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  • We live in an interconnected, an increasingly globalized world.

    我們住在一個彼此連緊,越來越一體化的世界

  • Thanks to international jet travel,

    由於國際航班

  • people and the diseases they carry

    它們所承載的人和疾病

  • can be in any city on the planet in a matter of hours.

    可以在數小時內到達世上任何一個城市

  • And once a virus touches down,

    當病毒着陸後

  • sometimes all it takes is one sneeze to spread

    只不過一個噴嚏便可以把這個感染

  • the infection throughout the community.

    傳播至整個社區

  • When humans were hunter-gatherers, roaming the wild savannas,

    當人類還是獵人和採摘者,在曠野的大草原遊蕩

  • we were never in one place long enough,

    我們不會在一個地方留得太久

  • and settlements were not large enough

    聚居點也不會太大

  • to sustain the transmission of infectious microbes.

    給有傳染性的細菌有機會傳開去

  • But with the advent of the agricultural revolution

    但隨着農業革命於一萬年前來臨

  • 10,000 years ago, and the arrival of permanent settlements

    和在中東開始出現的固定居所

  • in the Middle East, people began living side-by-side with animals,

    人們開始與動物毗鄰而居

  • facilitating the spread of bacteria and viruses

    這便利了細菌和病毒

  • between cattle and humans.

    在牲畜和人類之間傳播

  • Epidemics and pandemics come in many shapes and forms.

    流行病和大型流行病有許多形態和形式

  • In 2010, for instance,

    例如在2010年

  • a devastating earthquake struck Haiti,

    海地遭遇破壞力極強的地震

  • forcing thousands of people into temporary refugee camps.

    數以千計的人被迫要入住臨時難民營

  • Within weeks, the camps had become breeding grounds for cholera,

    數星期內這些難民營成為霍亂菌的温床

  • a bacteria spread by contaminated water,

    這病菌經由受污染的水傳播

  • triggering a country-wide epidemic.

    從而引發全國性的流行病

  • But the most common cause of epidemics are viruses,

    但流行病最普遍的成因是病毒

  • such as measles, influenza and HIV.

    例如痲疹、流感和愛滋

  • And when they go global, we call them pandemics.

    當流行病傳至世界各地,我們便稱之為大型流行病

  • Pandemics have occurred throughout human history,

    大型流行病在人類歷史中多次出現

  • Some have left scars on the tissue and bone of their victims,

    有些流行病會在受感染者的器官和骨上留下疤痕

  • while evidence for others comes from preserved DNA.

    我們也可從受感染者身上找到病毒留下的DNA

  • For instance, scientists have recovered DNA

    比如,科學家便從古埃及的木乃尹

  • from the bacteria that transmits tuberculosis

    找到一種會傳染結核病

  • from the remains of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    的細菌的DNA

  • And in 2011,

    而在2011年

  • scientists investigating a plague pit in the city of London

    調查倫敦市一次瘟疫的科學家

  • were able to reconstruct the genome of Yersinia pestis,

    重組出鼠疫桿菌的基因組

  • the bacterium responsible for the Black Death of the 14th century.

    而這細菌正是14世紀黑死病的原兇

  • It is thought the plague originated in China

    科學家認為這次瘟疫源於中國

  • in around 1340,

    約於1340年間

  • spreading west along the Silk Road,

    它沿着絲路向西方傳播

  • the caravan route running from Mongolia to the Crimea.

    即是由蒙古至克里米亞的商旅路線

  • In 1347, the plague reached the Mediterranean,

    1347年,這瘟疫扺達地中海

  • and by 1400, it had killed in excess of

    到了1400年,它已令超過三千四百萬

  • 34 million Europeans, earning it the title,

    歐洲人死亡,因而被稱為

  • the Great Mortality.

    大瘟疫

  • It was later historians who called it the Black Death.

    歷史學者後來才稱之為黑死病

  • However, by far the greatest pandemic killer

    然而,導致最多人死亡的大流行病

  • is influenza.

    是流行性感冒

  • Flu is constantly circulating between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres.

    流感不停地在南北半球之間流傳

  • In North America and Europe,

    在北美洲和歐洲

  • seasonal flus occur every autumn and winter.

    季節性流感每年秋冬都會發生

  • As the majority of children and adults will have been exposed to the virus in previous seasons,

    由於大部份兒童和成人都在過去的季節遇過這病毒

  • these illnesses are usually mild.

    因此病情通常較温和

  • However, every 20 to 40 years or so

    可是,每20或40年左右

  • the virus undergoes a dramatic mutation.

    病毒會出現巨大的基因突變

  • Usually this occurs when a wild flu virus

    這通常是因一個在鴨和家畜

  • circulating in ducks and farm poultry

    流傳的温和病毒

  • meets a pig virus, and they exchange genes.

    碰上了豬的病毒之後交換基因

  • This process is known as antigenic shift

    這個過程稱為抗原移變

  • and has occurred throughout human history.

    並在人類歷史上多次出現

  • The first recorded pandemic occurred in 1580.

    有紀錄的第一個大型流行病發生於1580 年

  • The 18th and 19th centuries

    十八和十九世紀

  • saw at least six further pandemics.

    也發生過最少六次大型流行病

  • In terms of mortality,

    死亡率方面

  • none can compare with the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918.

    最嚴重的是1918年的大型流感

  • The first indication of the pandemic

    這次大型流感的先兆出現於春天

  • came in the spring, when American troops in northern France

    在法國北部的美國軍隊

  • began complaining of chills, headaches and fever.

