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  • Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    轉錄者:約瑟夫-傑尼Joseph Geni 審稿人: Camille MartínezCamille Martínez

  • Have you ever seen something

    你見過的東西

  • and you wish you could have said something

    你希望你能說些什麼

  • but you didn't?

    但你沒有?

  • A second question I have is: Has something ever happened to you

    我的第二個問題是:你有沒有發生過什麼事?

  • and you never said anything about it,

    而你從來沒有說過什麼。

  • though you should have?

    雖然你應該有?

  • I'm interested in this idea of action,

    我對這種行動的想法很感興趣。

  • of the difference between seeing something,

    的區別,看到的東西。

  • which is basically passively observing,

    這基本上是被動的觀察。

  • and the actual act of bearing witness.

    和實際的作證行為。

  • Bearing witness means writing down something you have seen,

    做見證的意思是把自己看到的東西寫下來。

  • something you have heard,

    你聽過的東西。

  • something you have experienced.

    你經歷過的事情。

  • The most important part of bearing witness is writing it down,

    作見證最重要的部分是寫下來。

  • it's recording.

    它的記錄。

  • Writing it down captures the memory.

    寫下來就能抓住記憶。

  • Writing it down acknowledges its existence.

    寫下來就承認了它的存在。

  • One of the biggest examples we have in history

    我們有史以來最大的一個例子

  • of someone bearing witness is Anne Frank's diary.

    有人作證的是安妮-弗蘭克的日記。

  • She simply wrote down what was happening to her and her family

    她只是簡單地寫下了發生在她和她的家人身上的事情。

  • about her confinement,

    關於她的監禁。

  • and in doing so, we have a very intimate record of this family

    這樣一來,我們就有了關於這個家庭的非常親密的記錄。

  • during one of the worst periods of our world's history.

    在我們世界歷史上最糟糕的時期之一。

  • And I want to talk to you today about how to use creative writing

    而我今天想和大家談談如何運用創意寫作的方法。

  • to bear witness.

    來作證。

  • And I'm going to walk you through an exercise,

    而我要帶你做一個練習。

  • which I'm going to do myself,

    這是我自己要做的。

  • that I actually do with a lot of my collegiate students.

    其實我和我的很多大學生都是這樣做的。

  • These are you future engineers, technicians, plumbers --

    這些都是你們未來的工程師、技師、管道工... ...

  • basically, they're not creative writers,

    基本上,他們不是 創意作家。

  • they don't plan on becoming creative writers.

    他們不打算成為 創意作家。

  • But we use these exercises to kind of un-silence things

    但是,我們用這些練習來解除沉默的東西。

  • we've been keeping silent.

    我們一直保持沉默。

  • It's a way to unburden ourselves.

    這是一種卸下自己負擔的方式。

  • And it's three simple steps.

    而且是簡單的三步。

  • So step one is to brainstorm and write it down.

    所以第一步就是要集思廣益,把它寫下來。

  • And what I have my students do is I give them a prompt,

    而我讓我的學生做的是我給他們一個提示。

  • and the prompt is "the time when."

    而提示是 "當的時間"。

  • And I want them to fill in that prompt

    我想讓他們填寫那個提示

  • with times they might have experienced something,

    與時代,他們可能經歷了一些。

  • heard something or seen something,

    聽到了什麼或看到了什麼。

  • or seen something and they could have intervened,

    或看到了什麼,他們可以進行干預。

  • but they didn't.

    但他們沒有。

  • And I have them write it down as quickly as possible.

    而且我讓他們儘快寫下來。

  • So I'll give you an example of some of the things I would write down.

    所以我舉個例子,我會寫下一些東西。

  • The time when, a few months after 9/11,

    在911事件後的幾個月,當。

  • and two boys dared themselves to touch me,

    和兩個男孩敢於自己碰我。

  • and they did.

    而他們也做到了。

  • The time when my sister and I were walking in a city,

    我和姐姐在一個城市裡行走的時候。

  • and a guy spat at us and called us terrorists.

