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  • Nothing captures the essence of a good life better than a tree flourishing.

    沒有什麼比一樹繁花更能抓住美好生活的本質。

  • A good life is one where we continuously grow, manifest our potential, and put forth our

    美好的生活是我們不斷成長,彰顯自己的潛能,把自己的

  • best fruit.

    最好的水果。

  • I want you to keep this image in your mind as you watch the video: your best life is

    我希望大家在觀看視頻的時候,記住這個畫面:你最好的生活就是

  • the one in which you fully bloom like a tree.

    在其中你像一棵樹一樣完全綻放。

  • And the difference between living your worst life and your best life depends on your habits.

    而過最壞的生活和最好的生活之間的差別,取決於你的習慣。

  • And the secret to building good habits and breaking bad ones is contained in this simple,

    而養成好習慣、破除壞習慣的祕訣就包含在這個簡單的。

  • but powerful image, in which there are two key components: the forest and the tree.

    但有力的形象,其中有兩個關鍵部分:森林和樹木。

  • As I break down each component of the image, I'll give you the ultimate guide to building

    當我分解影像的每一個組成部分時,我會給你建立的終極指南。

  • habits.

    習慣。

  • Before I show you the new way to understand and build habits, let's take a look at the

    在我向大家展示瞭解和培養習慣的新方法之前,我們先來看看。

  • current way.

    目前的方式。

  • Most books or videos on habits teach some variation of this loop: a cue leads to a craving

    大多數關於習慣的書籍或視頻都教授了這種循環的一些變體:一個提示導致一種渴望

  • leads to a response leads to a reward.

    導致反應導致獎勵。

  • Some variations use cue-routine-reward instead,

    有些變體使用提示--規則--獎勵來代替。

  • And some use stimulus-response-reward.

    而有的則採用刺激-反應-獎勵的方式。

  • But as far as I'm concerned, they're practically all the same, so let's consider the newest

    但就我而言,它們實際上都是一樣的,所以我們考慮一下最新的。

  • version: cue-craving-response-reward.

    版本:提示-貪婪-迴應-獎勵。

  • A cue is an external or internal trigger that signals the potential for a reward.

    暗示是一種外部或內部的觸發器,它標誌著獎勵的可能性。

  • Your phone dings for example, which is a cue indicating that you have a notification, and

    比如說你的手機會發出叮噹聲,這就是一個提示,說明你有一個通知,而。

  • this leads to the craving of a potential reward.

    這就導致了對潛在報酬的渴望。

  • Craving is a feeling that motivates you to take action, and the strength of a craving

    渴望是一種促使你採取行動的感覺,而渴望的力量則是

  • depends on how you interpret the cue.

    取決於你如何解釋這個提示。

  • For example, when your phone dings, your brain begins to predict what the ding meant.

    例如,當你的手機發出叮噹聲時,你的大腦開始預測叮噹聲的含義。

  • Did you receive a message from someone you like?

    你是否收到了你喜歡的人的資訊?

  • Or did you receive a message from someone you don't like?

    還是你收到了不喜歡的人發來的資訊?

  • The prediction you make determines how strongly you crave, or don't crave, checking your

    你所做的預測決定了你渴望或不渴望的強烈程度,檢查你的。

  • phone.

    電話:

  • Craving leads to a response, and response is the actual action or habit you use to satisfy

    渴望導致反應,而反應是你用來滿足的實際行動或習慣。

  • a craving.

    一種渴望。

  • In our example, our response means checking the notification.

    在我們的例子中,我們的響應意味著檢查通知。

  • And finally, the reward is the thing that actually satisfies the craving, closes the

    最後,獎勵是真正滿足慾望的東西,關閉了。

  • loop, and encourages us to repeat the action in the future.

    循環,並鼓勵我們在未來重複這個動作。

  • In our example, we see that we got some likes on our Instagram, and this makes us feel good

    在我們的例子中,我們看到我們的Instagram上得到了一些喜歡,這讓我們感覺很好。

  • and more likely to check our notifications again in the future.

    並且今後更有可能再次查看我們的通知。

  • In this model, you can play with any of the four componentscue, craving, response,

    在這個模型中,你可以用四個組成部分--提示、渴望、反應中的任何一個來玩。

  • rewardto encourage good habits and discourage bad ones.

