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  • this video was made possible by curiosity.

    這段視頻是由好奇心促成的。

  • Stream Get the best deal.

    流得到最好的待遇。

  • There isn't streaming both Curiosity Stream and Nebula, where you can watch my brand new original feature length documentary, Siri's Ghost Towns for less than $12 a year by following the link down in the description.

    好奇心流和星雲都沒有流媒體,在這裡你可以按照描述中的鏈接觀看我全新的原創長篇紀錄片《Siri的鬼城》,一年不到12美元。

  • Kazakhstan is fairly weird country.

    哈薩克斯坦是相當奇怪的國家。

  • It spans two continents with territory in both Asia and Europe.

    它橫跨兩大洲,領土在亞洲和歐洲。

  • Contains the most nuke location anywhere on the Earth here, where 456 nuclear bombs were detonated and they built a brand new capital city in the nineties because they just didn't like the old one.

    這裡包含了地球上任何地方最多的核彈位置,在這裡引爆了456顆核彈,他們在九十年代建造了一個全新的首都,因為他們只是不喜歡舊的首都。

  • But none of those strange facts are what this video is all about.

    但這些奇怪的事實都不是這個視頻的內容。

  • This video is about how Kazakhstan, a large country in land but with a small population of only 16 million people, briefly became the entire legal Soviet Union.

    這段視頻講述了哈薩克斯坦這個陸地大國,但人口卻只有1600萬,如何短暫地成為整個合法的蘇聯。

  • Here's how this happened.

    這就是事情的經過。

  • By 1991 the Soviet Union was collapsing from the inside.

    到1991年,蘇聯從內部崩潰。

  • It really began back in the 19 eighties, but some have said that it really all began in 1922 back when the USSR was first created.

    真正開始是在1980年代,但也有人說,真正都是在1922年蘇聯剛成立時開始的。

  • You see, the Soviet Union was established in the beginning, theoretically as a voluntary union of various different Republics that were each united under a central government in Moscow.

    你看,蘇聯一開始建立的時候,理論上是由各個不同的共和國自願聯合起來的,每個共和國都統一在莫斯科的中央政府之下。

  • As a federation, each of the various Soviet Republics technically retained the right to secede from the USSR.

    作為一個聯邦,各蘇維埃共和國在技術上都保留了脫離蘇聯的權利。

  • But obviously, for practically all of the Soviet Union's history, this technical right was totally meaningless because the central government in Moscow wouldn't ever allow it.

    但很顯然,在蘇聯幾乎所有的歷史上,這種技術性的權利是完全沒有意義的,因為莫斯科的中央政府是絕對不會允許的。

  • Some Republics like Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, where themselves forcibly absorbed into the Soviet Union after they were invaded in 1940 in addition to the Soviet Union itself, there was also the Warsaw Pact, created in the aftermath of World War Two, which was composed of East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria, all six of which had been invaded by the Red Army, had communism forced upon them and were effectively Soviet satellite states with negligible independence.

    一些共和國,如愛沙尼亞、拉脫維亞和立陶宛,在1940年被入侵後,自身也被強行吸納到蘇聯,除了蘇聯本身,還有二戰後建立的華沙條約,由東德、波蘭、捷克斯洛伐克、匈牙利、羅馬尼亞和保加利亞組成,這六個國家都曾被紅軍入侵,被強行灌輸共產主義,實際上是蘇聯的衛星國,獨立性可以忽略不計。

  • Although also technically voluntary, membership was truly compulsory because the Soviet army would always respond to any moves it independent from any of the government's like they did against Hungary in 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968.

    雖然在技術上也是自願的,但成員資格是真正的強制性的,因為蘇聯軍隊總是會對任何獨立於任何政府的行動做出反應,就像他們在1956年對匈牙利和1968年對捷克斯洛伐克所做的那樣。

  • The entire order of Soviet rule in Eastern Europe and Central Asia was kept together by force from the central government.

    蘇聯在東歐和中亞的整個統治秩序是靠中央政府的武力維持的。

  • But all of that began to change in the late 19 eighties.

