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  • Let me tell you a story about artificial intelligence.

    讓我給大家講一個關於人工智能的故事。

  • There's a building in Sydney at 1 Bligh Street.

    在雪梨的Bligh街1號有一棟樓。

  • It houses lots of government apartments

    這裡有很多政府公寓

  • and busy people.

    和忙碌的人們。

  • From the outside, it looks like something out of American science fiction:

    從外面看,它像是美國科幻小說裡的東西。

  • all gleaming glass and curved lines,

    都是閃閃發光的玻璃和彎曲的線條。

  • and a piece of orange sculpture.

    和一塊橙色的雕塑。

  • On the inside, it has excellent coffee on the ground floor

    裡面的一樓有很好的咖啡。

  • and my favorite lifts in Sydney.

    和我最喜歡的電梯在雪梨。

  • They're beautiful;

    他們是美麗的。

  • they look almost alive.

    他們看起來幾乎是活的。

  • And it turns out I'm fascinated with lifts.

    而事實證明,我對電梯很著迷。

  • For lots of reasons.

    原因很多。

  • But because lifts are one of the places you can see the future.

    但因為電梯是你能看到未來的地方之一。

  • In the 21st century, lifts are interesting

    在21世紀,電梯是有趣的

  • because they're one of the first places that AI will touch you

    因為它們是人工智能最先接觸你的地方之一。

  • without you even knowing it happened.

    你甚至不知道它的發生。

  • In many buildings all around the world,

    在世界各地的許多建築中。

  • the lifts are running a set of algorithms.

    的升降機正在運行一套算法。

  • A form of protoartificial intelligence.

    原人工智能的一種形式。

  • That means before you even walk up to the lift to press the button,

    也就是說,在你還沒有走到電梯前就按下按鈕。

  • it's anticipated you being there.

    它的預期 你在那裡。

  • It's already rearranging all the carriages.

    已經在重新安排所有的車廂了。

  • Always going down, to save energy,

    一直往下走,為了節約能源。

  • and to know where the traffic is going to be.

    並知道流量的走向。

  • By the time you've actually pressed the button,

    等到你真正按下按鈕的時候。

  • you're already part of an entire system

    你已經是整個系統的一部分

  • that's making sense of people and the environment

    人情世故

  • and the building and the built world.

    和建築和建成的世界。

  • I know when we talk about AI, we often talk about a world of robots.

    我知道當我們談論人工智能時,我們經常談論一個機器人的世界。

  • It's easy for our imaginations to be occupied with science fiction,

    我們的想象力很容易被科幻小說佔據。

  • well, over the last 100 years.

    好吧,在過去的100年裡,

  • I say AI and you think "The Terminator."

    我說人工智能,你就會想到 "終結者"。

  • Somewhere, for us, making the connection between AI and the built world,

    某個地方,對我們來說,讓人工智能和建築世界之間的聯繫。

  • that's a harder story to tell.

    那是一個更難講的故事。

  • But the reality is AI is already everywhere around us.

    但事實上,人工智能已經在我們身邊無處不在。

  • And in many places.

    而在很多地方。

  • It's in buildings and in systems.

    它在建築和系統中。

  • More than 200 years of industrialization

    200多年的工業化歷程

  • suggest that AI will find its way to systems-level scale relatively easily.

    表明人工智能會比較容易地找到系統級的規模。

  • After all, one telling of that history

    畢竟,一說起這段歷史

  • suggests that all you have to do is find a technology,

    建議你要做的就是找到一種技術。

  • achieve scale and revolution will follow.

    實現規模化,革命就會隨之而來。

  • The story of mechanization, automation and digitization

    機械化、自動化和數字化的故事。

  • all point to the role of technology and its importance.

    都指出了技術的作用及其重要性。

  • Those stories of technological transformation

    那些技術改造的故事

  • make scale seem, well, normal.

    使規模看起來,嗯,正常。

  • Or expected.

    或預期。

  • And stable.

    而且穩定。

  • And sometimes even predictable.

