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  • In the late 13th century, Osman I established a small beylik,

    13世紀末,奧斯曼一世建立了一個小貝利克。

  • or principality, in what is now Turkey.

    或公國,在現在的土耳其。

  • In just a few generations, this beylik outmaneuvered more powerful neighbors

    僅僅幾代人的時間,這隻貝利克就戰勝了更強大的鄰居。

  • to become the vast Ottoman empire.

    成為龐大的奧斯曼帝國。

  • What enabled its rapid rise?

    是什麼讓它迅速崛起?

  • In Osman's time, the Anatolian peninsula was a patchwork of Turkic principalities

    在奧斯曼時代,安納托利亞半島是由突厥公國拼湊而成的。

  • sandwiched between a crumbling Byzantine Empire

    殘破的拜占庭帝國的夾縫中。

  • and weakened Sultanate of the Seljuk of Rum.

    並削弱了拉姆的塞爾柱蘇丹國。

  • Osman quickly expanded this territory

    奧斯曼迅速擴大了這一領域

  • through a mixture of strategic political alliances

    通過各種戰略政治聯盟

  • and military conflicts with these neighbors,

    並與這些鄰國發生軍事衝突。

  • attracting mercenaries first with the promise of booty,

    先用戰利品的承諾吸引僱傭兵。

  • then later through his reputation for winning.

    再到後來通過他的名聲贏得。

  • Osman was the first in a line of Ottoman rulers distinguished

    奧斯曼是奧斯曼統治者中第一個傑出的統治者。

  • by their political shrewdness.

    因其政治上的精明。

  • Often prioritizing political and military utility over ethnic or religious affinity,

    往往把政治和軍事效用放在優先於民族或宗教親和力的地位。

  • they expanded their influence by fighting along certain sides when needed,

    他們在需要的時候,通過與某些方面的戰鬥來擴大自己的影響。

  • and fighting against them when the time was right.

    並在適當的時候與他們作戰。

  • After Osman's death his son Orhan

    奧斯曼死後,他的兒子Orhan

  • established a sophisticated military organization and tax collection system

    建立完善的軍事組織和稅收制度

  • geared towards funding quick territorial expansion.

    面向快速擴張領土的資金。

  • The Ottomans' first major expansion was in the Balkans, in southeast Europe.

    奧斯曼人的第一次大規模擴張是在歐洲東南部的巴爾幹半島。

  • The military employed a mixture of Turkic warriors and Byzantine

    軍隊採用了突厥武士和拜占庭武士的混合體。

  • and other Balkan Christian converts.

    和其他巴爾幹基督教信徒。

  • They captured thousands of young Christian boys

    他們俘虜了數千名年輕的基督徒男孩

  • from villages from across the Balkans,

    來自巴爾幹半島各地村莊的。

  • converted them to Islam, and trained them to become the backbone

    使他們皈依伊斯蘭教,並把他們訓練成骨幹。

  • of a fierce military elite force known as the Janissaries.

    一支被稱為 "傑尼薩利 "的猛烈軍事精銳部隊的。

  • The captured enslaved boys could rise to the high position of a vizier

    被俘虜的奴僕男孩可以升到宰相的高位。

  • in the Ottoman government.

    在奧斯曼政府中。

  • Rulers of conquered areas were also allowed, even encouraged,

    被征服地區的統治者也被允許,甚至被鼓勵。

  • to convert to Islam and take positions in the Ottoman government.

    皈依伊斯蘭教,並在奧斯曼政府中擔任職務。

  • Meanwhile, non-Muslims who belonged to Abrahamic religions

    同時,屬於亞伯拉罕宗教的非穆斯林人

  • were allowed religious freedom in exchange for a tax known as Jizye,

    被允許宗教自由,以換取被稱為Jizye的稅收。

  • among other strict conditions

    除其他嚴格條件外

  • for example, they were not allowed to join the army.

    例如,他們不被允許參軍。

  • By the end of the 14th century, the Ottomans had conquered or subordinated

    到14世紀末,奧斯曼人已經征服或臣服於此。

  • most of the Anatolian beyliks as well as the Balkans.

    安納托利亞貝利克以及巴爾幹地區的大部分地區。

  • But in the first half of the 15th century,

    但在15世紀上半葉。

  • as Sultan Beyazit I focused on Western expansion,

    作為蘇丹貝亞齊特一世專注於西域擴張。

  • the Central Asian ruler Timur attacked from the east.