    獎勵--鼓勵好習慣,阻止壞習慣。

  • When you want to encourage a good habit, make the cue obvious, the craving attractive, the

    當你想鼓勵一個好習慣的時候,要讓提示明顯,讓渴望有吸引力,讓。

  • response easy, and the reward satisfying.

    響應容易,回報滿意。

  • If you want to discourage a bad habit, make the cue invisible, the craving unattractive,

    如果你想勸阻一個壞習慣,就要讓提示看不見,讓渴望沒有吸引力。

  • the response hard, and the reward unsatisfying.

    應付艱難,回報不盡人意。

  • Let's look at how the whole model works in practice.

    我們來看看整個模式在實踐中是如何運作的。

  • Let's say I want to introduce the supposedly good habit of taking multivitamins each day.

    比方說,我想介紹一下每天服用多種維生素的所謂好習慣。

  • So I buy a container of gummy multivitamins and place them on my nightstand.

    於是,我買了一盒膠質的多種維生素,放在床頭櫃上。

  • The cue is obvious: I'll see the gummies every time I reach for my glasses in the morning.

    提示很明顯:早上每次拿眼鏡的時候,我都會看到橡皮糖。

  • The craving is attractive because I know the gummies will make me healthier.

    渴望是有吸引力的,因為我知道口香糖會讓我更健康。

  • The reward is satisfying because the gummies taste good.

    獎勵是滿足的,因為口香糖的味道很好。

  • And finally, the response is easy because, after the initial set up cost, all I have

    最後,回答很簡單,因為在最初的設置成本之後,我所擁有的是

  • to do each morning is walk over and eat them.

    每天早上要做的就是走過去吃它們。

  • So that's an example of introducing a good habit using the current model, but how do

    所以這是一個用現在的模式引入好習慣的例子,但是如何做到

  • you get rid of a bad one?

    你擺脫一個壞的?

  • Let's say I want to stop getting distracted by my phone when I'm working, so I give

    比方說,我想在工作時不再被手機分心,所以我給了

  • my phone over to a friend before I start.

    在我開始之前,我的手機給了一個朋友。

  • This helps because the cue is invisible: I no longer see my phone vibrating and receiving

    這對我有幫助,因為提示是看不見的。我再也看不到我的手機在震動,也看不到我的手機在接收... ...

  • notifications while I work.

    在我工作時,通知。

  • The craving is unattractive because I have to embarrass myself by asking for the phone

    渴望是不吸引人的,因為我不得不為難自己,問電話。

  • back.

    後面的。

  • The response is made harder because I have to go through the trouble of negotiating to

    應對措施更加困難,因為我不得不費盡心思地進行談判,以達到。

  • get it back.

    拿回來。

  • And lastly, the rewards are less satisfying due to the increase in work required to even

    最後,由於需要增加工作,回報也不太令人滿意,甚至是。

  • get them.

    讓他們。

  • So the current model is easy to follow and implement.

    所以目前的模式很容易遵循和實施。

  • Just modify the cue, craving, response, and reward depending on whether the habit is good

    只要根據習慣是否良好,修改提示、渴望、反應和獎勵即可。

  • or bad.

    或壞。

  • So what's the problem with it?” you ask.

    "那有什麼問題?"你問。

  • While the current model has many good qualities, I think it has one massive flaw that makes

    雖然目前的模式有很多優點,但我認為它有一個巨大的缺陷,使得

  • it less useful than you might think,

    它比你想象的要有用的多。

  • and that's what I'm going to discuss next.

    這就是我接下來要討論的問題。

  • The main problem with the current model is that it's solipsistic.

    現行模式的主要問題是,它是唯心主義的。

  • What do I mean by this?

    我的意思是什麼?

  • The current model encourages you to see yourself as the centre of the world.

    目前的模式鼓勵你把自己看作是世界的中心。

  • Everything surrounding you becomes a cue or a tool to leverage for your own growth.

    周圍的一切都會成為自己成長的線索或工具。

  • But the world is fundamentally not a place of cues surrounding you, which you can just

    但這個世界從根本上來說,並不是你周圍的線索,你可以隨便地

  • optimize and rearrange to your liking.

