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  • In the mid-nineties, a former investment banker declared that he was going to become the world’s biggest online retailer.

    上世紀九十年代中期,一位前銀行投資家宣布,自己將成為世界上最大的網路零售商。

  • A university dropout tells us that he will show the consumers which products they want and then step by step revolutionizes the markets for personal computers, music and cell phones.

    一名輟學的大學生表示,他將向消費者說明他們需要什麼樣的產品,然後逐步對個人電腦、音樂播放器和手機市場進行革新。

  • And this student digs, a young man designs a comparison portal for female students, which is now the biggest communication platform in the world, connecting millions of people.

    一個年輕人設計了女學生的比較入口網站,現在則是世界上最大的社群平台,將數百萬的人們連結起來。

  • And an author, who, by his own account, is hindered by dyslexia, becomes a pioneer of commercial space travel.

    一位作者,用他自己的話來說,患有誦讀困難症,成為太空商業旅行的先驅。

  • Are Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, Apple’s Steve Jobs, Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg and Virgin Galactic’s Richard Branson extraordinary people?

    亞馬遜創始人傑夫貝索斯、蘋果創始人史蒂夫賈伯斯、臉書創始人馬克扎克伯格及維珍銀河創始人理查德布蘭森的都是不凡的人嗎?

  • Are they Soldiers of fortune? Magicians? Rare super-entrepreneurs who change our lives dramatically?

    他們是追求財富的冒險家?魔術師?或是使我們的生活發生巨變,罕見的超級創業者?

  • The purpose of research around entrepreneurship is to get to the bottom of this mystery and to explore the seemingly magical about successful entrepreneurs.

    研究創業的目的是為了徹底揭開謎底,探尋看似神秘的成功創業者。

  • Successful entrepreneurs are not necessarily male dropouts and secret geniuses. No!

    成功的創業者並不一定是輟學男生或是神秘天才,絕不是!

  • The potential for entrepreneurship is in each of us.

    我們每個人都具備創業潛力。

  • The entrepreneur we want to send on a journey into an uncertain future is female and neither a visionary nor a dropout.

    我們想讓一位女性創業者踏上前途未卜的征程,她既不是理想主義者,也不是輟學生。

  • She doesn’t have much money either and no sudden brilliant idea that she puts into action purposefully.

    她既不富有,也沒有高明的點子可以有目的地付諸行動。

  • And still, she masters the uncertainty like our super-entrepreneurs.

    她像我們的超級創業者一樣,掌握著不確定性。

  • Because she also uses the entrepreneurial method, consciously or unconsciously.

    原因是她有意無意地運用了創業方法。

  • The entrepreneurial method? What’s that?

    創業方法?這是什麼?

  • If Alice were a manager she would ask herself: what are my goals and which means do I need to reach them?

    如果愛麗絲是一位經理,她會問自己:我的目標是什麼?需要用何種辦法達到目標呢?

  • By contrast, the entrepreneurial method begins with the unique means a person already has.

    相對而言,創業方法始於人們已經擁有的獨特辦法。

  • These consist of their identity, competences, and contacts.

    包括他們的身份、能力、交際網絡。

  • Beginning with these means, one imagines several possible goals to solve specific problems.

    以這些辦法為前提,想像出一些可能的目標,解決具體問題。

  • It’s like cooking without a recipe. The super-entrepreneur doesn’t choose a specific recipe and buys the necessary ingredients.

    這有點像沒有菜譜的烹飪,超級創業者並不選擇具體的菜餚和食譜,然後去購買必備的原料。

  • No, instead, she could look what she can find the fridge and then makes up various kinds of possible creations!

    她可以看看冰箱裡有什麼東西,然後進行各種各樣的創作!

  • With entrepreneurship, it’s not the goals we focus on in the beginning but the means.

    具備創業精神,我們首先關注的並不是目標而是辦法。

  • By acting without a single, fixed goal, a Richard Branson is able to imagine a whole portfolio of goals and possible ventures.

    理查德布蘭森行動時並沒有一個固定的目標,而是想像出整體目標和可能的風險。

  • After all, he founded Virgin Records and Virgin Airlines before Virgin Galactic.

    在成立維珍銀河公司前,他已經創辦了百代唱片和維珍航空公司。

  • What’s also important: Business ideas don’t originate in the shower, but develop in multiple numbers when applying the entrepreneurial method.

    這一點同樣非常重要:商業創意不會如泉湧,但是如果採用了創業方法,商業創意也會積少成多。

  • The idea is the easiest part in the founding process.

    創意是創立過程中最簡單的一個環節。

  • And waiting for theright ideacan lead to waiting forever.

    等待正確的靈感可能會永遠等下去。

  • Our entrepreneur is already equipped with everything she needs for founding a business.

    我們的創業者已經具備創業所需的一切才智。

  • She just has to get going and design the future. But there’s a lack of money!

