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  • Translator: Jeesun Youn Reviewer: Lisa Thompson

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Harper Chang

  • About a year ago, I asked my YouTube followers to play

    大約一年前,我請 我的 YouTube 追隨者

  • a simple computer programming puzzle that I made with a buddy.

    來玩我和夥伴製作的 簡單電腦程式謎題。

  • The object of the puzzle was to get your car across the maze

    謎題的目標是讓小車通過迷宮,

  • by arranging these code blocks

    你可以編排那些程式碼方塊,

  • that represent typical computer programming operations,

    它們代表常見的電腦程式操作,

  • such as if-else statements and while loops.

    比如「if-else」陳述句 及「while」迴圈。

  • Once you thought you had a good code, you would hit Run,

    一旦你覺得一切就緒, 就按下「執行」,

  • and your car would move based on the commands you had in the program.

    你的車就會根據指令來移動。

  • I asked my YouTube followers to play it because I said I wanted to prove

    我請 YouTube 追隨者來玩, 因為我說我想要證明

  • that anyone from any background could learn to code.

    任何背景的任何人 都能學會程式碼。

  • Fifty thousand of them took the challenge and attempted the puzzle.

    五萬個人參與這項挑戰,試圖解謎。

  • But the truth was

    但,事實是,

  • that I didn't actually care about proving that anyone could learn to code.

    我並不在乎是否能證明 人人都能學會程式碼。

  • What they didn't know is that we actually randomly served up

    他們並不知道, 我們其實會隨機提供

  • two slightly different versions of the puzzle.

    兩個稍稍不同版本的謎題。

  • In one version, if you hit Run and you weren't successful,

    在一個版本中,如果你 按下「執行」但沒有成功,

  • you didn't lose any of your starting 200 points.

    你不會失去一開始的兩百點。

  • We showed you this message.

    你會看到這段訊息。 〔請再試一次。〕

  • [Please try again.]

    然而,在另一個版本中, 如果你按下「執行」但沒有成功,

  • However, in the other version,

    你會看到有點不同的訊息,

  • if you hit Run and again you weren't successful,

    說你輸掉了一開始 那兩百點中的五點。

  • we showed this slightly different message,

    那是唯一的差別。

  • stating that you lost five points from your starting 200 points.

    在一個版本中,如果你失敗, 我們只會拿走五點,

  • That was the only difference.

    這些是虛假網路點數, 沒有真實價值、

  • In one version, if you failed,

    沒有人會看到,完全沒有意義。

  • we simply took away five no-value-in-the-real-world,

    (笑聲)

  • no-one-will-ever-see-these,

    我將展示從五萬份 樣本數據中得出的結果,

  • completely meaningless, fake internet points.

    請記得,這個些微的差別 有關鍵的影響。

  • (Laughter)

    失敗會被罰點數的人

  • That minor difference is crucial to keep in mind

    成功率大約是 52%。

  • for the results I'm about to show you from the 50,000 data points we collected.

    沒有被罰的人,成功率是 68%。

  • For those who were penalized for failed attempts,

    δ 值為 16%,具有統計 顯著,這結果相當驚人,

  • their success rate was around 52%.

    幾乎讓人無法置信,

  • For those who were not penalized, their success rate was 68%.

    直到我們研究了收集的另一組數據,

  • That statistically significant delta of 16% was really surprising

    這些數據代表成功前的嘗試次數,

  • and almost seemed too hard to believe

    在圖上用橘色呈現。

  • until we looked at another piece of data that we collected,

    那些不用負面角度看待失敗的人

  • which was attempts to solve before finding success.

    用了近 2.5 倍的次數去嘗試解謎。

  • It's shown in orange right here.

    他們自然會更成功, 也因此學到更多。

  • So, those who didn't see failing in a negative light

    試著分析結果,你會發現,

  • nearly had two and a half times more attempts to solve the puzzle.

    學到更多、更成功的密技在於

  • As a result, naturally, they saw more success and therefore learned more.

    找到正確方式來建構學習過程。

  • So if you think about that and sort of unpack these results,

    對我來說,這項觀察十分深奧。

  • the trick to learning more and having more success

    我不禁思考,如果在建構學習過程時,

  • is finding the right way to frame the learning process.

    能讓你不去擔心失敗,

  • And this observation seemed really profound to me.

    你會變得多成功?你會多學到多少?