    有個人朝我們吐口水,說我們是恐怖分子。

  • The time way back when

    昔日的時光

  • when I went to a very odd middle school,

    當我上了一所很奇怪的中學。

  • and girls a couple years older than me were being married off to men

    比我大幾歲的女孩都被嫁出去了

  • nearly double their age.

    幾乎是他們年齡的兩倍。

  • The time when a friend pulled a gun on me.

    有一次,一個朋友拿槍指著我。

  • The time when I went to a going-away luncheon

    那次我去參加餞行午餐會的時候

  • for a coworker,

    為同事。

  • and a big boss questioned my lineage for 45 minutes.

    和一個大老闆盤問了我45分鐘的血統。

  • And there are times when I have seen something

    有時我也會看到一些

  • and I haven't intervened.

    而我還沒有插手。

  • For example, the time when I was on a train

    比如說,我在火車上的那一次

  • and I witnessed a father beating his toddler son,

    我親眼目睹了一個父親打他蹣跚學步的兒子。

  • and I didn't do anything.

    而我什麼都沒做。

  • Or the many times I've walked by someone who was homeless and in need,

    或者說,我曾多次走過無家可歸、需要幫助的人。

  • they've asked me for money, and I've walked around them,

    他們向我要錢,而我在他們身邊走來走去。

  • and I did not acknowledge their humanity.

    而我卻不承認他們的人性。

  • And the list could go on and on,

    而這個名單還可以繼續下去。

  • but you want to think of times when something might have happened sexually,

    但你要想一想,什麼時候可能發生過性事。

  • times when you've been keeping things repressed,

    當你一直在壓抑事情的時候。

  • and times with our families,

    以及與家人相處的時光。

  • because (In a hushed voice) God bless them.

    因為上帝保佑他們。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Our families, we love them,

    我們的家人,我們愛他們。

  • but at the same time, we don't talk about things.

    但同時,我們也不談事情。

  • So we may not talk about the family member who has been using drugs

    所以,我們可以不說家人吸毒的事了

  • or abusing alcohol.

    或酗酒。

  • We don't talk about the family member who might have severe mental illness.

    我們不談可能患有嚴重精神疾病的家庭成員。

  • We'll say something like, "Oh, they've always been that way,"

    我們會說,"哦,他們一直都是這樣的,"

  • and we hope that in not talking about it,

    而我們希望,在不談論它。

  • in not acknowledging it,

    在不承認它。

  • we can act like it doesn't exist, that it'll somehow fix itself.

    我們可以假裝它不存在, 它會以某種方式修復自己。

  • So the goal is to get at least 10 things,

    所以,目標是至少得到10件東西。

  • and once you have 10 things,

    而一旦你有10件事。

  • you've actually done part 1, which is bear witness.

    你實際上已經做了第一部分, 這是見證。

  • You have un-silenced something that you have been keeping silent.

    你已經解除了你一直保持沉默的東西。

  • And so after this, you're ready for step 2,

    所以在這之後,你就可以進行第二步了。

  • which is to narrow it down and focus.

    也就是縮小範圍,突出重點。

  • And what I suggest is going back to that list of 10

    而我的建議是,回到那份10人名單上

  • and picking three things that are really tugging at you,

    並挑選出三件真正讓你心動的事情。

  • three things you feel strongly.

    三件你強烈感覺到的事情。

  • It doesn't have to be the most dramatic things,

    不一定要做最戲劇化的事情。

  • but it's things that are like, "Ah," like, "I have to write about this."

    但它的東西是像, "啊,"喜歡,"我必須寫這個。"

  • And I suggest you sit down at a table with a pen and paper --

    我建議你坐在桌子前,拿著筆和紙... ...

  • that's my preferred method for recording, but you can also use a tablet,

    這是我首選的記錄方法,但你也可以使用平板電腦。

  • an iPad, a computer,

    一個iPad,一臺電腦。

  • but something that lets you write it down.