    開始感到發冷、頭痛和發燒

  • Then, the following September, at a U.S. Army barracks near Boston,

    到了那年的九月,在波士頓附近一個美國軍營

  • soldiers started collapsing on parade,

    士兵在步操時暈倒

  • prompting their removal to the camp infirmary.

    他們隨後被送往軍營的醫院

  • As a surgeon there recalled,

    一位醫生回憶說

  • two hours after admission, they had the mahogany spots over the cheekbones

    士兵入院兩小時後,顴骨出現紅褐色的斑點

  • and a few hours later

    在數小時後

  • you can begin to see the cyanosis extending from their ears

    從他們的耳朵開始呈現發疳

  • and spreading all over the face.

    並蔓延至整臉

  • It is only a matter of a few hours then until death comes,

    到了這時,他們只剩下數小時生命

  • and it is simply a struggle for air until they suffocate.

    期間他們會拼命喘氣直至他們窒息為止

  • On the S.S. Leviathan,

    在利維坦號

  • a huge American transport en route to Bordeaux,

    一艘由美國前往波爾多的輪船上

  • sick men hemorrhaged blood from their noses,

    因為病了的人鼻孔溢血

  • turning the decks between their bunks slick with bodily fluids.

    令他們床舖下的甲板佈滿了病人的體液

  • Meanwhile, British soldiers returning from northern France on furlough

    與此同時,從法國北部休假回國的英軍

  • introduced the flu to Dover and other Channel ports,

    將流感帶到多佛市和其他英倫海峽的港口

  • from where the virus was carried by rail to London.

    病毒再從那些地方經火車傳到倫敦

  • By the time the pandemic had run its course

    這大型流感的顛峰

  • in April 1919,

    為1919年四月

  • an estimated 675,000 Americans

    那時估計有六十七萬五千美國人

  • and 230,000 Britons were dead.

    和二十三萬英國人病死了

  • In India alone, some 10 million were killed,

    單在印度,病毒殺死了約一千萬人

  • and worldwide the death toll was an astonishing 50 million.

    而全球的死亡數字更達到驚人的五千萬

  • But that was then.

    這是那時的情況

  • Today, planes can transport viruses

    今天,飛機只需較 1918 年短得多的時間

  • to any country on the globe

    便可以把病毒

  • in a fraction of the time it took in 1918.

    傳到世上任何一個國家

  • In February 2003, for instance,

    例如,在 2003 年二月

  • a Chinese doctor arrived at the Metropole Hotel in Hong Kong

    一名中國醫生入住香港的帝京酒店時

  • feeling unwell.

    感到身體不適

  • Unknown to him, he was harboring a new animal-origin virus called SARS,

    他不知道自己身上藏着一種源於動物的新病毒 SARS

  • short for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

    全寫是嚴重急性呼吸綜合症

  • Within 24 hours of checking into Room 913,

    他入住酒店 913 號房的 24 小時內

  • sixteen other guests had been infected,

    16 位其他客人受到感染

  • and over the following days five boarded planes to overseas destinations,

    接着數天其中五人乘飛機前往外地

  • spreading the virus to Vietnam, Singapore and Canada.

    因而把病毒傳到越南、星加坡和加拿大

  • Flights between Hong Kong, Toronto and other international cities were quickly grounded

    香港、多倫多和其他國際城市之間的航班很快便停飛

  • and thanks to other emergency measures,

    幸得其他緊急應變措施

  • a pandemic was averted.

    一次大型流行病得以避免

  • By the time the outbreak was over four months later,

    到了疾病爆發超過四個月後

  • SARS had infected 29 countries worldwide

    SARS 已傳到了全球 29 個國家

  • and more than 1,000 people were dead.

    超過千人因而死亡

  • For all that the virus was rapidly contained, however,

    雖然病毒很快受到控制

  • there was little that could be done about the alarming news reports

    我們卻無法阻止有線新聞渠道和網路

  • carried by cable news channels and the Internet.

    散播這令人震驚的新聞

  • As bloggers added to the hysteria

    由於博客散播了一些沒根據的消息

  • by spreading unfounded conspiracy theories,

    加深了人的恐慌

  • tourism in Hong Kong and other affected cities ground to a halt,

    香港和其他受影響城市的旅遊業完全停頓

  • costing businesses more than 10 billion U.S. dollars.

    生意損失超過 100 億美元

  • One business, however, did very well.

    然而,有一門行業卻其門如市

  • Above all, SARS was a reminder that pandemics have always been associated with panic.

    最重要的是,SARS 提醒我們大型流行病總帶來恐慌

  • If history teaches us anything,

    如果歷史給了我們甚麼教訓

  • it's that while pandemics may start small,

    那就是大型流行病開始時可能規模細小

  • their impacts can be as dramatic as wars and natural disasters.

    但它們的影響及得上戰爭和自然災禍

  • The difference today

    今天有所不同的是

  • is that science gives us the ability to detect pandemics

    科學可以讓我們從病發初期

  • right at the very beginning

    便偵測到大型流行病

  • and to take action to mitigate their impacts

    和採取行動,在它們廣為傳播前

  • before they spread too widely.

    減低它們的影響

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 流行病 病毒 流感 瘟疫 傳播

【TED-Ed】瘟疫是如何散播-How pandemics spread - Mark Honigsbaum(H7N9禽流感的可怕性)

  • 2005 187
    Zenn 發佈於 2013 年 04 月 07 日
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