  • It made me wonder, What if you just frame the learning process in such a way

    於是我想到, 如果這個假設是真的,

  • that you did not concern yourself with failure,

    在真實生活中一定 會有這方面的證據。

  • how much more successful could you be, how much more could you learn?

    這讓我想到學步兒童。

  • The next thought was that if this is a real effect,

    那是我兒子,那是我幫忙做的。

  • clearly there must be some evidence for this in real life.

    (笑聲)

  • It made me think of toddlers.

    他們不斷嘗試新事物,

  • That's my boy; I helped make that.

    而他們完全不在乎失敗。

  • (Laughter)

    當我兒子學走路時,他不會想 摔跤時看起來有多蠢,

  • They are constantly trying new things,

    身為他的父母,如果他沒有成功, 我們也不會懲罰他。

  • and they certainly aren't concerned with failure.

    焦點一直都在最終目標上,

  • When my son learned to walk,

    且我們會和他一起慶祝成功。

  • he didn't think about how dumb he might look if he fell down,

    經常失敗和嘗試的結果,

  • and as his parents, we didn't punish him if he wasn't successful either.

    及在人生的那個階段 發現新事物的結果,

  • The focus was always on the end goal, and we celebrated the successes with him.

    就是我們會在自己身上 發現更多新能力,

  • As a result of constantly failing and trying

    和我們人生的其他時期差太多了。

  • and discovering new things during that phase of our life,

    但,也許用學步兒童有點作弊,

  • we discover so many more new capabilities within ourselves,

    因為他們的大腦和我們不同。

  • and it's not even close to any other time in our life.

    為了證明也許我們 沒有和他們這麼不同,

  • But maybe using a toddler is sort of cheating

    我想說說我在八歲時 遇到的一位水管工,

  • because their brains are different than ours.

    他是義大利人。

  • To make the case that perhaps they aren't that different than us,

    (力量提升音效)

  • I'd like to tell you about a plumber I first met when I was eight years old.

    (笑聲)

  • He was Italian.

    超級瑪莉兄弟推出時, 我和朋友迷上了這遊戲——

  • (Power up sound effect)

    我們想要抵達城堡, 從邪惡的庫巴手中

  • (Laughter)

    救出美麗的桃子公主。

  • When Super Mario Bros. came out, my friends and I became obsessed -

    我們到學校會問彼此:「老兄, 你到第幾關了?全破了嗎?」

  • like, we wanted to get to the castle and rescue the beautiful Princess Peach

    我們從來不會細問彼此 我們死掉的各種方式。

  • from the evil Bowser.

    對於這樣子的遊戲,

  • We'd get to school and ask each other,

    沒有人會第一次拿起搖控器

  • "Dude, what level did you make it to? Did you pass the game?"

    接著在跳到坑裡時,想: 「好丟臉;好大的失敗啊。」

  • We never asked each other about details on all the different ways we might have died.

    然後就不再嘗試了。對吧?

  • When it comes to games like this,

    他們真正在想的是: 「我得要記住這裡有個坑;

  • no one ever picks up the controller for the first time

    下次,我在這裡要 加點速,然後晚點跳。」

  • and then after jumping into a pit thinks,

    焦點和癡迷是在於要打贏遊戲,

  • "I am so ashamed; that was such a failure,"

    而不是你被滑過來的 綠色龜殼打到時有多愚蠢。

  • and they never want to try again, right?

    那種態度帶來的直接結果

  • What really happens is they think, "I've got to remember there's a pit there;

    就是從失敗中學習, 而非把焦點放在失敗上,

  • next time, I'm going to come out with a little more speed

    我們變得很厲害, 在非常短的時間中學了很多。

  • and jump a bit later."

    我們在這張圖的右邊。

  • The focus and the obsession is about beating the game,

    這就是我所謂的超級瑪莉效應:

  • not how dumb you might look if you get hit by a sliding green shell.

    把焦點放在公主上,而不是坑上,

  • And as a direct result of that attitude

    堅持完成任務並學習更多。

  • of learning from but not being focused on the failures,

    這讓我反思,並找到 我身上的其他例子

  • we got really good, and we learned a ton in a very short amount of time.

    可說明將人生遊戲化的這種態度,

  • We were the right side of this graph.