    但能讓你寫下來的東西。

  • And I suggest taking 30 minutes of uninterrupted time,

    而且我建議用30分鐘的時間不間斷地進行。

  • meaning that you cut your phone off,

    意味著你切斷了手機。

  • put it on airplane mode,

    把它放在飛機模式。

  • no email,

    郵件中。

  • and if you have a family, if you have children,

    如果你有家庭,如果你有孩子。

  • give yourself 20 minutes, five minutes.

    給自己20分鐘,5分鐘。

  • The goal is just to give yourself time to write.

    目標只是給自己時間去寫。

  • What you're going to write

    你要寫什麼

  • is you're going to focus on three things.

    是你要關注三件事。

  • You're going to focus on the details,

    你要注重細節。

  • you're going to focus on the order of events,

    你要關注事件的順序。

  • and you're going to focus on how it made you feel.

    而你要專注於它讓你感覺如何。

  • That is the most important part.

    這是最重要的部分。

  • I am the guinea pig today,

    今天我就是那隻豚鼠。

  • and so I'm going to walk you through how I do it.

    所以我將帶你瞭解我是如何做的。

  • I'm going to pick three things.

    我要選三樣東西。

  • So the first thing I feel very, very strongly about

    所以,首先我覺得非常,非常強烈的是

  • is that time a couple months after 9/11

    是在911事件後的幾個月

  • when those two boys dared themselves to touch me.

    當那兩個男孩敢於碰我的時候。

  • I remember I was in a rural mall in North Carolina,

    我記得我在北卡羅來納州的一個鄉村商場裡。

  • and I was walking, just walking, minding my business,

    我走著,只是走著,想著我的事。

  • and I felt people walking behind me, like, very, very close,

    我覺得人們走在我身後, 像,非常,非常接近。

  • and I'm like, "OK, that's kind of weird. Let me walk a little bit faster.

    我想,"好吧,這是一種奇怪的,讓我走得更快一點。

  • There's a whole mall around me. What is happening?"

    我周圍有一整個商場。發生了什麼事?"

  • They walk a little bit faster, and I hear them going back and forth:

    他們走得有點快,我聽到他們來回走動的聲音。

  • "You do it!" "No, you do it!"

    "你來!""不,你來!"

  • And then one of them pushes me, and I almost fall to the ground.

    然後其中一個人推了我一把,我差點摔倒在地。

  • So I kind of pop back up, expecting some type of apology,

    所以我又蹦了出來,期待著某種形式的道歉。

  • and the weirdest thing is that they did not run away.

    而最奇怪的是,他們沒有逃跑。

  • They actually went and just stood right next to me.

    他們居然去了,就站在我旁邊。

  • And I remember there was a guy with blond hair,

    我還記得有一個金髮的傢伙。

  • and he had a bright red polo shirt,

    他有一個鮮紅的Polo衫。

  • and he was telling the other guy, like, "Give me my money. I did it, man."

    他告訴另一個人,就像,"給我我的錢,我做到了,夥計。我做到了,夥計。"

  • And the guy with the brown hair, I remember he had a choppy haircut,

    還有那個棕色頭髮的傢伙,我記得他的髮型很亂。

  • and he gave him a five-dollar bill,

    他給了他一張五美元的鈔票。

  • and I remember it was crumpled.

    我記得它是皺巴巴的。

  • And so I'm like, am I still standing here?

    所以我想,我還站在這裡嗎?

  • This thing just happened. What just happened?

    這事剛剛發生了。剛剛發生了什麼?

  • And it was so weird to be the end of someone's dare,

    而成為別人的大冒險的終點,實在是太奇怪了。

  • and also at the end to not exist to them.

    也在最後對他們不存在。

  • I remember it kind of reminded me of the time when I was younger

    我記得這讓我想起了我年輕時的時光。

  • and someone dared me to touch something nasty or disgusting.

    有人敢讓我去碰一些噁心的東西。

  • I felt like that nasty and disgusting thing.

    我覺得自己就像那個噁心的東西一樣。

  • A second thing I feel very, very strongly about

    第二件事,我感覺非常,非常強烈的是

  • is the time a friend pulled a gun on me.

    是一次朋友拿槍指著我。

  • I should say former friend.

