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  • On September 27 explosions shook Nagorno-Karabakh.

    9月27日,爆炸震動了納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫。

  • It's a mountainous region between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

    這是亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆之間的一個山區。

  • And the center of a relentless dispute between these countries; Nagorno-Karabakh is internationally

    而這些國家之間無休止的爭端的中心;納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫在國際上。

  • recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but was occupied by Armenia in a war almost 30 years

    被承認為阿塞拜疆的一部分,但在近30年的戰爭中被亞美尼亞佔領。

  • ago. Both country's armies have been dug in along

    前。兩國的軍隊一直在沿線挖。

  • this line ever since. Fighting occasionally broke out but usually

    這條線從此以後。偶爾會爆發戰鬥,但通常

  • died down.

    消失了。

  • This time was different. Fierce fighting erupted in September 2020

    這一次不同。2020年9月,爆發了激烈的戰鬥。

  • and quickly became a full-scale war. Both sides were accused of bombing civilian

    並迅速成為一場全面戰爭。雙方都被指控轟炸平民

  • areas in the region.

    該區域的地區。

  • Thousands of people died, including 100 civilians. Then, in a sudden and dramatic turn in this

    數千人死亡,包括100名平民。然後,在這個突如其來的戲劇性轉折中。

  • decades old conflict, Armenia surrendered.

    幾十年的衝突,亞美尼亞投降了。

  • A ceasefire was signed on November 9 and Azerbaijan declared victory.

    11月9日簽署了停火協議,阿塞拜疆宣佈勝利。

  • So what sparked this war?

    那麼是什麼引發了這場戰爭呢?

  • And what does the ceasefire mean for this fiercely contested place?

    停火對這個爭奪激烈的地方又意味著什麼?

  • Nagorno-Karabakh is in the Caucuses, between Europe and Asia.

    納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫位於歐洲和亞洲之間的高加索地區。

  • Historically, its population has been mostly ethnic Armenian with a substantial Azeri minority.

    歷史上,其人口主要是亞美尼亞族,還有相當多的阿澤裡少數民族。

  • It's dotted with medieval Armenian churches, has always had this strong Armenian population.

    這裡遍佈著中世紀的亞美尼亞教堂,一直有這強大的亞美尼亞人口。

  • And to complicate things, in the 18th century, a kind of very big, important Azerbaijani

    更為複雜的是,在18世紀,阿塞拜疆出現了一種非常大的、重要的阿塞拜疆人。

  • town, the citadel of Shusha, was founded right in the middle of this territory.

    鎮,舒沙的城池,就建立在這塊領土的中間。

  • So this was a region that was incredibly important both to Armenians and to Azerbaijanis.

    是以,這是一個對亞美尼亞人和阿塞拜疆人都非常重要的地區。

  • But for most of the 19th century, it was ruled by the Russian Empire.

    但在19世紀的大部分時間裡,它是由俄羅斯帝國統治的。

  • After the Empire fell, in 1918, ethnic Armenians and Azeris formed new countries: Armenia and

    帝國滅亡後,1918年,亞美尼亞族和阿塞拜疆族組成新的國家。亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆。

  • Azerbaijan. And they immediately fought over this region.

    阿塞拜疆。他們立即為這一地區打了起來。

  • But just three years later, Russian Soviets conquered the entire Caucuses.

    但僅僅三年後,俄羅斯蘇維埃就征服了整個高加索地區。

  • The soviets eventually made Armenia and Azerbaijanrepublicswithin the Soviet Union and

    蘇聯最終把亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆變成了蘇聯內部的 "共和國",並且

  • drew new borders. And they made Nagorno-Karabakh a semi-autonomous

    劃定了新的邊界。他們使納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫成為一個半自治的國家。

  • region in the Azerbaijani Republic, despite its majority-Armenian population.

    阿塞拜疆共和國境內的一個地區,儘管該地區的亞美尼亞人佔多數。

  • Ethnic Armenians there frequently asked to join the Armenian Republic, but were denied.