    這種超級瑪莉效應會帶來 更多成功和更多學習。

  • This is what I call the Super Mario Effect:

    我在我的科學 YouTube 頻道上 有時會用我的工程技能

  • focusing on the princess and not the pits to stick with a task and to learn more.

    打造一些東西,比如

  • This caused me to reflect and realize that there were lots of other examples

    世界上最大的水槍,

  • from my own personal experience where this attitude of life gamification,

    或者金氏世界紀錄上 世界最大的玩具槍。

  • this Super Mario Effect led to more success and therefore more learning.

    (影片)(尖叫)

  • I have a science YouTube channel

    (觀眾)(笑聲)

  • where I will sometimes use my engineering skills

    (台上)馬克羅勃: 或是這支雪球機關槍。

  • to build things such as the world's largest Super Soaker

    (影片)馬:哈哈哈。好啊!

  • or the Guinness World Record world's largest Nerf gun.

    (台上)馬:從吹葉機改造來的。

  • (Video) (Screaming)

    (觀眾)(笑聲)

  • (Audience) (Laughter)

    那是我的姪女。

  • (On stage) Mark Rober: Or maybe this snowball machine gun.

    這些是我的姪子。

  • (Video) MR: Ha, ha, ha. Yes!

    (笑聲)

  • (On stage) MR: Fashioned from a leaf blower.

    我還沒有想通,

  • (Audience) (Laughter)

    但他們對我這個叔叔 似乎有些信任問題。

  • That's my niece.

    (笑聲)

  • Those are my nephews.

    打造這些東西通常會花我 兩、三個月的時間,

  • (Laughter)

    但有一樣花了我三年。

  • I haven't quite figured it out,

    我想要做一個鏢靶, 讓你每次都能射中紅心。

  • but when it comes to me, their uncle, they seem to have some trust issues.

    想法是,擲出飛鏢後, 我們就能透過氣流來追蹤它,

  • (Laughter)

    接著鏢靶移動, 用紅心來接住飛鏢。

  • So, these builds usually take me about two to three months,

    (笑聲)

  • but there was one that took me three years.

    所以,我們計算之後發現, 如果我們想要追蹤飛鏢,

  • Basically, I wanted to make a dartboard where you could get a bullseye every time.

    在一般的射飛鏢比賽, 用一般的速度,

  • The idea was that if you throw a dart, we could track it through the air,

    我們得要追蹤飛鏢同時移動鏢靶,

  • and then we'd move the board to sort of catch a bullseye.

    兩件事要在人類眨眼 一次的時間內同時完成。

  • (Laughter)

    沒什麼大不了嘛?

  • And so, once we did the math, we realized that if we wanted to track the dart

    怕大家無聊,我就不談完整細節,

  • for a typical, like, game of darts, typical velocity,

    以及很多像是滑行 綠色龜殼的失敗和挫折,

  • we would basically have to both track the dart and move the board

    還有那些討厭的鐵鎚兄弟。

  • in the same amount of time it takes for a human to blink once.

    但,最終,我們想通了,

  • No big deal, right?

    它大概是像這樣的東西,

  • I'm not going to bore you with all the details

    有六個步進馬達和動作控制器,

  • and the failures and the setbacks

    一個 Vicon 動作捕捉系統 搭配六台攝影機,

  • from a lot of metaphorical sliding green shells

    還有一堆傷腦筋 又不斷要重寫的程式碼。

  • and those pesky Hammerhead Bros,

    但最終,我們完成了。

  • but eventually we figured out

    (掌聲)

  • it would take something that looks like this,

    有趣的是,當我回頭看這個過程,

  • which is six stepper motors and motion controllers,

    老實說,我對此的態度

  • a Vicon motion capture system with six cameras,

    和我從庫巴手中救出 公主的態度是一樣的。

  • and just a ton of tweaking and rewriting the code.

    當然,每次失敗和挫折都糟透了。

  • But finally, eventually, we arrived here.

    但這就像是在第 8-1 關摔到坑裡,

  • (Applause)

    你會說聲「啊」, 然後回頭再試一次。

  • What's interesting is when I look back on that process,

    總是:「好吧,感覺很糟, 但我們能從中學到什麼?

  • like, I can honestly say my attitude towards that

    我們接下來能怎麼解決它? 咱們再試一次。」

  • was the same attitude I had toward, like, rescuing the princess from Bowser.