    有時甚至可以預見。

  • But it also puts the focus squarely on technology and technology change.

    但這也讓人們把焦點正對著技術和技術變革。

  • But I believe that scaling a technology and building a system

    但我相信,擴展一項技術,建立一個系統

  • requires something more.

    需要更多的東西。

  • We founded the 3Ai Institute at the Australian National University

    我們在澳洲國立大學成立了3Ai研究所。

  • in September 2017.

    在2017年9月。

  • It has one deceptively simple mission:

    它的任務非常簡單。

  • to establish a new branch of engineering

    創立新工科

  • to take AI safely, sustainably and responsibly to scale.

    以安全、可持續、負責任地將人工智能推向規模化。

  • But how do you build a new branch of engineering in the 21st century?

    但如何在21世紀建立一個新的工程分支?

  • Well, we're teaching it into existence

    好吧,我們正在教它存在

  • through an experimental education program.

    通過實驗教育計劃。

  • We're researching it into existence

    我們正在研究它的存在

  • with locations as diverse as Shakespeare's birthplace,

    與莎士比亞出生地等不同地點。

  • the Great Barrier Reef,

    大堡礁。

  • not to mention one of Australia's largest autonomous mines.

    更何況是澳洲最大的自主礦山之一。

  • And we're theorizing it into existence,

    而我們卻把它理論化為存在。

  • paying attention to the complexities of cybernetic systems.

    關注控制論系統的複雜性;

  • We're working to build something new and something useful.

    我們正在努力打造一些新的、有用的東西。

  • Something to create the next generation of critical thinkers and critical doers.

    培養下一代批判性思維者和批判性行動者的東西。

  • And we're doing all of that

    而我們正在做的這一切

  • through a richer understanding of AI's many pasts and many stories.

    通過更豐富的瞭解人工智能的許多過去和許多故事。

  • And by working collaboratively and collectively

    並通過合作和集體工作

  • through teaching and research and engagement,

    通過教學、研究和參與。

  • and by focusing as much on the framing of the questions

    並儘可能多地注重問題的框架。

  • as the solving of the problems.

    作為解決問題的。

  • We're not making a single AI,

    我們不是在做一個人工智能。

  • we're making the possibilities for many.

    我們正在為許多人創造可能性。

  • And we're actively working to decolonize our imaginations

    而我們正在積極地努力去掉我們的想象力。

  • and to build a curriculum and a pedagogy

    並建立課程和教學法。

  • that leaves room for a range of different conversations and possibilities.

    這為一系列不同的對話和可能性留下了空間。

  • We are making and remaking.

    我們在製造和重造。

  • And I know we're always a work in progress.

    我知道我們總是在進步。

  • But here's a little glimpse

    但這裡有一個小花絮

  • into how we're approaching that problem of scaling a future.

    成,我們是如何處理這個問題的規模未來。

  • We start by making sure we're grounded in our own history.

    我們首先要確保我們立足於自己的歷史。

  • In December of 2018,

    在2018年12月。

  • I took myself up to the town of Brewarrina

    我帶著自己去了佈雷瓦里納鎮。

  • on the New South Wales-Queensland border.

    在新南威爾士-昆士蘭邊境。

  • This place was a meeting place for Aboriginal people,

    這個地方是原住民的聚會場所。

  • for different groups,

    針對不同群體。

  • to gather, have ceremonies, meet, to be together.

    聚集,舉行儀式,見面,在一起。

  • There, on the Barwon River, there's a set of fish weirs

    在那裡,在巴原河上,有一組魚堰。

  • that are one of the oldest and largest systems

    是最古老和最大的系統之一。

  • of Aboriginal fish traps in Australia.

    澳洲土著人捕魚器的使用。

  • This system is comprised of 1.8 kilometers of stone walls

    該系統由1.8公里長的石牆組成。

  • shaped like a series of fishnets

    魚網狀

  • with the "Us" pointing down the river,

    與 "我們 "指向河下。

  • allowing fish to be trapped at different heights of the water.