    但這一切在19世紀80年代末開始改變。

  • In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev was elected as the new general secretary of the Communist Party, and he quickly began introducing his new policies of glasnost and perestroika into Soviet society.

    1985年,米哈伊爾-戈爾巴喬夫當選為新的共產黨總書記,他很快開始向蘇聯社會推行他的 "玻璃化 "和 "改革開放 "的新政策。

  • The Soviet economy was lagging significantly behind the West, and Gorbachev initially believed that these policies would help revitalize the Soviet Union, moving ahead into the 21st century.

    蘇聯經濟明顯落後於西方,戈爾巴喬夫最初認為這些政策將有助於振興蘇聯,提前進入21世紀。

  • Instead, these policies largely destroyed the country.

    相反,這些政策在很大程度上摧毀了這個國家。

  • Mass censorship was reduced.

    民眾審查制度減少了。

  • Freedom of speech was tremendously extended.

    言論自由得到了極大的擴展。

  • Liberal economic reforms were initiated, with private individuals being able to own their own businesses.

    開始了自由經濟改革,私人可以擁有自己的企業。

  • For the first time and most importantly for this story, he refused to use the Soviet military anymore to force countries and Republics to remain as members of the system.

    第一次,也是對這個故事來說最重要的一次,他拒絕再使用蘇聯的軍事力量來強迫各國和共和國繼續作為這個體系的成員。

  • The 15 Soviet Republics by this point and the six other members of the Warsaw Pact were granted more authority to rule over themselves.

    至此,15個蘇維埃共和國和華約的其他6個成員獲得了更多的統治權力。

  • The Chernobyl disaster the following year, in 1986 didn't really help things very much, either.

    第二年,即1986年的切爾諾貝利災難,對事情也沒有太大的幫助。

  • After spewing a massive amount of radiation across Belarus and Ukraine, distrust in the Soviet central government was at an all time high.

    在白俄羅斯和烏克蘭境內噴出大量輻射後,對蘇聯中央政府的不信任達到了前所未有的高度。

  • By 1988 Gorbachev was already losing control over to geographic areas in the Soviet Union, the Caucasus and the Baltics.

    1988年,戈爾巴喬夫已經失去了對蘇聯、高加索和波羅的海地區的控制。

  • The Armenian and Azerbaijani Republics descended into civil war in ethnic violence between themselves, while the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were utilizing their newfound freedoms to demand independence, asserting that their absorption into the Soviet Union back in 1940 after being invaded was illegal and forced upon them.

    亞美尼亞共和國和阿塞拜疆共和國在種族暴力中陷入內戰,而波羅的海國家立陶宛、拉脫維亞和愛沙尼亞則利用其新獲得的自由要求獨立,聲稱它們在1940年被入侵後被吸收到蘇聯是非法的,是被迫的。

  • And critically.

    而且很關鍵。

  • On the 16th of November 1988 Estonia declared full sovereignty within the Soviet Union, which meant that their own laws would take precedence over Soviet laws.

    1988年11月16日,愛沙尼亞宣佈在蘇聯境內擁有完全主權,這意味著他們自己的法律將優先於蘇聯法律。

  • And they would also quit sending any tax revenues to Moscow, effectively giving themselves full 100% autonomy under previous Soviet rulers that this probably would have been crushed by the Red Army almost immediately.

    而且他們也會放棄向莫斯科輸送任何稅收,實際上在以前的蘇聯統治者的統治下,他們給了自己完全100%的自治權,這可能幾乎會立即被紅軍粉碎。

  • But Gorbachev was just kind of met about it.

    但戈爾巴喬夫對此只是一種滿足。

  • Later in November, the Soviet ceased jamming foreign radio stations, and in 1989 things began to get extra spicy.

    11月以後,蘇聯停止了對外國電臺的干擾,1989年,事情開始變得格外辛辣。

  • CNN was allowed to broadcast in Moscow, and ST censorship effectively became impossible.