    中亞統治者帖木兒從東面進攻。

  • He captured Beyazit and carted him off in an iron cage,

    他抓了貝亞齊特,用鐵籠子把他抬走。

  • sparking a ten year struggle for succession

    爭霸賽

  • that almost destroyed the Ottoman empire.

    幾乎摧毀奧斯曼帝國的。

  • Sultan Murad II turned this trend around,

    蘇丹穆拉德二世扭轉了這一趨勢。

  • but fell short of one of his loftiest goals:

    但卻沒能實現他最偉大的一個目標。

  • capturing the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.

    佔領了拜占庭的首都君士坦丁堡。

  • His son, Sultan Mehmed II, or Mehmed the Conqueror,

    他的兒子,蘇丹穆罕默德二世,或征服者穆罕默德。

  • vowed to succeed where his father had failed.

    誓要在他父親失敗的地方取得成功。

  • In preparation for the attack on Constantinople,

    為了準備進攻君士坦丁堡。

  • he hired a Hungarian engineer to forge the largest cannon in the world,

    他僱傭了一位匈牙利工程師來鍛造世界上最大的大炮。

  • used Serbian miners to dig tunnels under the walls of the city,

    用塞爾維亞礦工在城牆下挖地道。

  • and ordered his fleet of ships to be carried overland,

    並下令將他的船隊運到陸地上。

  • attacking the city from an unexpected direction.

    從一個意想不到的方向攻城。

  • He laid siege to the city and in the spring of 1453,

    他圍城,1453年春。

  • Constantinople fell to the Ottomans.

    君士坦丁堡落入奧斯曼人手中。

  • It would become the Ottoman capital, known by its common Greek name, Istanbul,

    它將成為奧斯曼帝國的首都,以其通用的希臘名字 "伊斯坦布爾 "而聞名。

  • meaningto the city.”

    意思是 "到城市"。

  • By the time Mehmed II conquered Constantinople,

    到了邁赫邁德二世征服君士坦丁堡的時候。

  • the city was a shadow of its former glory.

    這座城市已是昔日輝煌的影子。

  • Under Ottoman rule, it flourished once again.

    在奧斯曼帝國的統治下,它又一次繁榮起來。

  • On an average day in Istanbul, you could hear people speaking Greek, Turkish,

    在伊斯坦布爾的普通一天,你可以聽到人們說希臘語、土耳其語。

  • Armenian, Persian, Arabic, Bulgarian, Albanian, and Serbian.

    亞美尼亞語、波斯語、阿拉伯語、保加利亞語、阿爾巴尼亞語和塞爾維亞語。

  • Architects like the famous Sinan filled the city with splendid mosques

    像著名的司南這樣的建築師在城市中充滿了華麗的清真寺。

  • and other buildings commissioned by the sultans.

    和其他蘇丹人委託的建築。

  • Through Istanbul, the Otttomans brought commodities like coffee to Europe.

    通過伊斯坦布爾,奧斯曼人把咖啡等商品帶到了歐洲。

  • They entered a golden age of economic growth,

    他們進入了經濟增長的黃金時代。

  • territorial acquisition, art and architecture.

    領土獲取、藝術和建築;

  • They brought together craftspeople from across Europe, Africa,

    他們彙集了來自歐洲、非洲的手工藝人。

  • the Middle East and Central Asia to create a unique blend of cultural innovation.

    中東和中亞地區,打造獨特的文化創新融合。

  • Iznik ceramics, for example,

    例如,伊茲尼克陶瓷。

  • were made using techniques from China's Ming dynasty,

    是用中國明代的技術製作的。

  • reimagined with Ottoman motifs.

    用奧斯曼圖案重新設計。

  • The Ottomans would continue to expand,

    奧斯曼人將繼續擴張。

  • cementing their political influence and lucrative trade routes.

    鞏固其政治影響力和有利可圖的貿易路線;

  • The empire lasted for more than 600 years and, at its peak,

    帝國持續了600多年,在其巔峰時期,。

  • stretched from Hungary to the Persian Gulf,

    從匈牙利一直延伸到波斯灣。

  • from the Horn of Africa to the Crimean Peninsula.

    從非洲之角到克里米亞半島。

In the late 13th century, Osman I established a small beylik,

13世紀末,奧斯曼一世建立了一個小貝利克。

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奧斯曼帝國的崛起--莫斯塔法-米納維 (The rise of the Ottoman Empire - Mostafa Minawi)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 21 日
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