    讓魚兒在不同高度的水面上被誘捕。

  • They're also fish holding pens with different-height walls for storage,

    它們也是有不同高度的牆體的魚缸,用於儲存。

  • designed to change the way the water moves

    旨在改變水的流動方式

  • and to be able to store big fish and little fish

    並能儲存大魚和小魚。

  • and to keep those fish in cool, clear running water.

    並把這些魚放在涼爽、清澈的流水中。

  • This fish-trap system was a way to ensure that you could feed people

    這個捕魚系統是保證你能養活人的一種方式。

  • as they gathered there in a place that was both a meeting of rivers

    當他們聚集在一個河流交匯的地方的時候

  • and a meeting of cultures.

    和文化的交匯。

  • It isn't about the rocks or even the traps per se.

    這不是關於石頭,甚至不是關於陷阱本身。

  • It is about the system that those traps created.

    是關於那些陷阱造成的制度。

  • One that involves technical knowledge,

    一種是涉及技術知識的。

  • cultural knowledge

    文化知識

  • and ecological knowledge.

    和生態知識。

  • This system is old.

    這個系統是舊的。

  • Some archaeologists think it's as old as 40,000 years.

    一些考古學家認為它的歷史有4萬年之久。

  • The last time we have its recorded uses is in the nineteen teens.

    我們最後一次有它的用途記錄是在十九世紀的十幾歲。

  • It's had remarkable longevity and incredible scale.

    它有著非凡的壽命和不可思議的規模。

  • And it's an inspiration to me.

    而這也是對我的一種激勵。

  • And a photo of the weir is on our walls here at the Institute,

    而堰塞湖的照片就在我們研究所的牆上。

  • to remind us of the promise and the challenge

    提醒我們的承諾和挑戰

  • of building something meaningful.

    的建設有意義。

  • And to remind us that we're building systems

    並提醒我們,我們正在建立系統。

  • in a place where people have built systems

    在人家的地方

  • and sustained those same systems for generations.

    並使這些相同的系統世代相傳。

  • It isn't just our history,

    這不僅僅是我們的歷史。

  • it's our legacy as we seek to establish a new branch of engineering.

    這是我們的傳統,因為我們正在尋求建立一個新的工程分支。

  • To build on that legacy and our sense of purpose,

    在這一遺產和我們的目標感的基礎上再接再厲。

  • I think we need a clear framework for asking questions about the future.

    我認為我們需要一個明確的框架來提出關於未來的問題。

  • Questions for which there aren't ready or easy answers.

    沒有現成或簡單答案的問題;

  • Here, the point is the asking of the questions.

    這裡,重點是提出問題。

  • We believe you need to go beyond the traditional approach

    我們相信,你需要超越傳統的方法。

  • of problem-solving,

    的解決問題。

  • to the more complicated one of question asking

    到更復雜的提問

  • and question framing.

    和問題框架。

  • Because in so doing, you open up all kinds of new possibilities

    因為這樣一來,你就打開了各種新的可能性。

  • and new challenges.

    和新的挑戰。

  • For me, right now,

    對我來說,現在。

  • there are six big questions that frame our approach

    有六個大問題構成了我們的方法

  • for taking AI safely, sustainably and responsibly to scale.

    用於將人工智能安全、可持續和負責任地推向規模。

  • Questions about autonomy,

    關於自主性的問題。

  • agency, assurance,

    機構,保證。

  • indicators, interfaces and intentionality.

    指標、接口和意向性。

  • The first question we ask is a simple one.

    我們問的第一個問題很簡單。

  • Is the system autonomous?

    系統是否自主?

  • Think back to that lift on Bligh Street.

    回想起曇花街的那部電梯。

  • The reality is, one day, that lift may be autonomous.

    現實上,有一天,這種升降機可能是自主的。

  • Which is to say it will be able to act without being told to act.

    也就是不叫它行動,它就能行動。

  • But it isn't fully autonomous, right?