    CNN被允許在莫斯科廣播,ST審查實際上變得不可能。

  • By July, Lithuania and Latvia had joined with Estonia in declaring their sovereignty ease In June, the anti Soviet Solidarity Party won an overwhelming victory in Poland, which promptly withdrew the country from the Warsaw Pact.

    到7月,立陶宛和拉脫維亞與愛沙尼亞一起宣佈主權緩和 6月,反蘇團結黨在波蘭取得壓倒性勝利,波蘭立即退出華約。

  • And critically, Hungary began to dismantle their border wall fence, with Austria opening up the first hole in the Iron Curtain in decades.

    而關鍵的是,匈牙利開始拆除他們的邊境牆圍欄,奧地利打開了幾十年來鐵幕的第一個洞。

  • At this point, East Germany was still ruled by a hardline Stalinist regime.

    此時,東德仍由斯大林主義強硬政權統治。

  • Their citizens were not allowed to visit the West, but they could travel freely to other Soviet bloc countries like, say, a certain country called Hungary that just dismantle their border fence with the West.

    他們的公民不被允許訪問西方,但他們可以自由地前往其他蘇聯集團國家,比如說,某個叫匈牙利的國家,剛剛拆除了與西方的邊境圍欄。

  • Thousands of East Germans traveled to Hungary on vacation and immediately fled into Austria and towards West Germany.

    數以千計的東德人到匈牙利度假後,立即逃入奧地利,向西德方向逃去。

  • Furious, the East German regime demanded that action be taken by the Soviet Union, but Gorbachev critically again refused.

    憤怒的東德政權要求蘇聯採取行動,但戈爾巴喬夫批判地再次拒絕。

  • In August 2 million Baltic people joined hands to create a massive human chain along the border with the rest of the Soviet Union, advocating for full independence.

    8月,200萬波羅的海人聯合起來,在與蘇聯其他國家的邊界上建立了一個巨大的人鏈,主張完全獨立。

  • As the civil war and ethnic violence escalated even further in the Caucasus, Armenia followed suit and declared their own sovereignty the following month.

    隨著高加索地區的內戰和種族暴力進一步升級,亞美尼亞也緊隨其後,於次月宣佈自己的主權。

  • In September, East Germany was facing increasing pressure from its own citizens for democratic reforms.

    9月,東德正面臨著來自本國公民的越來越大的民主改革壓力。

  • While they're Stalinist leader, Erich Honecker, took the opposite stance of Gorbachev and refused to enact any reforms.

    而他們的斯大林主義領袖埃裡希-洪納克,卻採取了與戈爾巴喬夫相反的立場,拒絕實行任何改革。

  • He begged Gorbachev to use the Red Army to crush East Germany's opposition, like what they had done in Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the past.

    他懇求戈爾巴喬夫用紅軍來粉碎東德的反對派,就像他們過去在捷克斯洛伐克和匈牙利所做的那樣。

  • But Gorbachev continued to refuse.

    但戈爾巴喬夫依然拒絕。

  • Instead, Honaker was forced to resign in October, and on the ninth of November, following a very confusing media broadcast, crowds of East Germans flocked to the Berlin Wall and began the process of tearing it all down.

    而霍納克卻在10月被迫辭職,11月9日,在媒體非常混亂的播報後,東德人群湧向柏林牆,開始了拆牆的過程。

  • The East German communist regime collapsed, and within a year Germany would be reunited again.

    東德共產黨政權崩潰了,一年之內,德國將重新統一。

  • And for a single year between 1990 1991 Germany and the Soviet Union co existed together on world maps for the first and only time since World War two.

    而在1990年至1991年的一年時間裡,德國和蘇聯共同存在於世界地圖上,這是自二戰以來第一次也是唯一一次。

  • And in December of 1989 Romania descended into a violent revolution, also withdrew from the Warsaw Pact and executed their longtime Communist dictator.