    她只需要著手實施,設計未來,可是缺乏啟動資金!

  • Not if Alice acts according to the successful method of the super-entrepreneurs.

    如果愛麗絲不根據超級創業者的成功方法行事的話,就會出現這種情況。

  • Even Jeff Bezos started on a shoestring and funded Amazon with his parentsguarantees, supplier loans and overdrawn credit cards.

    傑夫貝索斯也是靠小本經營起家,用父母的保證書、供應商的貸款以及透支的信用卡創辦了亞馬遜。

  • In other words, with his available means. Instead of trying to define the expected return like a manager, our entrepreneur defines her affordable loss.

    換而言之,開動腦筋,想盡一切辦法。我們的創業者並沒有像經理一樣設法規定預期收益,而是明確了可承擔的損失。

  • Affordable in a financial, psychological, and social respect.

    在資金、精神和社會尊重方面皆然。

  • Instead of going on vacation, she starts a venture. In small, explorative steps she employs the available meansher money, her time and other people’s trust.

    她不去度假,而是創辦了一家企業。她循序漸進,不斷探索,絞盡腦汁,想盡一切辦法,充分利用自己的金錢、時間和他人的信任。

  • If she fails, she fails at an early stage and at acceptable costs for her.

    即使她失敗了,也是在早期,代價也可承受。

  • With her stock of means, her subsequently conceivable portfolio of goals and her affordable loss, Alice has all the prerequisites to embark on her entrepreneurial journey.

    由於愛麗絲擁有各種辦法,並且隨後想像出各種目標和可承擔的損失,所以她具備開啟創業之旅的所有先決條件。

  • But wait! There are other people who are interested in Alice and her venture.

    等等!其他人也對愛麗絲和她的企業感興趣。

  • Surely they want to steal her idea, so Alice shouldn’t talk about her goals under any circumstances! Wrong!

    他們肯定想竊取她的構想,所以愛麗絲不應該在任何情況下談論自己的目標!錯!

  • What is she going to protect if she, herself, doesn’t know exactly what it’s going to look like?

    如果未來的情況不明了,她將如何保護自己?

  • She has to talk about her venture to extend her stock of means and her portfolio of goals.

    她應該談及自己的企業,擴大方法和目標。

  • Unlike in management, entrepreneurship is not about a win-lose situation along the lines ofWho gets the largest piece of cake”.

    創業不同於管理,不遵循獲得「最大的蛋糕」的標準,爭個輸贏。

  • Neither is it about a win-win situation: “Let’s make the cake bigger together!”

    也不會出現「讓我們一起把蛋糕做得更大一些!」的雙贏局面。

  • In the entrepreneurial present with an uncertain future, the cake has not even been baked yet.

    在崇尚創業精神的今天,未來難以預測,蛋糕甚至還沒有烘烤出來。

  • Those who want to join become partners, bring in their means and decide together which cake to bake, the common shared goal.

    想要加盟的人們成為合作夥伴,紛紛獻計獻策,商定要烤什麼樣的蛋糕,即共同目標。

  • They negotiate the future together and co-create the products.

    他們一起謀劃未來,共同設計產品。

  • By the way, don’t we need a business plan with a clear understanding of where the journey is headed?

    我們不需要一個目標明確的商業計劃嗎?

  • An itinerary like that can be helpful, yes, but sometimes it prevents the journey to India from ending up in America, the promised land.

    雖然這樣的行程表可能會有所幫助, 但是有時候它會防止通往印度的旅途終結在應許之地——美國。

  • So I’m sailing aimlessly in one direction or the other, depending on the wind?

    所以我只能依靠風向飄忽不定地前行嗎?

  • But entrepreneurship is a crapshoot! Granted, luck is one element in the formula of success.

    但是創業是一種冒險!同意。幸運是成功法則的一個因素。

  • But if I act according to the entrepreneurial method, I improve my odds.

    但是如果根據創業方法行事,則提高了成功的機率。

  • It’s about a learnable routine in dealing with the unexpected. Learnable? But aren’t you born to be an entrepreneur?

    這是一個應對突發事件的學習過程。還要學習嗎?你天生不就是一個創業者嗎?

  • After all, entrepreneurial success is rooted in the genes!

    畢竟創業成功由基因決定!

  • Wrong! The entrepreneurial method of our super-entrepreneurs can be applied by any of us. Everyone has a unique stock of means.

    錯了!我們任何人都可以採用超級創業者的創業方法,每個人都有獨特的辦法。

  • It’s what we make of it that determines the success; entrepreneurs are made, not born.

    我們所了解的事情決定了成敗與否;創業者是後天造就的,而非天生的。

  • Even Richard Branson has had more failures than successes in his ventures.

