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  • Happy holidays and welcome to CNN 10.

    節日快樂,歡迎來到CNN10。

  • My name is Carl Jesus.

    我的名字是卡爾-耶穌。

  • This is our last week on the air in 2020.

    這是我們2020年最後一週的直播。

  • After this Friday's show, we will be off for Christmas and New Year's, and we'll see you again on January 4th, less than 11 months after the first coronavirus diagnosis was made in America, shipping has begun for the nation's first coronavirus vaccine.

    本週五的節目結束後,我們將在聖誕和新年期間休息,1月4日我們再見,在美國首次診斷出冠狀病毒後不到11個月,全國首支冠狀病毒疫苗已經開始運輸。

  • The approval was given by the U.

    該批覆是由U。

  • S.

    S.

  • Food and Drug Administration on Saturday.

    食品和藥物管理局上週六。

  • The vaccine is made by the American drug company Pfizer.

    該疫苗由美國藥廠輝瑞公司生產。

  • It's received an emergency use authorization, which means the vaccine has gotten special approval from the FDA to be used during an emergency.

    它獲得了緊急使用授權,這意味著疫苗已經得到了FDA的特別準許,可以在緊急情況下使用。

  • Full approval has to be obtained through a separate application process.

    必須通過單獨的申請程序獲得全面準許。

  • The leader of the FDA says he hopes the shot will start being given to the public on Monday.

    食藥監局的上司說,他希望週一開始給公眾注射。

  • For that to happen, the U.

    要做到這一點,烏。

  • S Centers for Disease Control had to first, except the FDA is recommendation that it be used.

    S疾病控制中心不得不首先,除了FDA是建議使用。

  • Ah, second, covert vaccine made by the American drug company Moderna could also get the green light in the days ahead, And U.

    啊,第二,美國藥企Moderna生產的隱蔽疫苗也可能在未來幾天獲得綠燈,而U。

  • S health officials say it's possible that doses for 20 million Americans could be available by the end of the year.

    S衛生官員說,有可能2000萬美國人的劑量可能在今年年底前可用。

  • The Pfizer vaccine is given is two shots, the second one coming 21 days after the first.

    輝瑞疫苗是打兩針,第二針在第一針後21天。

  • The drug company says that when it's given this way, it's 95% effective in preventing coronavirus infections.

    該藥廠表示,這樣給藥時,對預防冠狀病毒感染有95%的效果。

  • Health care workers and people who live in nursing homes and other long term care facilities will have priority in getting it.

    醫護人員和住在養老院和其他長期護理設施的人將優先得到它。

  • But the vaccine has not been approved for pregnant women or anyone under the age of 16.

    但該疫苗還沒有被準許用於孕婦或16歲以下的人。

  • Health officials say there's not enough data to know whether it's safe for these groups.

    衛生官員說,目前還沒有足夠的數據知道它對這些群體是否安全。

  • There are also concerns about allergies to the vaccine.

    也有人擔心對疫苗過敏。

  • Two health care workers in the United Kingdom who got it and who had a history of allergic reactions.

    英國有兩名醫護人員得了這種病,他們有過敏反應史。

  • Both had a dangerous allergic response to Pfizer's covert vaccine.

    兩人都對輝瑞的隱蔽疫苗產生了危險的過敏反應。

  • So the FDA says people with the history of serious allergic reactions to any of the vaccines ingredients shouldn't get the shots.

    所以FDA說,對任何疫苗成分有嚴重過敏反應史的人都不應該打針。

  • Side effects like discomfort or a fever lasting a day or two after getting the shot are also possible.

    打完針後不舒服或發燒持續一兩天等副作用也是有可能的。

  • Health officials say This is normal.

    衛生官員說這是正常的。

  • The covert vaccine is the first of its kind that's been approved for use it's also the fastest.

    祕密疫苗是第一個被準許使用的疫苗它也是最快的。

  • As health experts say, no other vaccine has ever been developed in less than four years.

    正如衛生專家所言,在不到4年的時間裡,從未有其他疫苗被研製出來。

  • Dr Sanjay Gupta explains what makes this shot unique.