    而在1989年12月,羅馬尼亞陷入暴力革命,也退出了華約,並處決了他們的長期共產黨獨裁者。

  • The next year, in February 1990 the Soviet Union held their first ever relatively free elections in each of the 15 Republics, with the Communist Party losing in six of them.

    第二年,1990年2月,蘇聯在15個共和國中分別舉行了有史以來第一次相對自由的選舉,共產黨在其中6個共和國中落敗。

  • None of the Republics which had declared their sovereignty is were paying any taxes to the central government, which caused the economy to get even worse.

    宣佈主權的共和國都沒有向中央政府繳納任何稅款,這導致經濟更加惡化。

  • And finally, in March, Lithuania became the first of the 15 Soviet Republics to officially announced their succession from the U.

    而最終,在3月,立陶宛成為15個蘇維埃共和國中第一個正式宣佈從烏國繼承的國家。

  • S.

    S.

  • S.

    S.

  • R.

    R.

  • Initially, this went unrecognized by Moscow.

    最初,這一點沒有得到莫斯科的承認。

  • But two months later, Latvia and Estonia followed suit and announced their own successions as well.

    但兩個月後,拉脫維亞和愛沙尼亞也緊隨其後,宣佈了自己的接班人。

  • Georgia declared their sovereignty in May, and in February of 1991 the remaining members of the Warsaw Pact met in Hungary and decided that their club had no more reason to exist and officially disbanded.

    格魯吉亞於5月宣佈主權,1991年2月,《華沙條約》其餘成員在匈牙利舉行會議,決定他們的俱樂部已沒有存在的理由,正式解散。

  • Nearly a year after all three Baltic Republics had succeeded, Georgia became the next republic to officially succeed in April of 1991 and finally in June, after leading a growing pro democracy movement, Boris Yeltsin won the historic presidency of the Russian Soviet republic and promptly declared Russian sovereignty from the main Soviet government.

    在波羅的海三國全部成功後近一年,格魯吉亞成為下一個正式成功的共和國,1991年4月,終於在6月,葉利欽在上司了日益高漲的民主運動後,贏得了俄羅斯蘇維埃共和國曆史性的總統職位,並迅速宣佈俄羅斯主權脫離蘇聯主政府。

  • Yeltsin was actively struggling against Gorbachev in a sovereignty battle between the Soviet government and the Russian government, and by August, Gorbachev had a plan to save the Soviet Union.

    葉利欽在蘇俄政府與戈爾巴喬夫的主權之爭中積極與戈爾巴喬夫抗衡,到了8月,戈爾巴喬夫制定了拯救蘇聯的計劃。

  • He wanted to reform the country into a new, decentralized federation called the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics, thus maintaining the USSR acronym.

    他想把國家改革成一個新的、分權的聯邦,稱為蘇維埃主權共和國聯盟,從而保持蘇聯的簡稱。

  • All of the remaining Republics, except for Ukraine, had agreed on the treaty by this point, while Kazakhstan strongly supported it.

    除烏克蘭外,其餘所有共和國此時都已同意該條約,而哈薩克斯坦則堅決支持該條約。

  • The Russian Soviet republic was all set to sign the treaty on the 20th of August.

    俄羅斯蘇維埃共和國都準備在8月20日簽署條約。

  • But a group of Communist Party hardliners launched a coup the day before on the 19th in an attempt to take the country over from Gorbachev, who they believed was actively destroying the whole Soviet Union.

    但一群共產黨強硬派在前一天的19日發動政變,企圖從戈爾巴喬夫手中接管國家,他們認為戈爾巴喬夫正在積極破壞整個蘇聯。

  • They put Gorbachev under house arrest, attempted to arrest Boris Yeltsin and suspended all political activity.

    他們把戈爾巴喬夫軟禁起來,企圖逮捕葉利欽,並中止一切政治活動。

  • However, Yeltsin rallied his supporters atop a tank in Moscow, and the coup support quickly evaporated.

    然而,葉利欽在莫斯科的一輛坦克上召集了他的支持者,政變的支持很快就蒸發了。

  • Rather than saving the Soviet Union, the coup radically destabilized the entire country and accelerated its destruction even further.