    但它不是完全自主的吧?

  • It can't leave that Bligh Street building

    它不能離開布利街的那棟樓。

  • and wonder down to Circular Quay for a beer.

    然後到環形碼頭去喝啤酒。

  • It goes up and down, that's all.

    漲漲跌跌,僅此而已。

  • But it does it by itself.

    但它自己就能做到。

  • It's autonomous in that sense.

    從這個意義上說,它是自主的。

  • The second question we ask:

    我們問的第二個問題。

  • does this system have agency?

    這個系統有機構嗎?

  • Does this system have controls and limits that live somewhere

    這個系統是否有控制和限制,生活在某個地方。

  • that prevent it from doing certain kinds of things under certain conditions.

    阻止它在某些條件下做某些種類的事情。

  • The reality with lifts, that's absolutely the case.

    現實與升降機,絕對是這樣的。

  • Think of any lift you've been in.

    想想你坐過的任何電梯。

  • There's a red keyslot in the elevator carriage

    電梯轎廂裡有個紅色的鑰匙槽。

  • that an emergency services person can stick a key into

    緊急服務人員可以把鑰匙插進。

  • and override the whole system.

    並凌駕於整個系統之上。

  • But what happens when that system is AI-driven?

    但是,如果這個系統是由人工智能驅動的,會發生什麼?

  • Where does the key live?

    鑰匙住在哪裡?

  • Is it a physical key, is it a digital key?

    是物理鑰匙,還是數字鑰匙?

  • Who gets to use it?

    誰可以使用它?

  • Is that the emergency services people?

    是緊急服務人員嗎?

  • And how would you know if that was happening?

    你怎麼會知道是否有這種情況發生?

  • How would all of that be manifested to you in the lift?

    這些對你來說,在電梯裡會有怎樣的體現呢?

  • The third question we ask is how do we think about assurance.

    第三個問題,我們要問的是如何看待保證。

  • How do we think about all of its pieces:

    我們如何看待它的所有作品。

  • safety, security, trust, risk, liability, manageability,

    安全、保障、信任、風險、責任、可管理性。

  • explicability, ethics, public policy, law, regulation?

    可解釋性、道德性、公共政策、法律、規?

  • And how would we tell you that the system was safe and functioning?

    那我們怎麼告訴你,這個系統是安全的,是正常運行的呢?

  • The fourth question we ask

    我們提出的第四個問題

  • is what would be our interfaces with these AI-driven systems.

    就是我們與這些人工智能驅動系統的接口會是什麼。

  • Will we talk to them?

    我們會跟他們談嗎?

  • Will they talk to us, will they talk to each other?

    他們會不會和我們說話,會不會互相說話?

  • And what will it mean to have a series of technologies we've known,

    而我們所熟知的一系列技術將意味著什麼。

  • for some of us, all our lives,

    對我們中的一些人來說,我們的一生。

  • now suddenly behave in entirely different ways?

    現在突然表現得完全不同?

  • Lifts, cars, the electrical grid, traffic lights, things in your home.

    電梯、汽車、電網、交通燈、家裡的東西。

  • The fifth question for these AI-driven systems:

    這些人工智能驅動的系統的第五個問題。

  • What will the indicators be to show that they're working well?

    用什麼指標來顯示他們的工作效果好呢?

  • Two hundred years of the industrial revolution

    二百年的工業革命

  • tells us that the two most important ways to think about a good system

    告訴我們,一個好的系統最重要的兩個思路是

  • are productivity and efficiency.

    是生產力和效率。

  • In the 21st century,

    在21世紀。

  • you might want to expand that just a little bit.

    你可能想擴大,只是一點點。

  • Is the system sustainable,

    該系統是否可持續;

  • is it safe, is it responsible?

    是否安全,是否負責?

  • Who gets to judge those things for us?

    誰能替我們評判這些事情?

  • Users of the systems would want to understand

    這些系統的用戶希望瞭解

  • how these things are regulated, managed and built.

