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  • We all start life as one single cell.

    我們的生命都是從單細胞開始

  • Then that cell divides and we are two cells,

    然後我們的細胞分裂成兩個細胞

  • then four,

    接著是四個,

  • then eight.

    再來是八個

  • Cells form tissues,

    細胞構成組織,

  • tissues form organs,

    組織構成器官

  • organs form us.

    器官組成我們 (個體)

  • These cell divisions, by which we go from a single cell

    細胞分裂讓我們從單一細胞

  • to 100 trillion cells,

    變成一百兆個細胞,

  • are called growth.

    這就是生長

  • And growth seems like a simple thing

    生長這件事看似簡單,

  • because when we think of it,

    因為當我們想到它時,

  • we typically think of someone getting taller

    我們通常想到一個人長高

  • or, later in life, wider,

    或中年發福,

  • but to cells, growth isn't simple.

    但對細胞而言,生長並非如此單純

  • Cell division is an intricate chemical dance

    細胞分裂是一場複雜而精密的化學之舞

  • that's part individual, part community-driven.

    一部份在細胞本身,另一部份則受所處群落影響

  • And in a neighborhood of 100 trillion cells,

    而在這個由一百兆細胞組成的社群中,

  • sometimes things go wrong.

    難免有出錯的時候

  • Maybe an individual cell's set of instructions, or DNA,

    可能是細胞內的指令或 DNA

  • gets a typo,

    出了錯誤,

  • what we call a mutation.

    這就是我們所謂的突變

  • Most of the time, the cell senses mistakes

    通常細胞能偵測錯誤

  • and shuts itself down,

    並自我了斷,

  • or the system detects a troublemaker

    或由系統偵測到麻煩製造者

  • and eliminates it.

    並消除它

  • But, enough mutations can bypass the fail-safes,

    但如果有足夠的突變就通過這些保護機制,

  • driving the cell to divide recklessly.

    就會造成細胞毫無節制的分裂下去

  • That one rogue cell becomes two,

    一個細胞瘋狂的分裂成兩個、

  • then four,

    四個、

  • then eight.

    八個

  • At every stage, the incorrect instructions

    在每一個階段,錯誤的訊息

  • are passed along to the cells' offspring.

    都被傳遞給子細胞

  • Weeks, months, or years

    經年累月下來

  • after that one rogue cell transformed,

    在一個惡意的細胞轉型後,

  • you might see your doctor about a lump in your breast.

    你可能就會因為乳房的硬塊去看醫生

  • Difficulty going to the bathroom could reveal

    如廁困難可能表示

  • a problem in your intestine,

    你的腸道、

  • prostate,

    前列腺、

  • or bladder.

    或是膀胱出了問題

  • Or, a routine blood test might count too many white cells

    也可能在例行性的驗血中發現白血球數過高

  • or elevated liver enzymes.

    或肝臟酵素升高

  • Your doctor delivers the bad news:

    你的醫師就會告訴你這個壞消息:

  • it's cancer.

    你得了癌症

  • From here your strategy will depend

    你所使用的療程會依據

  • on where the cancer is and

    病灶和

  • how far it's progressed.

    惡化程度而有所不同

  • If the tumor is slow-growing and in one place,

    若腫瘤成長速度慢且集中於一處,

  • surgery might be all you need, if anything.

    必要時用手術切除即可

  • If the tumor is fast-growing or invading nearby tissue,

    若腫瘤成長速度快且入侵到鄰近組織,

  • your doctor might recommend radiation

    你的醫生可能會建議使用放射線治療

  • or surgery followed by radiation.

    或在手術後再以放射線治療

  • If the cancer has spread, or if it's inherently everywhere like a leukemia, your doctor will most likely recommend chemotherapy or a combination of radiation and chemo.

    如果癌細胞已經擴散,或像是血癌一般存在身體各處,你的醫生最可能推薦化學療法,或將放射線療法和化療結合使用

  • Radiation and most forms of chemo work

    放射線和大部份化療的作用機制

  • by physically shredding the cells' DNA

    是以物理性方法破壞細胞的 DNA

  • or disrupting the copying machinery.

    或干擾細胞複製機制

  • But neither radiation nor chemotherapeutic drugs target only cancer cells.

    但不論放射線治療和化學療法都無法只針對癌細胞

  • Radiation hits whatever you point it at,

    放射線攻擊任何被照射的地方,

  • and your blood stream carries chemo-therapeutics

    而血液將化療藥物運送到

  • all over your body.

    身體各處

  • So, what happens when different cells get hit?

    那這對各種細胞又會有什麼影響呢?

  • Let's look at a healthy liver cell,

    讓我們看看健康的肝細胞、

  • a healthy hair cell,

    健康的毛髮細胞、

  • and a cancerous cell.

    和癌細胞吧!

  • The healthy liver cell divides only when it is stressed;

    健康的肝細胞僅在受到壓力時分裂;

  • the healthy hair cell divides frequently;

    健康的毛髮細胞分裂頻繁;

  • and the cancer cell divides even more frequently and recklessly.

    而癌細胞分裂更加頻繁也更不受限制

  • When you take a chemotherapeutic drug,

    當你服用化學治療藥物時,

  • it will hit all of these cells.

    藥物會影響到所有細胞

  • And remember that the drugs work typically by disrupting cell division.

    請注意藥物作用是干擾細胞分裂

  • So, every time a cell divides,

    所以,每一次細胞分裂,

  • it opens itself up to attack,

    都會讓自身受到藥物影響,

  • and that means the more frequently a cell divides,

    這表示分裂越頻繁的細胞,

  • the more likely the drug is to kill it.

    越容易被藥物毒殺

  • So, remember that hair cell?

    還記得毛髮細胞嗎?

  • It divides frequently and isn't a threat.

    它經常分裂但對人體不構成威脅

  • And, there are other frequently dividing cells in your body

    而且人體中還有其他經常在分裂的細胞

  • like skin cells, gut cells, and blood cells.

    諸如:皮膚細胞、腸細胞和血球

  • So the list of unpleasant side effects of cancer treatment

    所以在抗癌藥物令人不適的副作用項目中

  • parallels these tissue types:

    可以對應到這些組織:

  • hair loss,

    掉髮、

  • skin rashes,

    皮膚疹、

  • nausea,

    噁心、

  • vomiting,

    嘔吐、

  • fatigue,

    倦怠、

  • weight loss,

    體重減輕

  • and pain.

    和疼痛

  • That makes sense because these are the cells that get hit the hardest.

    這很合理,因為這些都是受藥物影響最多的細胞

  • So, in the end, it is all about growth.

    到頭來一切都和生長有關

  • Cancer hijacks cells' natural division machinery and forces them to put the pedal to the metal, growing rapidly and recklessly.

    癌症挾持了細胞自然的分裂機制並迫使其走向極端,在毫無限制的狀況下快速生長

  • But, using chemotherapeutic drugs,

    但是,化學治療藥物

  • we take advantage of that aggressiveness,

    就是充分利用癌細胞快速分裂的特性,

  • and we turn cancer's main strength

    將它的長處

  • into a weakness.

    轉換成弱點

We all start life as one single cell.

我們的生命都是從單細胞開始

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 細胞 分裂 藥物 癌細胞 治療

【TED-Ed】認識癌細胞與癌症治療 (How do cancer cells behave differently from healthy ones? - George Zaidan)

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    Zenn 發佈於 2015 年 06 月 21 日
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