    根據自己的喜好進行優化和重新排列。

  • Rather it's a place of relationship.

    而是一個關係的地方。

  • If you view life through the lens of the current model, I think you'll have an inaccurate

    如果你用現在的模式來看待生活,我想你會有一個不準確的。

  • perception of reality

    真實感

  • which will stifle your capacity to bloom, which was, remember, why habits even mattered

    這將扼殺你綻放的能力,這是,記得,為什麼習慣很重要?

  • in the first place.

    首先是。

  • The blooming of a tree is not something that it can make happen on its own.

    一棵樹的開花,不是它自己能夠實現的。

  • It can't just optimize itself into a good life.

    它不能只優化自己的好生活。

  • The tree depends on the forest as much as the forest depends on the tree.

    樹依靠森林,就像森林依靠樹一樣。

  • When you were a baby, you were born, as far as we know, into a family, in a home, in a

    當你還是個嬰兒的時候,你就出生了,據我們所知,你出生在一個家庭裡,在一個家庭裡,在一個。

  • city, in a country, in a world that you did not choose, and this has probably been one

    在一個城市,在一個國家,在一個你沒有選擇的世界裡,這可能已經是一個。

  • of the greatest factors in determining the quality of your life.

    決定你生活品質的最大因素之一。

  • And when you were a baby, you hardly knew a thing.

    當你還是個嬰兒的時候,你幾乎什麼都不知道。

  • You couldn't change your clothes, feed yourself, or really self-regulate yourself that well

    你不能給自己換衣服,不能給自己餵飯,也不能真正的自我調節好自己的情緒

  • at all.

    完全沒有。

  • The most effective actions you could probably do were laugh and cry.

    你能做的最有效的動作可能就是笑和哭。

  • You depended on your parents to survive and thrive, and a lot of your early lessons about

    你依靠父母生存和發展,你早年學到的很多關於...

  • life and the world came from them.

    生命和世界來自於他們。

  • Now think about the technologies that have most impacted your life such as the car, the

    現在想想對你的生活影響最大的技術,如汽車、汽車、汽車、汽車等。

  • computer, the internet, and the phone.

    電腦、網絡和電話。

  • Or what about theories like Plato's theory of forms or Einstein's theory of relativity?

    或者像柏拉圖的形式理論或愛因斯坦的相對論呢?

  • What about works of art like Lord of the Rings or Dante's Divine Comedy?

    像《指環王》或但丁的《神曲》這樣的藝術作品呢?

  • All of these works were likely invented by someone other than yourself.

    這些作品很可能都是自己以外的人發明的。

  • All of these examples show how much the quality of your life depends on others, but also,

    所有這些例子都表明,你的生活品質在很大程度上取決於他人,但也。

  • how much the quality of someone else's life can depend on you.

    別人的生活品質有多大程度上取決於你。

  • The world is fundamentally an interdependent place of relationships, not cues.

    這個世界從根本上說是一個相互依存的關係場所,而不是線索。

  • The tree depends on the forest and the forest on the tree.

    樹靠林,林靠樹。

  • I believe this interdependence isn't accurately captured in the current model,

    我認為這種相互依存關係在目前的模型中並沒有準確地體現出來。

  • which is why I'm putting forward a new model in which the forest-tree relationship is central.

    這就是為什麼我提出了一個新的模式,其中森林與樹木的關係是核心。

  • Because again, to fully bloom, you need a harmony between both.

    因為同樣,要想完全綻放,你需要兩者之間的和諧。

  • So without further ado, let's get into it.

    那麼話不多說,我們開始吧。

  • Here's a quick overview of the new model of habits.

    下面就為大家介紹一下習慣的新模式。

  • There are two key components: the forest, which represents the environment, and the

    有兩個關鍵的組成部分:代表環境的森林和

  • tree, which represents the individual.

    樹,它代表著個人。

  • Let's start by analyzing the forest.

    我們先來分析一下森林。

  • Every tree is born into a forest, and the forest sets limits on the potential of the

    每一棵樹都生在森林裡,而森林對其潛力設定了限制。

  • tree.

    樹木。

  • How much sunlight does the forest get, what are the soil conditions, how competitive or

    森林的日照量如何,土壤條件如何,競爭程度如何,或者說是什麼?