    那裡的亞美尼亞族人經常要求加入亞美尼亞共和國,但遭到拒絕。

  • This was the Soviet Union. There was no democracy. There was no dialog. The kind of problem festered

    這就是蘇聯。沒有民主,沒有對話。沒有對話。那種問題的發酵。

  • for all those years. Still, there weren't signs of war until the

    這麼多年來。不過,直到戰爭爆發前,還是沒有任何徵兆。

  • Soviet Union began to loosen its grip. In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union announced

    蘇聯開始放鬆控制。20世紀80年代末,蘇聯宣佈。

  • a new policy, called glasnost, that gave its people more political freedoms.

    稱為 "格拉斯諾斯特 "的新政策,給予人民更多的政治自由。

  • But it had unintended consequences.

    但它帶來了意想不到的後果。

  • Glasnost has given people freedom not only to create but to hate.

    格拉斯諾斯特不僅給了人們創造的自由,也給了人們仇恨的自由。

  • Ancient feuds erupting such as the one between Azerbaijan and Armenia."

    古代仇殺爆發,如阿塞拜疆和亞美尼亞之間的仇殺"。

  • In 1988, ethnic Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh passed a referendum to leave the Azerbaijan

    1988年,納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫的亞美尼亞族人通過了關於離開阿塞拜疆的全民投票。

  • Republic, reviving the conflict. In Armenia, people rallied for unification.

    共和國,使衝突死灰復燃。在亞美尼亞,人們團結起來,要求統一。

  • While in Azerbaijan, people responded with counter-protests.

    而在阿塞拜疆,人們則以反抗議來回應。

  • Violence soon erupted in Nagorno-Karabakh. As the Soviet Union fell apart, Armenia and

    納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫很快爆發了暴力事件。隨著蘇聯的解體,亞美尼亞和納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫地區也發生了暴力事件。

  • Azerbaijan declared independence, escalating the conflict into a war.

    阿塞拜疆宣佈獨立,使衝突升級為戰爭。

  • About 20,000 people died. And over 1 million were forced to flee their homes in the region.

    大約有2萬人死亡。超過100萬人被迫逃離該地區的家園。

  • Fighting raged for 3 more years, until Armenia finally won.

    戰鬥又持續了3年,直到亞美尼亞最終獲勝。

  • In 1994, both sides signed a ceasefire agreement, freezing the conflict.

    1994年,雙方簽署了停火協議,凍結了衝突。

  • Armenia occupied several pieces of Azerbaijan. As well as Nagorno-Karabakh, which was still

    亞美尼亞佔領了阿塞拜疆的幾塊土地。納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫也被亞美尼亞佔領。

  • legally recognized as part of Azerbaijan even though it had declared itself an autonomous

    阿塞拜疆的一部分,儘管它已宣佈自己是一個自治國家。

  • region at the start of the war. This occupation displaced hundreds of thousands

    在戰爭開始時,該地區被佔領。這一佔領使數十萬人流離失所。

  • of azeris from their homes. The deal was brokered by Russia, who was a

    的阿塞拜疆人的家園。這筆交易是由俄羅斯斡旋的,俄羅斯是一個很好的例子。

  • formal ally to Armenia but also had a good relationship with Azerbaijan.

    亞美尼亞的正式盟友,但與阿塞拜疆的關係也很好。

  • Russia's role has always been a bit ambiguous here.

    俄羅斯在這裡扮演的角色始終有些模糊不清。

  • Because although they are the main mediator, they've had their own agenda, which is to

    因為雖然他們是主要的調解人,但他們已經有了自己的議程,那就是要。

  • keep their influence in the region and if possible, get Russian troops back on the ground.

    保持他們在該地區的影響力,並在可能的情況下,讓俄羅斯軍隊回到當地。

  • While Russia was not able to send troops as part of the deal in 1994, it did end up leading

    雖然俄羅斯未能在1994年的協議中派兵,但它最終還是帶頭派兵。

  • a new international group, with France and the US to try and find a permanent solution

    組成新的國際小組,與法國和美國一起,試圖找到一個永久性的解決方案。

  • to the conflict.

    的衝突。

  • But Armenia and Azerbaijan refused to settle. Instead, Armenia renamed formerly Azeri towns

    但亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆拒絕解決。相反,亞美尼亞將以前的阿澤裡鎮重新命名為 "阿塞拜疆"。

  • and repopulated them with ethnic Armenians.

    並用亞美尼亞族人重新居住在這些地方。

  • While its leaders called for it to be officially unified with Armenia.