    Sanjay Gupta博士解釋了這個鏡頭的獨特之處。

  • 248 days from an idea to now applying for the vaccine to be authorized, that's just eight months for context.

    從一個想法到現在申請疫苗授權,248天,這僅僅是8個月的背景。

  • Eight years would have been considered speedy.

    八年的時間已經算是很快了。

  • But the truth is, the story I'm about to tell you actually began more than two decades ago.

    但事實上,我要告訴你的故事,其實始於二十多年前。

  • And to really understand it, you first have to understand how most vaccines work.

    而要真正瞭解它,你首先要了解大多數疫苗的工作原理。

  • Since the first vaccine for smallpox, back in 17 96 they have all relied on the same basic concept.

    自從1996年第一支天花疫苗問世以來,他們都是基於同一個基本概念。

  • Give a little piece of the virus, also known as antigen, to someone not enough to make them sick, and their body will then be taught to make antibodies to it.

    給人一小塊病毒,也就是抗原,不足以讓人生病,然後他們的身體就會被教會產生抗體。

  • Those are the proteins that neutralize the virus.

    這些都是中和病毒的蛋白質。

  • If it ever tried to invade again, that's what makes you immune.

    如果它再想入侵,那就是讓你免疫。

  • But what if the body could be taught to do the whole thing, not just make antibodies, but also to make the antigens as well to essentially become its own vaccine making machine?

    但如果能教會人體做整個事情,不僅僅是製造抗體,還能製造抗原,從本質上成為自己的疫苗製造機器呢?

  • It's why, in the two thousands, Dr Drew Weissman started focusing on this tiny strand of genetic material that ourselves make all the time it's known as Morena.

    這就是為什麼,在兩千多歲的時候,德魯-魏斯曼博士就開始關注我們自己一直在製造的這種微小的遺傳物質鏈,它被稱為莫瑞娜。

  • Back then, we were thinking of using it for vaccines for therapeutic proteins, for gene editing for lots of different applications.

    當時,我們想用它來做治療性蛋白的疫苗,做基因編輯,做很多不同的應用。

  • MRNA stands for messenger RNA.

    MRNA代表信使RNA。

  • It carries the instructions for making whatever protein you want.

    它攜帶著製作任何你想要的蛋白質的說明。

  • Once you've got the sequence, it's a one step reaction to make RNA, and that reaction is identical for every vaccine that we make.

    一旦你得到了序列,就只需要一步反應就能製造出RNA,而這個反應對於我們製造的每一種疫苗都是相同的。

  • If this sounds more like code in a computer rather than medicine from a lab, that means you're getting it.

    如果這聽起來更像是電腦裡的代碼,而不是實驗室裡的藥品,那說明你已經明白了。

  • Thistles.

    蒺藜。

  • An entirely New Way of Thinking about Vaccines It's also the basic technology behind Pfizer and Madonna's Covad 19 vaccines.

    一種全新的疫苗思維方式 這也是輝瑞和麥當勞的Covad 19疫苗背後的基本技術。

  • Vaccines are close by their coming, You know, I said, help is on the way.

    疫苗就快到了,我說過,幫助就在路上。

  • It's truly bio meets tech.

    這是真正的生物與科技的結合。

  • The vaccine is not the virus at all.

    疫苗根本就不是病毒。

  • It's essentially just a genetic code or a portion of the virus.

    它本質上只是一個遺傳密碼或病毒的一部分。

  • This portion the spike protein.

    這部分穗蛋白。

  • Why the spike protein?

    為什麼要用尖峰蛋白?

  • Because it's the key the virus uses to enter the human cell.

    因為這是病毒進入人體細胞的關鍵。

  • But if you create antibodies to the spike protein, it's then blocked 12th trivia.

    但如果你製造了尖峰蛋白的抗體,那麼它就會被阻斷第12個小問題。

  • About 33% of the Earth's land area is permanently covered by what desert freshwater rainforests, or ice and snow desert is the answer.

    地球上約33%的土地面積被什麼沙漠淡水雨林永久覆蓋,或者說冰雪沙漠就是答案。

  • While up to a third of our land mass can be covered by ice and snow, that can change with the seasons.

