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  • Norman McLaren, the great 20th century pioneer of animation technique,

    Norman McLaren 是二十世紀 偉大的動畫技術先驅

  • once said, "Animation is not the art of drawings that move,

    他曾說 動畫不是會動的繪畫藝術

  • but the art of movements that are drawn.

    而是畫出律動的藝術

  • What happens between each frame is more important

    每一格之間的變化

  • than what exists on each frame."

    比每一格中畫出的內容更重要

  • What did he mean?

    他說的是什麼意思呢?

  • Well, for an object to appear in motion,

    嗯...一個移動中的物體

  • it necessarily has to change in position over time.

    隨著時間改變 它位置會改變

  • If time passes and no change in position occurs,

    如果時間改變而它位置沒變

  • the object will appear to be still.

    這物體是靜止的

  • This relationship between the passage of time

    時間的流逝和 這段時間內改變的程度

  • and the amount of change that occurs in that time

    這兩者之間的關係

  • is at the heart of every time-based art form,

    是任何跟時間有關的 藝術形式的重點

  • be it music, dance, or motion pictures.

    譬如 音樂、 舞蹈或動畫

  • Manipulating the speed and amount of change

    操控每一格間的速度

  • between the frames is the secret alchemy

    和其改變的程度

  • that gives animation the ability to convey the illusion of life.

    這是讓動畫賦予生命錯覺的秘密

  • In animation, there are two fundamental principles

    動畫有兩個基本原則

  • we use to do this:

    通常是:

  • timing and spacing.

    時間和間距

  • To illustrate the relationship between them,

    解釋兩者間的關係

  • we'll use a timeless example: the bouncing ball.

    我們用一個永恆的例子 : 跳動的球

  • One way to think about timing

    一個思考時間的方法

  • is that it's the speed, or tempo,

    是在一個動作發生的時候

  • at which an action takes place.

    考慮它的速度或節奏

  • We determine the speed of an action

    多少圖像或多少格

  • by how many pictures, or frames, it takes to happen.

    決定了一個動作的速度

  • The more frames something takes to happen,

    越多格

  • the more time it spends on screen,

    在銀幕上出現的時間越長

  • so the slower the action will be.

    動作越慢

  • The fewer frames something takes to happen,

    越少格

  • the less screen time it takes,

    在銀幕上出現的時間越短

  • which gives us faster action.

    我們看起來動作越快

  • The timing is about more than just speed,

    時間它不只是速度

  • it's also about rhythm.

    還有律動

  • Like a drumbeat or melody only exists

    有如鼓聲和旋律

  • when a song is being played,

    只有當歌曲撥放時才存在

  • the timing of an action

    動作所需時間

  • only exists while it's happening.

    只有發生時存在

  • You can describe it in words,

    你若用文字描述

  • say, something will take 6 frames, 18 frames, or so on.

    可以說6格 18格等

  • But to really get a sense of it,

    但若要真的感覺一下

  • you need to act it out

    你需要做出動作

  • or experience it as it would happen in, well, real time.

    或當真實發生時體會它

  • Now, the timing of an action

    現在動作的時間性

  • all depends on the context of the scene

    取決於場景的內容

  • and what you're trying to communicate.

    還有你想表達的東西

  • What is doing the acting, and why?

    是什麼造成這些動作?為什麼?

  • Let's take our example.

    舉例說

  • What makes a ball bounce?

    球為什麼會跳?

  • The action we're talking about here

    這裡我們所說的動作

  • is a result of interacting physical forces,

    是物理力量交互作用的結果

  • a moving ball's tendency to stay in motion,

    一個是驅動球體

  • or its force of momentum

    持續跳起的動能

  • vs. the constant force of gravity

    對抗將球帶回地面

  • bringing it back down Earth.

    的地心引力

  • The degree to which these invisible forces apply,

    這無形力量作用的程度

  • and the reason why the ball behaves the way it does,

    和球本身運動方式

  • all depends on the physical properties of the ball.

    取決於球本身的物理性質

  • A golf ball is small, hard and light.

    高爾夫球是小的、硬的、輕的

  • A rubber ball is small, soft and lighter.

    橡皮球是小的、 軟的、更轻的

  • A beach ball is large, soft and light.

    沙灘球是大的、軟的、輕的

  • And a bowling ball is large, hard and heavy.

    而保齡球是大的、硬的、重的

  • So, each ball behaves very differently,

    所以根據其性質

  • according to its properties.

    每種球表現不同

  • Let's get a sense of the visual rhythm of each.

    讓我們感覺一下每一個球的視覺律動感

  • Each ball plays its own beat

    每個有其跳動方式

  • and tells us something about itself

    還有它通過銀幕所需時間

  • and the time it takes to travel across the screen.

    這都告訴了我們它的特性

  • The visual rhythm of these hits is the timing.

    每次反彈的視覺律動是時間

  • Okay, let's start animating our ball,

    好 我們來模擬這顆球

  • bouncing up and down with a simple cycle of drawings.

    用圓圈上下跳動來表示

  • We'll draw a circle here,

    我們畫個圓

  • call it point A, our starting point.