    這次政變不僅沒有挽救蘇聯,反而從根本上破壞了整個國家的穩定,更加速了蘇聯的毀滅。

  • Just two days after the coup fell apart, Ukraine seceded from the Soviet Union amid fears that another coup would have undermined their freedoms.

    就在政變失敗兩天後,烏克蘭脫離了蘇聯,因為擔心另一場政變會破壞他們的自由。

  • Three days later, Moldova seceded.

    三天後,摩爾多瓦分離。

  • Four days after that, Uzbekistan and Kyrgystan seceded on the same day.

    此後四天,烏茲別克斯坦和吉爾吉斯斯坦在同一天分離。

  • Nine days from then, it was Tajikistan that left 12 more days and Armenia finally left.

    9天后,又是塔吉克斯坦離開12天,亞美尼亞終於離開。

  • And about a month after that, Azerbaijan left as well.

    而大約一個月後,阿塞拜疆也離開了。

  • At the end of October, it was Turkmenistan who succeeded, and by November of 1991 it was only Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan left.

    10月底,是土庫曼斯坦繼位,到1991年11月,只剩下俄羅斯、白俄羅斯和哈薩克斯坦。

  • On the 10th of December, Belarus succeeded, and on the 12th it was Russia itself who succeeded, which left Kazakhstan as the sole and final remaining member of the Soviet Union.

    12月10日,白俄羅斯成功了,12日是俄羅斯自己成功了,這使得哈薩克斯坦成為蘇聯唯一的、也是最後一個剩下的成員。

  • It was all Russia's idea to start this whole operation, but it was Kazakhstan who is going to finish it.

    啟動這整個行動都是俄羅斯的主意,但要完成這一行動的是哈薩克斯坦。

  • So for the next four entire days between the 12th and 16th of December 1991 world maps would have shown Kazakhstan as being the entire Soviet Union, which to me is pretty amusing.

    所以在1991年12月12日到16日的接下來的整整四天裡,世界地圖會把哈薩克斯坦顯示為整個蘇聯,這在我看來是非常有趣的。

  • But all weird things must eventually come to an end.

    但所有奇怪的事情最終都要結束。

  • And so finally, after four days, Kazakhstan as well seceded from the Soviet Union, the U.

    所以最後,四天後,哈薩克斯坦也脫離了蘇聯,烏。

  • S S.

    S S。

  • R theoretically continue to exist as a legal entity with no territory for 10 more days, until the Soviet of the Republics voted it out of existence on the 26th of December 1991 officially dissolving the Soviet Union once and for all.

    理論上,R作為一個沒有領土的法律實體繼續存在10多天,直到1991年12月26日共和國蘇維埃投票決定它不存在,正式一勞永逸地解散蘇聯。

  • And so, after just over 69 years of existence, the Soviet Union came to a final and bizarre end now.

    就這樣,蘇聯在僅僅存在了69年多之後,現在就迎來了最後的詭異結局。

  • Obviously, the collapse of the Soviet Union is an enormously complicated subject, and I've lost a lot of the nuance over to cram this all into a 12 minute video.

    顯然,蘇聯的崩潰是一個非常複雜的主題,我已經失去了很多的細微差別過塞這一切到一個12分鐘的視頻。

  • However, you can learn a lot more detail and context by watching this spectacular documentary called Afghanistan 1979 which chronicles the entire history of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and explains how it became a major contributor to the entire countries.

    然而,你可以通過觀看這部名為《1979年的阿富汗》的壯觀紀錄片來了解更多的細節和背景,這部紀錄片記錄了蘇聯入侵阿富汗的整個歷史,並解釋了它如何成為整個國家的主要貢獻者。

  • Collapse this documentary and thousands of others like it are, of course, available right now for you to watch on Curiosity Stream, which you could get a fantastic deal on by following the link down in the description.