    雖然我們多達三分之一的陸地面積可以被冰雪覆蓋,但這也會隨著季節的變化而變化。

  • Desertification occurs when fertile farmland turns into desert.

    當肥沃的農田變成沙漠時,就會發生荒漠化。

  • This can happen when forests or cut down drought settles in or farmland is managed badly.

    當森林或被砍伐的乾旱沉澱下來或農田管理不善時,就會發生這種情況。

  • There's a material called liquid Nana Clay that aims to reverse desertification, turning waste land into fertile soil.

    有一種叫液態納土的材料,旨在扭轉荒漠化,將廢土變成肥沃的土壤。

  • One downside, according to some environmentalists, is that most farmers simply can't afford it.

    一些環保人士認為,一個缺點是,大多數農民根本負擔不起。

  • Covering the average sized farm in America, which is about 444 acres, would cost anywhere between 3.5 and $9 million.

    覆蓋美國平均規模的農場(約444英畝),將花費350萬至900萬美元不等。

  • But the soil is more fertile in many parts of the states than it is in the desert of the United Arab Emirates.

    但在這些國家的許多地方,土壤比阿拉伯聯合酋長國的沙漠更肥沃。

  • This nation has to import more than 90% of its food, and even if it manages to turn barren land into fertile farmland, a soil scientist interviewed by CNN says it could change a fragile desert ecosystem when something that wasn't there before suddenly is But if this technology is funded and managed effectively every year, nearly 30 million acres of fertile soil degrades in tow.

    這個國家90%以上的食物都要進口,即使它能把貧瘠的土地變成肥沃的農田,一位接受CNN採訪的土壤科學家說,它可能會改變脆弱的沙漠生態系統,當以前沒有的東西突然有了,但如果這項技術每年得到資助和有效管理,近3000萬畝肥沃的土壤隨之退化。

  • Unusable desert land ah, process known as desertification.

    無法使用的沙漠土地啊,過程中被稱為荒漠化。

  • But what if you could turn that desert land back into fertile soil in a matter of hours?

    但是,如果你能在幾個小時內把那片沙漠土地重新變成肥沃的土壤呢?

  • Norwegian startup Desert Control claims it can do just that.

    挪威初創公司Desert Control聲稱它可以做到這一點。

  • So what's the rial invention here for desert control?

    那麼,這裡的里亞爾發明的沙漠控制是什麼?

  • Basically, what we have invented is a way to turn clay into a liquid nearly as thin as water.

    基本上,我們發明的是一種將粘土變成幾乎和水一樣稀薄的液體的方法。

  • Mixing clay into soil has long been used to restore dry farmland, but the process could take 7 to 15 years to complete.

    長期以來,在土壤中混合粘土一直被用來恢復乾旱的農田,但這個過程可能需要7到15年才能完成。

  • By turning clay into liquid, the process is dramatically shortened.

    通過將粘土變成液體,大大縮短了工藝流程。

  • The company simply sprays what they call liquid nano clay onto dry land.

    該公司只需將他們所謂的液態納米粘土噴灑在乾燥的土地上。

  • It seeps below the surface and begins working in just seven hours.

    它滲入地表以下,只需7個小時就能開始工作。

  • It will just stick to every sand grain that exists throughout that soil and then form this structure that enables this soil to retain water and nutrients just like a sponge.

    它就會粘在整個土壤中存在的每一個沙粒上,然後形成這種結構,使這個土壤能夠像海綿一樣保持水分和養分。

  • In early trials run by a nonprofit in Dubai, grain, zucchini and watermelon needed 50% less water to grow.

    在迪拜一家非營利組織進行的早期試驗中,穀物、西葫蘆和西瓜的生長所需水量減少了50%。

  • Some plants even thrived.

    有些植物甚至茁壯成長。

  • We had zucchini.

    我們有西葫蘆。

  • Increases of yield up to 62%.

    增產幅度高達62%。

  • Really impressive results, but liquid nano clay isn't cheap between 8000 to $20,000 an acre, but desert control expects costs will come down.