    A 是起點

  • We'll have it hit the ground here, point B.

    落底地面時是B

  • Let's say it takes about a second

    落底擊地再彈起

  • to hit the ground and come back up again.

    這大約花一秒鐘

  • This is our timing.

    這是我們所需的時間

  • Our spacing is where we position the circle

    圓圈在A和B間的來回

  • in the frames between point A and point B.

    是我們的間距

  • If we were to move our ball

    若將球

  • in evenly-spaced increments,

    在均勻間距中跳動

  • we'd get something like this.

    我們看到像這樣

  • It's not really telling us anything about itself.

    但這沒有任何意義

  • Is it a bouncing ball or a circle on an elevator?

    只不過是個跳動球或是 電梯中跳動的圓圈

  • Let's look at our footage again

    讓我們再來看一下鏡頭

  • and think about what's going on

    每次球反彈

  • as each ball bounces.

    想想是怎麼回事

  • Following each impact with the ground,

    每次與地面撞擊之後

  • the ball's upward momentum

    球反彈向上的動力

  • is eventually overcome by gravity.

    終究抵抗了地心引力

  • This happens at the peak of each arc.

    尤其是在弧線的頂點

  • As things change direction,

    當方向改變時

  • the motion is slowest.

    速度是最慢的

  • We see here the successive positions of the ball

    在高點我們捕捉到 球的連續位置

  • are close together.

    越來越重疊靠緊

  • The ball then speeds up as it falls,

    當下墜時 球開始加速

  • and is at its fastest

    當接近撞擊地面時

  • when it's approaching and hitting the ground.

    球速是最快的

  • We can see here each position is further apart.

    球落地前的連續位置越來越分開

  • The change in position between frames

    在格與格間的位置改變

  • is the spacing.

    叫間距

  • The smaller the change,

    間距改變越小

  • the slower the action will appear.

    動作越慢

  • The greater the change,

    間距改變越大

  • the faster it will appear.

    動作越快

  • For an action to decelerate,

    對減速中的動作

  • each change in position must be less than the change before it.

    每次位置的改變 會比前次改變的少

  • Likewise, for an action to speed up, or accelerate,

    同樣的 對加速的動作

  • each successive change must be greater.

    連續位置改變越來越大

  • Let's change the mechanical spacing

    讓我們改變

  • of our animated bounce

    模擬跳動的間距

  • to reflect what we observed in the footage.

    來驗證鏡頭中的觀察結果

  • Slow at the top, fast when it's hitting the ground.

    在頂點很慢 當它擊中地面時速度快

  • Simply by adjusting the spacing,

    只要調整間距

  • we've succeeded in suggesting

    我們已成功說明

  • the forces of momentum and gravity at play

    動力和重力的交互作用

  • and achieved a much more realistic motion.

    可達到更真實的動作

  • Same timing but different spacing

    同樣的時間但不同的間距

  • gives us vastly different results.

    會有相當不同的結果

  • And in reality, as a ball bounces,

    真實中 當一個球反彈時

  • the physics of gravity eventually defeat

    物理重力勝過了

  • the tendency of the ball to stay in motion.

    球想保持運動狀態的傾向

  • You can see this here in the decreasing height

    你可看到連續反彈時

  • of each successive bounce.

    高度漸漸減少

  • However, again, this decrease varies

    然而高度減少多少

  • according to the properties of the ball.

    取決於球本身的物性

  • Even though these circles are the same size here,

    縱使這圓圈是同樣大小

  • they're each telling us a different story about themselves,

    每個都會有不同結果

  • purely in how they move.

    純粹在於如何移動

  • The relationship between these principles

    時間和間距

  • of timing and spacing

    兩者間的關係

  • can be applied in countless ways

    可應用在無數的地方

  • and used to animate all types of action:

    和模擬所有的動作

  • a yo-yo,

    回力球

  • a punch,

    拳擊

  • a gentle tap,

    輕輕觸碰

  • a push,

    推力

  • a saw,

    拉鋸

  • the Sun traveling across the sky,

    太陽劃過天空

  • a pendulum.

    鐘擺

  • Animation is a time-based art form.

    動畫是時間相關的藝術形式

  • It may incorporate the aesthetic elements

    它可以結合

  • of other graphic arts,

    其他圖像藝術的美學元素

  • like illustration or painting,

    像插圖或繪畫

  • but what sets animation apart

    但 是什麼讓動畫有別於他

  • is that, here, what you see

    就是 重點不是你看到的

  • is less important that what you don't see.

    而是你沒看到的

  • An object's superficial appearance

    我們在物體外表所看到的

  • only tells us so much about itself.

    就是它的全部

  • It's only when it's in motion

    只有在移動中

  • that we really understand its nature.

    我們才真的了解它的本質

Norman McLaren, the great 20th century pioneer of animation technique,

Norman McLaren 是二十世紀 偉大的動畫技術先驅

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 動作 改變 時間 動畫 圓圈

TED-Ed】動畫基礎知識。時間和間距的藝術--TED-Ed (【TED-Ed】Animation basics: The art of timing and spacing - TED-Ed)

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    Lim Chun Aun 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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