    雖然其領導人呼籲它與亞美尼亞正式統一。

  • Meanwhile, Azerbaijan planned a comeback. From 2008 to 2019, it spent $24 billion on

    與此同時,阿塞拜疆計劃捲土重來。從2008年到2019年,它花費了240億美元用於。

  • its military. Six times more than Armenia.

    其軍事。是亞美尼亞的六倍。

  • All the while reiterating its claim to Nagorno-Karabakh. On the ground, both countries maintained a

    同時重申其對納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫的主張。在實地,兩國都保持著對納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫的主權。

  • On the ground, both countries maintained a military presence along the front lines. Where skirmishes broke out occasionally.

    在地面上,兩國都在前線保持著軍事存在。在偶爾爆發小規模衝突的地方。

  • In 2016, they fought a war that lasted 4 days.

    2016年,他們打了一場持續4天的戰爭。

  • So people called this a frozen conflict. But it was in no way a frozen conflict. It was

    所以人們稱這是一場僵持的衝突。但這絕不是一場僵持的衝突。它是

  • a smoldering conflict. And it reignited when another country suddenly

    熾熱的衝突。而當另一個國家突然

  • intervened.

    介入。

  • In the past few years, Turkey

    在過去幾年中,土耳其

  • Turkey has increasingly intervened in conflicts around the region, in order to

    土耳其越來越多地干預該地區的衝突,以便

  • tilt the outcomes in its favor. By sending troops into the Syrian civil war,

    傾斜結果對其有利。通過向敘利亞內戰派兵。

  • it captured a swath of territory along its border in 2019.

    它在2019年奪取了其邊境的一大片領土。

  • And in 2020, its troops have turned the tide of the Libyan civil war in favor of the government,

    而在2020年,其部隊已經扭轉了利比亞內戰的趨勢,有利於政府。

  • who is helping Turkey claim valuable natural gas deposits in the Mediterranean.

    該公司正在幫助土耳其開採地中海地區寶貴的天然氣礦藏。

  • These are also ways for Turkey to push back against its major rival, Russia, who is also

    這些也是土耳其反擊其主要競爭對手俄羅斯的方法,俄羅斯也是。

  • fighting in both conflicts. So in July 2020, when skirmishes broke out

    兩個衝突中的戰鬥。所以在2020年7月,當小規模衝突爆發時

  • in Nagorno-Karabakh, Turkey saw an opportunity and threw its support behind Azerbaijan, whose

    在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫,土耳其看到了一個機會,並對阿塞拜疆給予支持。

  • majority Azeri-population is a Turkic ethnic group.

    大多數阿塞拜疆人是突厥族。

  • Azerbaijan is probably the closest country there is to Turkey. The two languages are

    阿塞拜疆可能是離土耳其最近的國家。這兩種語言是

  • extremely close. There was even talk of, you know, one nation and two states.

    非常接近。甚至有人說,你知道,一個國家和兩個州。

  • And they also, I guess, wanted to kind of on a crude level, have a thumb in the eye

    我想,他們也想在粗略的層面上,有一個拇指在眼睛裡的那種。

  • for Russia. In August, the two held joint military exercises

    為俄羅斯。8月,雙方舉行聯合軍事演習

  • in Azerbaijan. And Turkey's supply of weapons to Azerbaijan

    在阿塞拜疆,土耳其向阿塞拜疆供應武器。土耳其向阿塞拜疆供應武器

  • dramatically surged.

    急劇上升。

  • Which included advanced drones. I think this conflict has been planned for

    其中包括先進的無人機。我認為這場衝突已經計劃好了

  • many months jointly in Ankara and in Baku. And so with Turkey's support, Azerbaijan

    在安卡拉和巴庫聯合舉行了許多個月的會議。是以,在土耳其的支持下,阿塞拜疆

  • launched its attack. In just over a week, Azerbaijani soldiers

    發動攻擊。在短短一週多的時間裡,阿塞拜疆阿兵哥

  • had pushed at least 20 kilometers into Armenian-held territory.

    至少推進了20公里,進入亞美尼亞人控制的領土。

  • A few weeks later, they advanced further into Nagorno-Karabakh, and also got close to the

    幾周後,他們進一步向納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫推進,並接近納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫。

  • Armenian border.