  • friendly is the ecosystem, how much precipitation is there, what are the atmospheric conditions

    生態系統是否友好,降水量有多少,大氣條件如何?

  • like, so on and so forth.

    像,等等等等。

  • All of these factors limit how much the individual tree can thrive.

    所有這些因素都限制了個體樹木的茁壯成長。

  • When you're a baby, your forest is your home.

    當你還是個孩子的時候,你的森林就是你的家。

  • But as you grow older, your forest expands, and you begin to see yourself as the citizen

    但隨著年齡的增長,你的森林擴大了,你開始把自己看成是一個公民

  • of a city, then a country, and then the world.

    一個城市的,然後是一個國家,然後是世界。

  • The forest represents your evolving environment, and the environment limits how much you can

    森林代表了你不斷髮展的環境,而環境限制了你的發展方向。

  • thrive.

    茁壯成長。

  • If, for example, you're stuck in a city with no opportunities and lots of corruption,

    如果,你被困在一個沒有機會、腐敗多發的城市。

  • your growth will be limited.

    你的成長將受到限制。

  • But if you're open to moving to another city or if you live in one with a supportive

    但如果你願意搬到另一個城市,或者你住在一個有支持性的城市。

  • environment and lots of opportunities, you can maximize your chances of reaching your

    的環境和大量的機會,你可以最大限度地提高你的機會達到你的

  • full potential.

    充分發揮潛力。

  • So the forest represents the entire environment which limits what you, the tree, can become.

    所以,森林代表了整個環境,它限制了你這棵樹能成為什麼。

  • And there are two important parts of the forest we need to consider: the soil and the relationships.

    而森林中有兩個重要的部分我們需要考慮:土壤和關係。

  • Let's start by analyzing the soil.

    我們先來分析一下土壤。

  • The soil represents all of the opportunities available to the tree in the forest.

    土壤代表了森林中樹木的所有機會。

  • If the soil is rich with opportunity, the tree has a lot of potential for growth.

    如果土壤中蘊含著豐富的機會,那麼這棵樹就有很大的生長潛力。

  • But if the soil is lacking in opportunity, the tree will be limited in how much it can

    但是,如果土壤缺乏機會,樹就會受到限制,它能做的事情就會很有限

  • grow.

    增長。

  • The soil can be compared to the opportunities for growth available in a city.

    土壤可以比照一個城市的發展機會。

  • How safe are the neighbourhoods?

    街區的安全程度如何?

  • How good are the schools?

    學校有多好?

  • The grocery stores?

    雜貨店?

  • What kind of jobs are available and how many?

    有哪些工作崗位,有多少人?

  • How good is the collected knowledge?

    收集的知識有多好?

  • How advanced is the technology?

    技術有多先進?

  • And how accessible are all of these opportunities?

    而這些機會都是如何獲得的呢?

  • For example, a city with less job opportunities provides less or limited potential for growth

    例如,一個就業機會較少的城市提供的增長潛力較小或有限。

  • when compared to a city with more job opportunities.

    與工作機會更多的城市相比,當。

  • So the soil represents the opportunity available for growth.

    所以土壤代表了可供生長的機會。

  • Now let's move on to the next important part of a forest: the relationships between

    現在讓我們來看看森林的下一個重要部分:森林之間的關係。

  • organisms.

    生物體。

  • Are the relationships in the forest symbiotic or parasitic?

    森林中的關係是共生的還是寄生的?

  • Do the organisms help one another thrive or not?

    生物之間到底有沒有互相幫助茁壯成長?

  • How competitive is it?

    競爭力如何?

  • These answers make up the politics of the forest.

    這些答案構成了森林的政治。

  • Imagine two big trees surrounding a little tree.

    想象一下,兩棵大樹圍著一棵小樹。

  • If the two big trees take all the water and sunlight and refuse to share any with the

    如果兩棵大樹把所有的水和陽光都拿走了,而拒絕與它們分享任何水和陽光。

  • little tree, which trees can do through their root systems, the little tree will then have

    小樹,樹木可以通過根系來實現,那麼小樹就會擁有

  • to struggle much harder to survive, thrive, and achieve a fraction of the growth of the

    掙扎得更辛苦,才能生存、發展,並實現一小部分的增長。

  • bigger trees.