    我應該說是以前的朋友。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I remember it was a group of us outside,

    我記得當時是我們一群人在外面。

  • and he had ran up

    而他已經跑了起來

  • and he had the stereotypical brown paper bag in his hand,

    而他手裡拿著刻板的棕色紙袋。

  • and I knew what it was,

    我知道那是什麼

  • and so I'm a very mouthy person, and I started going off.

    所以我是一個很愛說話的人,我就開始走神。

  • I was like, "What are you doing with a gun?

    我當時就想:"你拿著槍幹什麼?

  • You're not going to shoot anyone.

    你不會向任何人開槍的

  • You're a coward, you don't even know how to use it."

    你是個膽小鬼,連怎麼用都不知道。"

  • And I kept going on

    而我一直在繼續

  • and on

    而在

  • and on,

    和上。

  • and he got angrier

    他就更生氣了

  • and angrier

    更加憤怒

  • and angrier.

    而且更加憤怒。

  • And he pulled the gun out and put it in my face.

    他把槍掏出來,放在我臉上。

  • I remember every one of us got very, very quiet.

    我記得我們每個人都變得非常非常安靜。

  • I remember the tightness of his face.

    我記得他臉上的緊繃感。

  • I remember the barrel of the gun.

    我記得槍管。

  • And I felt like --

    我覺得像 --

  • and I'm pretty sure everyone around me who got quiet felt like --

    我敢肯定,每個人都在我身邊 誰得到了安靜的感覺 -

  • "This is the moment I die."

    "這是我死的時刻。"

  • And the third thing I feel very, very strongly about

    第三件事,我感覺非常,非常強烈的

  • is this going-away luncheon and this big boss.

    就是這個餞行的午餐會和這個大老闆。

  • I remember I was running late, and I'm always late.

    我記得我跑得很晚,我總是遲到。

  • It's just a thing that happens with me. I'm just always late.

    這只是一件事,發生在我身上。我只是總是遲到。

  • I was running late,

    我遲到了。

  • and the whole table was filled except for this seat next to him.

    而整張桌子上除了他旁邊的這個座位外,都坐滿了人。

  • I didn't know him that well, had seen him around the office.

    我跟他不熟,在辦公室裡見過他。

  • I didn't know why the seat was empty. I found out later on.

    我不知道為什麼座位是空的。後來我才知道。

  • And so I sat down at the table,

    於是我就坐在了桌前。

  • and before he even asked me my name,

    在他問我名字之前

  • the first thing he said was,

    他說的第一句話是:

  • "What's going on with all of this?"

    "這都是怎麼回事?"

  • And I'm like, do I have something on my face?

    我想,我臉上有東西嗎?

  • What's happening? I don't know.

    發生了什麼事?我不知道啊

  • And he asked me with two hands this time.

    而他這次是用兩隻手問我。

  • "What's going on with all of this?"

    "這都是怎麼回事?"

  • And I realized he's talking about my hijab.

    我意識到他在說我的頭巾。

  • And in my head, I said, "Oh, not today."

    在我的腦海裡,我說,"哦,不是今天。"

  • But he's a big boss, he's like my boss's boss's boss,

    但他是個大老闆,他就像我老闆的老闆的老闆。

  • and so I put up for 45 minutes,

    於是我放了45分鐘。

  • I put up with him asking me where I was from,

    我忍著他問我是哪裡人。

  • where my parents were from,

    我的父母是來自哪裡。

  • my grandparents.

    我的祖父母。

  • He asked me where I went to school at, where I did my internships at.

    他問我在哪裡上學,在哪裡實習。

  • He asked me who interviewed me for that job.

    他問我那個工作是誰面試的。

  • And for 45 minutes, I tried to be very, very, very, very, very polite,

    在45分鐘裡,我試著表現得非常,非常,非常,非常有禮貌。

  • tried to answer his questions.

    試圖回答他的問題。

  • But I remember I was kind of making eyeball help signals

    但我記得我當時是在做眼球幫助的信號

  • at the people around the table, like, "Someone say something. Intervene."