    亞美尼亞邊境。

  • It wasn't a fair fight. Armenia fought back but was nearly defenseless

    這不是一場公平的戰鬥。亞美尼亞雖有反擊,但幾乎毫無防備。

  • against Azerbaijan's deadly drones. Then, on November 8, Azerbaijan won its biggest

    針對阿塞拜疆致命的無人機。然後,在11月8日,阿塞拜疆贏得了其最大的。

  • victory. It captured the historic city of Shusha, just 15 kilometers from the capital,

    勝利。佔領了距離首都僅15公里的歷史名城舒沙。

  • Stepanakert.

    斯捷潘納克特。

  • That's when Armenia agreed to surrender. The ceasefire agreement that ended the war

    這時亞美尼亞同意投降。結束戰爭的停火協議。

  • The ceasefire agreement that ended the war

    結束戰爭的停火協定;

  • dramatically reshapes who controls Nagorno-Karabakh. Azerbaijan will keep what it captured and

    戲劇性地改變了誰控制納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫的局面。阿塞拜疆將保留它所奪取的東西,並

  • take over this part from Armenia. This part remains under control of ethnic

    從亞美尼亞手中接管這部分地區。這一部分仍由亞美尼亞人控制。

  • Armenians, but they won't be alone. Russia didn't intervene in the war, but

    亞美尼亞人,但他們不會孤獨。俄羅斯並沒有介入戰爭,但...

  • brokered this deal which calls for 2,000 of its troops to serve there as peacekeepers.

    促成了這一協議,要求其2 000名阿兵哥作為維和人員在那裡服務。

  • Russia obviously had its ideas about how to end this conflict with Russian peacekeepers.

    對於如何結束這場衝突,俄羅斯維和人員顯然有自己的想法。

  • And certainly didn't rush to help Armenia. Turkey also gains a foothold here.

    當然也沒有急著幫助亞美尼亞。土耳其也在這裡獲得了立足之地。

  • The deal calls for the construction of a road here, which would give Turkey access to Azerbaijan.

    該協議要求在這裡修建一條公路,使土耳其能夠進入阿塞拜疆。

  • Plus, in agreement with Russia, Turkey will now send its own peacekeeping troops to the

    另外,在與俄羅斯達成協議後,土耳其現在將派遣自己的維和部隊到。

  • region. So while Azerbaijan is celebrating and Turkey

    該地區。所以,當阿塞拜疆在慶祝,土耳其

  • and Russia won strategic rewards, Armenia is in turmoil.

    和俄羅斯贏得了戰略獎勵,亞美尼亞陷入了動盪。

  • After the deal was announced, mobs stormed government buildings in the capital and called

    交易宣佈後,暴徒們衝進了首都的政府大樓,並呼籲。

  • for the removal of the Prime Minister. I think, Armenia, is in a huge state of trauma.

    罷免總理。我認為,亞美尼亞正處於巨大的創傷之中。

  • It's going to take a long time for it to recover from this. And the political crisis, I think,

    它需要很長的時間來恢復。而政治危機,我想。

  • is going to be ongoing for a long time in Armenia.

    將會在亞美尼亞持續很長時間。

  • In Nagorno-Karabakh, ethnic Armenians in newly-captured areas may be forced out.

    在納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫,新佔領地區的亞美尼亞族人可能被迫離開。

  • Some have already burned their homes before leaving. While Azeris who fled during the

    一些人在離開前已經燒燬了自己的家園。而在戰爭期間逃離的阿澤里人,則已被燒燬。

  • previous war, could make their way back. Ultimately, the agreement does nothing to

    前一場戰爭,可以讓他們回來。歸根結底,該協議並沒有起到任何作用。

  • end the hostility between the two countries. Until that happens, this conflict

    結束兩國之間的敵對關係。在這之前,這場衝突

  • could have another round again.

    可以再來一輪。

  • It is much more a deal than it is a peace.

    這與其說是和平,不如說是一種交易。

On September 27 explosions shook Nagorno-Karabakh.

9月27日,爆炸震動了納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫。

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B1 中級 中文 阿塞拜疆 亞美尼亞 納戈爾諾 卡拉巴赫 土耳其 衝突

亞美尼亞和阿塞拜疆戰爭,解釋 (The Armenia and Azerbaijan war, explained)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 03 日
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