    更大的樹。

  • The relationships in our own lives function the same way: some people build us up and

    我們自己生活中的人際關係也是這樣運作的:有些人把我們建立起來,而

  • make it easier to thrive, while others suppress us and make it harder.

    讓我們更容易茁壯成長,而有些人則壓制我們,讓我們更難成長。

  • And naturally, someone who goes through lifefrom a home, to a school, to a business, to a marriagemaking

    而自然而然地,一個人經歷了人生--從家庭、學校、企業、婚姻--。

  • lots of symbiotic relationships is going to have an easier time blooming than someone

    共生關係多的人,比起一個人更容易開花結果。

  • who doesn't.

    誰也沒有。

  • So now that we've looked at the two important components of a forest, the soil and the relationships,

    那麼現在我們已經看清了森林的兩個重要組成部分,土壤和關係。

  • let's move on to analyzing the tree.

    讓我們繼續分析這棵樹。

  • The tree represents the individual, and when it comes to the tree, we need to analyze two

    樹代表的是個人,說到樹,我們需要分析兩點

  • critical component: the roots and the fruits.

    關鍵部分:根和果實。

  • The roots represent the actions we take to discover and capitalize on the opportunities

    根代表著我們為發現和利用機會而採取的行動。

  • in our environment.

    在我們的環境中。

  • And at any point in time, the tree is making one of two choices: create a new root and

    而在任何時候,這棵樹都會做出兩個選擇之一:創建一個新的根和。

  • discover a new path, or optimize its current ones.

    發現新的路徑,或優化當前的路徑。

  • So how does the tree decide what to do?

    那麼,樹是如何決定做什麼的呢?

  • For now, let's make the assumption that the tree spreads its roots in such a way that

    現在,讓我們做一個假設,樹以這樣的方式傳播它的根,即

  • it can maximize its growth.

    它可以最大限度地增長。

  • Remember that the soil contains opportunities for growth, and so the tree is trying to discover

    請記住,土壤中包含著生長的機會,所以樹木正試圖發現... ...

  • and capitalize on those opportunities with the least amount of work possible.

    並儘可能以最少的工作量利用這些機會。

  • In other words, you can say that the tree spreads its roots in a way that maximizes

    換句話說,你可以說,樹以一種最大化的方式來傳播它的根。

  • its rewards from the environment and minimizes the work required.

    其從環境中獲得的回報,並最大限度地減少所需的工作。

  • Let's put it into a formula which we can use later on.

    我們把它放到一個公式裡,以後就可以用了。

  • And at any point in time, you're making the same decision as our tree: should you

    而在任何時候,你都在做著和我們的樹一樣的決定:你是否應

  • discover a new action or optimize and utilize your current ones.

    發現一個新的行動或優化和利用你現有的行動。

  • And like the tree, you're trying to maximize the rewards you get from the environment while

    就像那棵樹一樣,你也在努力使你從環境中得到的回報最大化,同時

  • minimizing the work required.

    儘量減少所需的工作。

  • Imagine two people who want to start eating healthier snacks.

    想象一下,有兩個人想開始吃更健康的零食。

  • Let's call them John and Jane.

    就叫他們約翰和簡吧。

  • Now both John and Jane have an action list which shows all of the actions they know they

    現在,約翰和簡都有一個行動清單,其中顯示了他們知道的所有行動。

  • can do.

    可以做。

  • On the left is the action, and on the right is the perceived value of that action.

    左邊是行動,右邊是該行動的感知價值。

  • Let's populate these lists and calculate the perceived value score.

    讓我們填充這些列表,並計算感知價值得分。

  • Remember that formula I presented earlier?

    還記得我之前介紹的那個公式嗎?

  • Value = reward/work.

    價值=獎勵/工作。

  • We're going to use this formula now to calculate the perceived value of an action.

    我們現在要用這個公式來計算一個行動的感知價值。

  • So right now, John and Jane are both currently aware of two types of snacks: ice cream and

    所以現在,約翰和簡目前都知道兩種零食:冰激凌和。

  • broccoli.

    西蘭花。

  • They both keep ice cream and broccoli easily accessible in their freezer or fridge.