    真正令人印象深刻的結果,但液態納米粘土並不便宜,每畝8000到20000元之間,但沙漠控制預計成本會下降。

  • Is the company scales up next year?

    明年公司規模是否會擴大?

  • There are plans to test the technology in the U.

    有計劃在美國測試該技術。

  • S.

    S.

  • In dry states like California, Nevada and Arizona with, you know, increasing temperatures, extended drought periods to be able to ensure that the little water that we have actually is retained in that soil is going to be extremely valuable and important for farmers moving forward.

    在乾燥的國家,如加利福尼亞州,內華達州和亞利桑那州,你知道,不斷增加的溫度,延長的乾旱時期,能夠確保我們有一點水,實際上是保留在土壤中,將是非常寶貴的,重要的農民前進。

  • Okay, here's an interesting idea.

    好吧,這裡有一個有趣的想法。

  • Take the weight of every living thing on Earth and compare it to the weight of everything people have made buildings, roads, plastic.

    把地球上每一個生物的重量,與人們製造的建築、道路、塑膠的一切重量進行比較。

  • What Ways Mawr.

    哪些方法莫爾。

  • A new analysis, recently published in the scientific journal Nature, estimates that the stuff people have made may now be heavier than the stuff that's here.

    最近發表在科學雜誌《自然》上的一項新分析估計,現在人們製造的東西可能比這裡的東西更重。

  • Naturally, both weights are estimated to be somewhere around 1.1 trillion tons.

    自然,這兩種重量估計在1.1萬億噸左右。

  • But researchers at Israel's Wiseman Institute of Science say the combined weight of all of our concrete gravel bricks, asphalt, plastic, metal, paper and glass may now way mawr than the Earth's biomass.

    但以色列威斯曼科學研究所的研究人員說,我們所有的混凝土碎石磚、瀝青、塑膠、金屬、紙張和玻璃的總重量,現在可能比地球上的生物量還要大。

  • Scientists say this is something to keep in mind as societies grow that people should consider how much stuff we actually need to make toe live.

    科學家們說,隨著社會的發展,人們應該考慮我們到底需要多少東西才能讓腳趾活起來,這是需要注意的。

  • A good life in the North Atlantic Ocean between Iceland and Norway.

    在冰島和挪威之間的北大西洋上過著美好的生活。

  • A pretty amazing traffic circle is about to open up in the Faroe Islands, and it's not just amazing because it's pretty.

    在法羅群島,一個非常神奇的交通圈即將開放,這不僅僅是因為它漂亮而神奇。

  • It's located more than 600 ft beneath the ocean surface.

    它位於海面下600多英尺處。

  • It's made out of natural rock and illuminated by blue, green and yellow lights, and it will help people get around the 17 inhabited islands there.

    它由天然岩石製成,並由藍色、綠色和黃色的燈光照亮,它將幫助人們繞過那裡的17個有人居住的島嶼。

  • It's part of a tunnel network whose estimated cost is around $170 million.

    這是一個隧道網絡的一部分,估計成本約為1.7億美元。

  • But many residents are glad they got round about to building it, because now that the projects come full circle, it's making people want to both stop and go for a drive and an undersea adventure, keeping their eyes traffic stahn both the road and a head spinning, car spinning, tire spinning intersection of Landon C.

    但許多居民很高興他們繞過了建設它的問題,因為現在項目已經全面展開,它讓人們既想停下腳步,又想去兜風,還想來一場海底探險,讓他們的眼睛交通盯著既是馬路,又是頭暈、車暈、輪胎暈的路口蘭登C。

  • Ah, Carla Zeus for CNN.

    啊,CNN的卡拉-宙斯。

  • 10.

    10.

  • We wanna make a stop today in Dresden, Tennessee, dressed in high school, you guys air fantastic.

    我們今天想在田納西州的德累斯頓停一下 穿著高中生的衣服,你們的氣質很好。

  • It's great to have you watching on YouTube.

    很高興你能在YouTube上觀看。

Happy holidays and welcome to CNN 10.

節日快樂,歡迎來到CNN10。

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