    Collapse這部紀錄片和其他數千部類似的紀錄片,當然,現在就可以在好奇流上觀看,只要按照描述中的鏈接往下看,就可以得到一個很棒的優惠。

  • But best of all, curiosity Stream has partnered up with my own streaming site called Nebula, where you can also watch my new original Siri's called Ghost Towns, where I'm traveling all across the United States and later the entire world, showcasing some of humanity's most fascinating abandoned communities.

    但最好的是,好奇心流與我自己的流媒體網站星雲合作,你也可以在這裡觀看我新的原創Siri的《鬼鎮》,我將在全美以及後來的全世界旅行,展示人類最迷人的廢棄社區。

  • Because the videos air a lot longer than my normal real life, Lord content is, and the YouTube algorithm generally doesn't favor those.

    因為視頻的播放時間比我正常的現實生活要長很多,主的內容是,而YouTube的算法一般不會青睞這些。

  • I'm releasing each new episode exclusively on Nebula, where you can already go and watch the first one right now about America's most famous abandoned settlement around the Salton Sea in California.

    我在星雲上獨家發佈每一集新內容,你現在已經可以去看第一集了,講的是美國最著名的加州薩爾頓海周圍的廢棄定居點。

  • You see my creator, friends and I teamed up to build our own platform, where we don't have toe worry about getting to monetize or buried by an algorithm that doesn't support us.

    你看我的創客、朋友和我聯手打造了自己的平臺,在這個平臺上,我們不用去擔心得到貨幣化,也不用擔心被不支持我們的算法埋沒。

  • It's called Nebula, and it's a place where we house all of our content you see on YouTube ad free and where we can experiment with brand new original content.

    它叫星雲,是我們存放你在YouTube上看到的所有免費廣告內容的地方,也是我們可以嘗試全新原創內容的地方。

  • That probably wouldn't work out well on YouTube content like my Siri's Ghost Towns, I just mentioned.

    這在YouTube內容上可能不會有很好的效果,比如我剛才提到的Siri的《鬼城》。

  • But that's just one of many exclusive pieces of content that you can get there with even more serious from channels you probably already know.

    但這只是許多獨家內容之一,你可以從你可能已經知道的管道獲得更嚴重的內容。

  • Like Wendover Productions, riel Engineering, second Thought, Lindsay Ellis, Tom Scott and many others.

    像Wendover Productions、riel Engineering、second Thought、Lindsay Ellis、Tom Scott等等。

  • The best way to get access to Nebula is through the Curiosity stream bundle deal, so that when you sign up for them by following the link down in the description, you'll also get a subscription to Nebula just for free, which is free for as long as your curiosity stream member.

    獲取星雲的最好方式是通過好奇心流捆綁交易,這樣當你按照描述中的鏈接註冊他們的時候,你還可以免費訂閱星雲,只要你是好奇心流會員,就可以免費訂閱。

  • And what's even better is that right now, for a limited time, on entire year long subscription to curiosity Stream Onley cost less than $12 meaning that you could get both curiosity stream with thousands of professional documentaries and nebula with all of your favorite thoughtful YouTubers exclusive and add free content for less than $1 a month.

    而更棒的是,現在,在有限的時間內,對整整一年長的訂閱好奇心流Onley成本不到12美元,這意味著你可以同時獲得好奇心流與數千部專業紀錄片和星雲與所有你最喜歡的有思想的YouTubers獨家和添加免費內容,每月不到1美元。

  • It's the best way that you can support my channel and educational content in general.

    這是最好的方式,你可以支持我的頻道和教育內容的一般。

  • Plus, you get a watch, some really cool and thoughtful original content and, as always, thank you for watching.

    另外,你還能得到一個手錶,一些非常酷炫和有思想的原創內容,並且,一如既往地感謝你的觀看。

this video was made possible by curiosity.

這段視頻是由好奇心促成的。

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B1 中級 中文 蘇聯 共和國 東德 匈牙利 主權 愛沙尼亞

哈薩克斯坦4天內是整個蘇聯的那個時代 (That Time When Kazakhstan Was the Entire USSR For 4 Days)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 16 日
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