挑戰,但這是重點。

  • This can only work when both parties are engaging in good faith.

    只有在雙方都是善意參與的情況下,這種做法才能奏效。

  • Arguing just to waste somebody's time,

    爭論只是為了浪費別人的時間。

  • known online assea lioning”,

    網上稱為 "海獅"。

  • not only makes you that guy or girl people avoid at parties,

    不僅讓你成為人們在聚會上避開的那個男人或女孩。

  • but we are intellectually, socially and politically worse off for it.

    但我們在智力上、社會上和政治上都是以而變得更糟。

  • It's more important than ever

    現在比以前更重要

  • to know where your information is coming from.

    以瞭解您的資訊來自哪裡。

  • That sciency-looking graph about the dangers of feral Dalmatian puppies

    那張看起來很科學的圖,是關於野狗達爾馬提亞犬的危害的

  • might look very convincing, until you dig a little deeper

    貌似很有說服力,但如果你不深入瞭解,就不會有這種感覺

  • and find it was commissioned by fur-coat-coveting

    發現是貪戀皮草大衣的人所為。

  • Disney villain, Cruella de Vil.

    迪士尼反派,克魯拉-德-維爾。

  • Be on the lookout for ulterior motives and vested interests.

    要警惕別有用心的人和既得利益者。

  • Becoming literate in the basics of scientific methodology,

    掌握科學方法的基本知識;

  • the use of data and the way it's presented

    數據的使用和數據的呈現方式;

  • are all weapons in your arsenal when it comes to critical thinking.

    在批判性思維方面,都是你武器庫裡的武器。

  • Whether engaging in online debates or arguing with Uncle Frank,

    不管是參與網上辯論,還是和弗蘭克叔叔爭論。

  • it's very easy to lose our cool and resort to some

    很容易失去理智而採取一些

  • less-than-sound tactics.

    不太好的策略。

  • One common tactic is what philosophers call,

    一種常見的策略就是哲學家所說的。

  • The Straw Manfallacy.

    "稻草人 "謬論。

  • Instead of engaging with the actual belief,

    而不是參與實際的信仰。

  • you engage with a caricature.

    你從事的是漫畫。

  • For example, if I said, “I prefer hamsters to gerbils,”

    例如,如果我說,"比起沙鼠,我更喜歡倉鼠"

  • you might respond, “Oh, so you want to drown all gerbils?”

    你可能會回答,"哦,所以你想淹死所有沙鼠?"

  • A viewpoint that's much easier to take down.

    一個觀點,更容易被拿下。

  • Another fallacy is thead hominem fallacy”,

    另一個謬誤是 "ad hominem謬誤"。

  • where you discount an argument

    貶低論點

  • because of your opinion of the person making it.

    因為你對製作人的看法。

  • This can lead to ad hominem attacks,

    這可能會導致自相殘殺的攻擊。

  • which is basically Latin for name-calling.

    基本上是拉丁文的稱呼。

  • In that situation, it's fair to say that everybody loses.

    在這種情況下,可以說是大家都輸了。

  • Engaging in critical thinking isn't as fun as picking up a pitchfork,

    從事批判性思維並不像拿起叉子那樣有趣。

  • or feeling like you're fundamentally right.

    或覺得自己根本上是對的。

  • But in the long run, it leads to a more curious,

    但從長遠來看,會導致更多的好奇心。

  • educated and harmonious society,

    受教育的和諧社會。

  • which ultimately is the biggest win of all.

    這最終是最大的勝利。

We're lucky to live in an age where the sum total of human knowledge

我們很幸運地生活在一個人類知識總和的時代。

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B1 中級 中文 藍色 批判性 觀點 謬誤 爭論 天空

五個簡單的策略來提高你的批判性思維|BBC思想 (Five simple strategies to sharpen your critical thinking | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 21 日
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