    這種人生遊戲化的概念

  • Like, of course, each failure and setback sucked; it stung.

    不僅僅是「有正面的態度」,

  • But it was no different than falling in that pit on Level 8-1,

    或者「永不放棄」,

  • and you're like, "Argh," and you got to go back and try again.

    因為上述那些似乎 意味著你得要對抗

  • It was always like, "OK, that sucked, but what did we learn from that?

    你真正想要放棄的念頭。

  • What can we do next for it? Let's hit it again."

    我覺得,當你用我描述的方式 來建構挑戰或學習過程時,

  • And this concept of life gamification

    你會真的想做它。

  • is more than just, like, "Have a positive attitude"

    你會很自然的忽略失敗並再次嘗試,

  • or "Never give up"

    就像是學步兒童會想要 站起來再次嘗試走路一樣,

  • because those sort of imply

    或者就像是你會想要 不斷去玩超級瑪莉,

  • you're having to endure against your true desire to quit.

    或者就像是右手邊的那組人 想要堅持解謎的時間,

  • I feel like when you frame a challenge or a learning process

    比另一組長 2.5 倍。

  • in the way I'm describing,

    他們這麼做是沒錢拿的。

  • you actually want to do it.

    沒有人強迫他們,沒有人看他們。

  • It feels natural to ignore the failures and try again,

    只有他們和他們的電腦, 在他們的房子裡。

  • in the same way a toddler will want to get up and try and walk again

    他們的展望會讓他們 想要持續嘗試和學習。

  • or in the same way you want to keep playing Super Mario Bros.

    這鏢靶還有額外的好處,

  • or in the same way the group on the right had a desire to stick with that puzzle

    我帶它上吉米金摩的節目, 挑戰他射飛鏢。

  • two and a half times longer.

    播放這段影片之前, 讓我先說兩件事。

  • They weren't getting paid to do that.

    第一,這個靶還有另一種模式,

  • Nobody was forcing them or watching them.

    就是輪到你的夥伴射飛鏢時,

  • It was just them on their computer, alone in their house.

    它會往另一個方向移動。

  • Their outlook made it so they wanted to keep trying and learning.

    (笑聲)

  • The icing on the cake for the dartboard

    第二,在排演的時候, 我們無法讓它正常運作,

  • was I took it on Jimmy Kimmel and challenged him to a game of darts.

    它幾乎只會緩慢動作。

  • I'll just set this clip up by saying two things.

    我站上了升降台,

  • The first is we also had a mode on the board

    它會向上移動,然後你才 走出來,向下走上舞台。

  • where if your buddy had it and threw a dart,

    我看向右方,六台 攝影機都無法運作。

  • the board would move the other way.

    我的夥伴約翰非常心急地 重新啟動所有的攝影機,

  • (Laughter)

    我走上舞台時,狀況仍是一大堆,

  • And the second is that we couldn't get this thing working during rehearsal,

    但我要繼續以靶標作終場秀。

  • and it was just barely kind of creeping along.

    看影片時別忘了這些,

  • I get up to stand in the elevator,

    我當時腦袋想的就是這些。

  • which is the door that moves up before you go down out on stage.

    整整三年,這一刻終於到了。

  • I look to the right, all six cameras had failed.

    (影片)馬:你要做的是 把這支飛鏢拿給你的夥伴,

  • So my buddy John is feverishly, like, restarting all the cameras

    你要挑戰他,看他能不能射中靶。

  • as I'm going out onto stage knowing this, and there's, like, four things and bits,

    吉:試著射中靶。好。

  • and I work up to the dartboard as the sort of grand finale.

    (笑聲)

  • So just keep that in mind as this clip starts.

    馬:好啊,大人物。 雙倍分數或者沒有?

  • Like, that's where my headspace is.

    吉:好,好。準備好了?

  • Three freaking years, and it comes down to this moment.

    (笑聲)

  • (Video) MR: What you're going to do is give this dart to your buddy,

    好。

  • and you're going to challenge him just to, like, hit the board.

    馬:好。接著,我站到這裡。 吉:這東西是自動的?

  • Jimmy Kimmel: Just try to hit the board. OK. Alright.

    馬:是的。 吉:你打造的?

  • (Laughter)

    馬:是的。我站過來。

  • MR: Alright, hot shot. Double or nothing?

    來了。

  • JK: Alright, yeah, yeah, alright. Ready?