    如何對這些東西進行監管、管理和建設。

  • And then there's the final, perhaps most critical question

    還有最後一個問題,也許是最關鍵的問題

  • that you need to ask of these new AI systems.

    你需要對這些新的人工智能系統提出的要求。

  • What's its intent?

    它的用意是什麼?

  • What's the system designed to do

    這個系統的設計目的是什麼?

  • and who said that was a good idea?

    誰說這是個好主意?

  • Or put another way,

    或者換一種說法。

  • what is the world that this system is building,

    這個系統所構建的世界是什麼。

  • how is that world imagined,

    那個世界是如何想象的。

  • and what is its relationship to the world we live in today?

    以及它與我們今天生活的世界有什麼關係?

  • Who gets to be part of that conversation?

    誰能成為對話的一部分?

  • Who gets to articulate it?

    誰來闡述?

  • How does it get framed and imagined?

    它是如何被定格和想象的?

  • There are no simple answers to these questions.

    這些問題沒有簡單的答案。

  • Instead, they frame what's possible

    相反,他們將可能的事情定格在

  • and what we need to imagine,

    以及我們需要想象的。

  • design, build, regulate and even decommission.

    設計、建設、監管甚至退役。

  • They point us in the right directions

    他們為我們指明瞭正確的方向

  • and help us on a path to establish a new branch of engineering.

    並幫助我們走上建立一個新的工程分支的道路。

  • But critical questions aren't enough.

    但關鍵問題還不夠。

  • You also need a way of holding all those questions together.

    你還需要有一種方法,把所有這些問題結合起來。

  • For us at the Institute,

    對我們研究所來說。

  • we're also really interested in how to think about AI as a system,

    我們對如何將人工智能作為一個系統來思考也非常感興趣。

  • and where and how to draw the boundaries of that system.

    以及在哪裡和如何劃定該系統的邊界。

  • And those feel like especially important things right now.

    而這些感覺就像是現在特別重要的事情。

  • Here, we're influenced by the work that was started way back in the 1940s.

    在這裡,我們受到早在40年代就開始的工作的影響。

  • In 1944, along with anthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead,

    1944年,與人類學家Gregory Bateson和Margaret Mead一起。

  • mathematician Norbert Wiener convened a series of conversations

    數學家諾貝特-維納召集了一系列的談話。

  • that would become known as the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics.

    這就是後來被稱為 "梅西控制論 "的會議。

  • Ultimately, between 1946 and 1953,

    最終,在1946年至1953年間。

  • ten conferences were held under the banner of cybernetics.

    在控制論的旗幟下舉行了十次會議。

  • As defined by Norbert Wiener,

    按照諾伯特-維納的定義。

  • cybernetics sought to "develop a language and techniques

    控制論試圖 "發展一種語言和技術"。

  • that will enable us to indeed attack the problem of control and communication

    這將使我們能夠真正解決控制和通信問題。

  • in advanced computing technologies."

    在先進的計算技術方面"。

  • Cybernetics argued persuasively

    控制論有說服力地論證道

  • that one had to think about the relationship

    我們不得不考慮的關係

  • between humans, computers

    人與計算機之間

  • and the broader ecological world.

    和更廣闊的生態世界。

  • You had to think about them as a holistic system.

    你必須把它們當作一個整體系統來考慮。

  • Participants in the Macy Conferences were concerned with how the mind worked,

    梅西會議的與會者關注的是心靈如何運作。

  • with ideas about intelligence and learning,

    與智能和學習的理念。

  • and about the role of technology in our future.

    以及關於技術在我們未來的作用。

  • Sadly, the conversations that started with the Macy Conference

    可悲的是,從梅西會議開始的對話。

  • are often forgotten when the talk is about AI.

    在談論人工智能的時候,往往被遺忘。

  • But for me, there's something really important to reclaim here

    但對我來說,有一些很重要的東西要在這裡重新找回。

  • about the idea of a system that has to accommodate culture,

    關於制度必須適應文化的想法。

  • technology and the