    在桌子周圍的人,像, "有人說什麼。介入。"

  • And it was a rectangular table, so there were people on both sides of us,

    而且是一張長方形的桌子,所以我們兩邊都有人。

  • and no one said anything,

    沒有人說什麼。

  • even people who might be in a position, bosses,

    甚至是可能處於地位的人,老闆。

  • no one said anything.

    沒有人說什麼。

  • And I remember I felt so alone.

    我記得我覺得很孤獨。

  • I remember I felt like I didn't deserve to be in his space,

    我記得我覺得我不配待在他的空間裡。

  • and I remember I wanted to quit.

    我記得我想退出。

  • So these are my three things.

    所以這是我的三件事。

  • And you'll have your list of three things.

    你會有你的三件事的清單。

  • And once you have these three things and you have the details

    一旦你有了這三樣東西,你就有了詳細的內容

  • and you have the order of events and you have how it made you feel,

    你有事件的順序,你有它讓你感覺。

  • you're ready to actually use creative writing to bear witness.

    你已經準備好真正使用創意寫作來見證。

  • And that takes us to step 3,

    這就進入了第三步。

  • which is to pick one and to tell your story.

    也就是選一個,然後講你的故事。

  • You don't have to write a memoir.

    你不一定要寫回憶錄。

  • You don't have to be a creative writer.

    你不一定要成為一個創意作家。

  • I know sometimes storytelling can be daunting for some people,

    我知道有時候講故事對一些人來說是令人生畏的。

  • but we are human.

    但我們是人類。

  • We are natural storytellers,

    我們是天生的講故事的人。

  • so if someone asks us how our day is going,

    所以,如果有人問我們如何我們的一天是怎麼回事,

  • we have a beginning, a middle and an end.

    我們有一個開始,中間和結束。

  • That is a narrative.

    這是一種敘事方式。

  • Our memory exists and subsists through the act of storytelling,

    我們的記憶是通過講故事的行為而存在和延續的。

  • and you just have to find a form that works for you.

    而你只需要找到一種適合你的形式。

  • You can write a letter to your younger self.

    你可以給年輕的自己寫一封信。

  • You can write a story to your younger self.

    你可以寫一個故事給年輕的自己。

  • You can write a story to your five-year-old child,

    你可以給五歲的孩子寫一個故事。

  • depending on the story.

    取決於故事的內容。

  • You can write a parody, a song, a song that's a parody.

    你可以寫一首模仿,一首歌,一首模仿的歌。

  • You can write a play. You can write a nursery rhyme.

    你可以寫一齣戲。你可以寫一首童謠。

  • I've read -- I mean, these a theories, though --

    我讀過... 我的意思是,這些理論,雖然... ...

  • that "Baa, baa black sheep, Have you any wool,"

    "咩咩黑羊,你有羊毛嗎?"

  • "Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full,"

    "是的,先生,是的,先生,滿滿三袋"。

  • is actually about impoverished farmers in England being taxed heavily.

    其實是關於英國貧困農民被徵收重稅的問題。

  • You can write it in the form of a Wikipedia article.

    你可以用維基百科文章的形式來寫。

  • And if it's one of those situations

    如果它是那些情況之一

  • where you saw something and you didn't intervene,

    你看到的東西,你沒有干預。

  • perhaps write it from that person's perspective.

    也許從那個人的角度來寫。

  • You know, so if I go back to that boy on the train

    你知道,所以如果我回到火車上那個男孩的身邊

  • who I saw being beaten, what was it like to be in his shoes?

    我看到誰被打, 是什麼感覺是在他的鞋子?

  • What was it like to see all these people who watched it happen and did nothing?

    看著這些人眼睜睜地看著事情發生卻無動於衷是什麼感覺?

  • What happens if I put myself in a position of someone who was homeless

    如果我把自己放在一個無家可歸的人的位置上,會發生什麼?

  • and just try to figure out how they got there in the first place?

    而只是想弄清楚他們當初是如何到達那裡的?

  • Perhaps it would help me change some of my actions.

    也許這能幫助我改變一些行為。