    他們都把冰淇淋和西蘭花放在冷凍室或冰箱裡,方便取用。

  • All they have to do to eat either one is pull it out.

    他們要想吃到任何一個人,都要把它拉出來。

  • So let's assign a flat work score of 1 to both actions.

    所以,我們給這兩個動作賦予一個統一的工作分值1。

  • Now let's say John doesn't really like broccoli: he hates the taste and doesn't

    現在讓我們假設約翰並不真的喜歡西蘭花:他討厭它的味道,也不喜歡它的味道。

  • really perceive the health benefits.

    真正感受到健康的好處。

  • So he assigned a reward score of 1, and to him, this gives broccoli an overall value

    所以他給了一個獎勵分1,對他來說,這讓西蘭花有了一個整體的價值

  • score of 1.

    1分。

  • On the other hand, John really loves the taste of ice cream and doesn't perceive any negative

    另一方面,約翰真的很喜歡冰激凌的味道,並沒有察覺到任何負面的。

  • health consequences.

    健康後果;

  • So he assigns it a reward score of 9, and this gives ice cream, for him, a value score

    所以他給它的獎勵分是9分,這樣一來,冰激凌,對他來說,就有了價值得分

  • of 9.

    9個月。

  • Now Jane on the other hand doesn't mind the taste of broccoli and gives it a reward

    現在簡卻不介意西蘭花的味道,並給予獎勵

  • score of 4, but she really loves the taste of ice cream and gives it a score of 9.

    4分,但她真的很喜歡冰淇淋的味道,給9分。

  • And like John, health consequences don't factor into her decision.

    就像約翰一樣,她的決定並沒有考慮到健康後果。

  • This gives Jane a value score of 9 for ice cream and 4 for broccoli.

    這樣一來,簡的冰激凌的價值得分是9分,西蘭花的價值得分是4分。

  • Because ice cream sits at the top of both of their action lists, John and Jane always

    因為冰激凌在他們的行動清單中都是最重要的,所以約翰和簡總是

  • end up choosing it over the broccoli when it comes time to eat a snack.

    最終在吃零食的時候選擇它而不是西蘭花。

  • But let's introduce a small optimization for both of them: they both stop bringing

    但是,我們來介紹一個針對他們兩個的小優化:他們都不再把

  • ice cream homes and so whenever they want to eat it, they have to go out and buy it.

    冰淇淋家,所以只要想吃,就得出去買。

  • This optimization triples the work required, so now the work score for both people is 3.

    這個優化是所需工作的三倍,所以現在兩個人的工作分數是3分。

  • And remember, they both gave ice cream a reward score of 9, so this gives ice cream a value

    而且記得,他們都給冰激凌的獎勵分是9分,所以這就給了冰激凌一個值。

  • score of 3 for the both of them.

    倆人的得分都是3分。

  • Now we can see something interesting: this optimization was enough to knock ice cream

    現在我們可以看到一些有趣的事情:這個優化足以讓冰激凌被打倒

  • below broccoli on the action list for Jane but not for John.

    簡的行動清單上的西蘭花下面,但約翰沒有。

  • Jane actually stops eating ice cream and switches to broccoli, while John just ends up driving

    簡居然不吃冰激凌了,改吃西蘭花,而約翰最後只顧著開車了。

  • to the store when he's hungry.

    餓的時候就去商店。

  • Optimization works for Jane but not for John.

    優化對簡有用,但對約翰沒用。

  • So what should John do?

    那麼約翰應該怎麼做呢?

  • John needs to discover a new action through trial and error, and he can speed this process

    約翰需要通過試錯來發現新的行動,他可以加快這個過程的速度

  • up by imitating the actions of someone who's already successful at what he's trying to

    通過模仿一個已經成功的人的行為,他的努力。

  • do.

    做。

  • John talks to his body building friend who suggests trying a particular hummus dip.

    約翰與他的健美朋友交談,他建議嘗試一種特殊的鷹嘴豆泥蘸料。

  • So John gets the hummus with some carrots and ends up liking it.

    所以約翰得到了鷹嘴豆泥和一些胡蘿蔔,最後喜歡上了它。

  • He gives it a reward score of 5.

    他給了它5分的獎勵。