    即便對於理查德布蘭森來說,在他的創業過程中,也是失敗多於成功。

  • Success was only possible by learning from his failures, which prepared him for the uncertainty that awaits him on his journey in his space ship.

    成功只能通過失敗學習,讓自己在太空之旅時做到未雨綢繆。

  • Maybe Alice from the entrepreneurial wonderland will be among his first partners.

    或許來自創業仙境的愛麗將成為他最早的夥伴之一。

  • Not as a passenger, but as a collaborator in creating the future of the world we live in.

    不是作為一名乘客,而是充當一名創造我們所處的未來世界的合作者。

  • Entrepreneurs aren’t prophets. They don’t have to predict the future. They create it.

    創業者不是先知,他們不需要預測未來,他們創造未來。

  • Ready for your own entrepreneurial journey? Here’s a short summary:

    準備好你的創業之旅了嗎?以下是簡要說明:

  • First, entrepreneurship is not an extraordinary phenomenon, but lies dormant in each of us as an entrepreneurial potential to act.

    首先,創業並不是非同尋常之事。創業精神根植於每個人的心中,需要我們發揮潛能。

  • Second, according to the entrepreneurial method, I start with the available meanswho I am, what do I know, whom do I knownot with mystical goals or fictitious ideas.

    第二,根據創業方法,我首先採用了一切可能的辦法——我是誰,我知道什麼,我認識誰,而不是虛無縹緲的目標或是想法。

  • So, there’s no reason to wait!

    因此,沒有理由需要等待!

  • Third, as an entrepreneur, I don’t submit my actions under one great idea.

    第三,作為一名創業者,我並不是為了一個偉大的目標而奮鬥。

  • No! on the basis of my stock of means I constantly develop my imagination about various possible goals for the solution of specific problems.

    絕不是!我以自己的辦法為基礎,不斷發揮想像力,為解決特定問題設定各種可能的目標。

  • Fourth, instead of an expected return, what do I want to earn, theupside potential”,

    第四,我明確設定了可承受的損失、不利的後果,然後自問:

  • I define an affordable loss, thedownside potentialand ask: how much is it worth to me, how much can I afford to lose?

    這對我來說有多大價值,我能承受怎樣的損失?而不是預期回報和希望獲得的上升空間。

  • Fifth, I don’t keep my ideas secret, but exchange my goals on the basis of my means with others.

    第五,我不會對自己的想法守口如瓶,而是根據這些辦法與他人討論自己的目標。

  • The business idea is the cheapest (there are so many ideas!); my stock of means is the most valuable thing in the entrepreneurial process.

    商業想法是最廉價的 (有太多想法!),而我的辦法是在創業過程中最珍貴的東西。

  • So, sixth, “co-creationdevelops with the additional means and the new goals of the partners.

    第六,根據合作夥伴的其它辦法和新目標進行「共同創造」。

  • Seventh, business plans most likely do not reduce uncertainty, but surely prevent reaching unplanned, yet desirable goals.

    第七,商業計劃八成無法降低不確定性,但是一定會阻止實現計劃外的、可取的目標。

  • Eighth, luck is a part of entrepreneurial success.

    第八,幸運是創業成功的一部分。

  • But with the entrepreneurial method I turn the wheel of fortune more often.

    擁有創業方法,我就會經常轉動命運之輪。

  • Ninth, were not born as entrepreneurs but can learn to deal with uncertainty.

    第九,我們並非天生就是創業者,但是可以通過學習,應對不確定性。

  • Tenth, if you co-create the future as an entrepreneur you don’t have to predict it.

    第十,如果你像創業者一樣共同創造未來,就不需要預測未來。

  • Science has many parallels to entrepreneurship. Scientists also experiment to get to the bottom of something new or to create something new.

    科學與創業有很多相似之處。科學家也會嘗試了解新事物,創造新事物。

  • Our entrepreneurAliceis called Saras Sarasvathy in entrepreneurship research.

    在創業研究中,創業者愛麗絲名為薩拉斯•薩拉斯娃茜。

  • She is the discoverer of the entrepreneurial method.

    她是創業方法的發明者。

  • Other researchers contribute their means and goals to comprehend the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, where new things develop under great uncertainty.

    其他研究人員在了解創業現象的過程中,分享了自己的辦法和目標,在創業過程中,新事物的發展具有很大的不確定性。

  • What will the entrepreneurial society of the future look like? Don’t wait for it - co-create it!

    未來的創業型社會將是什麼樣子?不要等待它的到來——讓我們共同締造吧!

In the mid-nineties, a former investment banker declared that he was going to become the world’s biggest online retailer.

上世紀九十年代中期,一位前銀行投資家宣布,自己將成為世界上最大的網路零售商。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 目標 辦法 愛麗絲 方法 成功 不確定性

創業家的十項迷思 (The 10 Myths of Entrepreneurship)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2015 年 03 月 07 日
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