    (歡呼)(掌聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (台上)馬:在做到之前, 先假裝你會。(笑聲)

  • OK.

    我得說,在所有的測試中,

  • MR: Alright. And so, then I step up here. JK: This does this automatically?

    我們從來沒有像這一次 準到正中紅心。

  • MR: That's right. JK: And you built this?

    那之後,我甚至連靶面都射不中。

  • MR: That's right. I step up.

    我說:「我受夠了。」

  • Here we go.

    (笑聲)

  • (Cheers) (Applause)

    我真的相信,如果你能 重新建構挑戰,

  • (On stage) MR: Fake it till you make it.

    就會有不同。

  • (Laughter)

    我有個簡單的思想實驗 來展示這一點。

  • I will say, in all of our testing,

    比如,我給各位一個測驗, 上面有指示,你要照著做,

  • literally, we never had a dead-center bullseye

    它有像這樣的按鈕。

  • as much as that one right there.

    指示會像是「按三號按鈕五秒鐘」,

  • So, like, after that, I haven't even touched the board since.

    接著「按六號按鈕一秒鐘」,

  • I'm like, "I'm so done with it."

    接著「按三號和五號 按鈕六秒鐘」等等。

  • (Laughter)

    除非你完全照第一頁的指示做,

  • And I really believe that if you reframe, like, the challenges,

    不然你就看不到 測驗的其他三十二頁。

  • it can make all the difference.

    我要付你多少錢, 你才願意做這個測驗一小時?

  • I have a simple thought experiment to sort of showcase this.

    如果我把「測驗」 這個詞換成「遊戲」,

  • Let's say I gave you a test

    我把這頁轉個方向,

  • and it had instructions on it that you would carry out,

    針對輸入裝置, 我把按鈕縮小並移動過,

  • and to do that, it had sort of buttons like this.

    我再做把它畫得很酷,

  • And the instructions would say something like, "Push button 3 for 5 seconds"

    也許用點不同的按鈕風格。

  • and then, "Push button 6 for 1 second,"

    接著,不用文字,

  • then, "Push buttons 3 and 5 for 6 seconds," and so on.

    我把你要完成的任務 像這樣做成視覺化。

  • And unless you carried out the instructions on page one exactly,

    注意,輸出仍然是完全相同的:

  • you couldn't see the other 32 pages of the test.

    你得要依照非常明確的 方式來按這些按鈕,

  • How much would I have to pay you to take that test for an hour?

    才能進入下一頁,或下一關。

  • Now suppose I change the word "test" here to "game,"

    想像這是 1986 年,

  • and I rotated this,

    要付我多少錢,我才 願意做這個測驗一小時?

  • and for the input device, I shrunk the buttons and moved them here,

    如果你實在想不到, 給你一個正確答案的提示。

  • and I gave it a cool paint job

    我知道,那是我。

  • and maybe different button styles.

    (影片)男孩:任天堂!

  • And then instead of using words,

    (哭泣)

  • I represented the tasks you needed to accomplish visually like this.

    喔,爸爸,謝謝你。

  • Note the output is the exact same:

    謝謝你!

  • you have to push these buttons in a very specific manner

    爸:別來抱我了,去玩它吧!

  • to move on to the next page or level, as it were.

    男孩:(哭泣) (觀眾)(笑聲)

  • Now picture it's 1986.

    (台上)馬:那一定是 年度最佳 YouTube 影片。

  • How much would you pay me to take this test just for an hour?

    (笑聲)

  • If you have a very bad imagination, here's a hint to the right answer.

    身為科學 YouTuber,有時,

  • I know. I was there.

    我覺得大家用了負面的方式

  • (Video) Boy: Nintendo!

    來建構學習科學的這個行為。

  • (Crying)

    教他們科學的方式很差, 所以他們會怕科學,

  • Oh, Dad, thank you.

    因為科學感覺比較像是這種東西。

  • Thank you!

    我的方法是把你可能 很痛恨的物理課程拿來,

  • Dad: Don't come and hug me, go play with it!

    試著欺騙你,

  • Boy: (Crying)

    讓你透過很酷的方式去學它,

  • (Audience) (Laughter)

    基本上,就是從這個變成這個。

  • (On stage) MR: That has to be the greatest YouTube clip of all time.

    比如,在這支影片中, 我用液態沙做了一個泡澡池。