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  • In 1995, Senator James Exon brought a blue binder to the floor of the Senate. It was

    1995年,參議員詹姆斯-埃克森把一個藍色的文件夾帶到了參議院的會場。它是

  • full of, well

    充滿了...

  • -The most hardcore, perverse types of pornography.

    -最核心、最變態的色情類型。

  • The images came from the Internet. Exon wanted his fellow senators to realize

    這些圖片來自互聯網。艾克森希望他的參議員們能意識到

  • what kids could see

    孩子們能看到的...

  • -Come by my desk and take a look at this disgusting material.

    -到我的辦公桌來看看這些噁心的材料吧

  • with just the click of a button.

    ...... 只需點擊一個按鈕。

  • -It's certainly not hard to find. And, I was just like, Dad, get a load of this.

    -這當然不難找到。我只是想,爸爸,得到一個負載的這個。

  • In the mid-90s, Americans debated how to handle all kinds of objectionable content on the web,

    90年代中期,美國人爭論如何處理網絡上各種令人反感的內容。

  • including hate speech and defamation. Out of that debate came a law that helped

    包括仇恨言論和誹謗。從這場辯論中產生了一項法律,幫助

  • create the modern Internet, and now both Republicans and Democrats want it changed. It's called:

    創造了現代互聯網,現在共和黨和民主黨都想改變它。這就是所謂的。

  • -Section 230. -Section 230 should be revoked.

    -第230條。-第230條應予撤銷。

  • But what does that law actually do? And what would happen to the Internet if we changed it?

    但是,這個法律到底有什麼作用呢?如果我們改變它,互聯網又會發生什麼?

  • The thing to remember about the 90s is

    要記住90年代的事情是... ...

  • -On your mark, get set, we're riding on the Internet.

    -各就各位,準備好,我們要上互聯網了。

  • ...the Internet was young and few people really understood it.

    .當時互聯網還很年輕,真正瞭解互聯網的人很少。

  • -Allison, can you explain what Internet is?

    -艾莉森,你能解釋一下什麼是互聯網嗎?

  • It seemed cool.

    它似乎很酷。

  • -It's very hip to be on the Internet right now.

    -現在在互聯網上很時髦。

  • -Now that I'm on the Internet, I'd rather be on my computer than doing just about anything.

    -現在我上了互聯網,我寧願在電腦上,也不願意做任何事情。

  • It's really cool.

    這真的很酷。

  • But we hadn't agreed on what to do with all the objectionable content, or if we should

    但我們還沒有就如何處理所有令人反感的內容達成一致,或者說我們是否應該:

  • do anything. James Exon, the senator with the porn binder, wanted the government to

    什麼都可以做詹姆士-艾克森,那個拿著色情夾子的參議員,想讓政府...

  • clean up the Internet by effectively making indecent material like porn illegal online.

    淨化互聯網,有效地使色情等不雅物品在網上違法。

  • -And so he proposed an amendment to the Telecommunications Act called

    -所以他對《電信法》提出了一個修正案,叫做:

  • the Decency Act, the Communications Decency Act.

    《廉潔法》、《通信廉潔法》;

  • But two members of Congress, Christopher Cox and Ron Wyden, thought that companies would

    但兩位國會議員克里斯托弗-考克斯和羅恩-懷登認為,公司將。

  • do a better job cleaning the Internet up themselves. There was just one big legal problem.

    自己做好互聯網的清理工作。只是有一個很大的法律問題。

  • -There were court cases that perversely made, uh, Internet, uh, providers liable if they

    -有一些法院的案件,反常地規定,呃,互聯網,呃,供應商要承擔責任,如果他們。

  • tried to exercise editorial discretion, keep, uh, smut off the Internet, and so on.

    試圖行使編輯自由裁量權,保持,呃,淫穢的互聯網,等等。

  • At the time, courts held that Internet providers like Prodigy, which moderated some user content,

    當時,法院認為,像Prodigy這樣的互聯網提供商,對一些用戶內容進行了緩和。

  • were potentially liable for anything their users posted. So the companies faced a choice:

    對其用戶發佈的任何內容都有潛在的責任。是以,這些公司面臨選擇。

  • clean up their websites and risk getting sued, or go totally hands off and face no legal consequences.

    清理自己的網站,冒著被起訴的風險,或者完全放手,不承擔任何法律後果。

  • Cox and Wyden didn't like that.

    考克斯和威登不喜歡這樣。

  • -That is backwards. We want to encourage people like Prodigy, like Compuserve, like America

    -這是落後的。我們要鼓勵像Prodigy,像Compuserve,像美國這樣的人。

  • Online, like the new Microsoft Network to do everything possible for us the customer

    在網上,像新微軟網絡一樣為我們客戶做一切可能的事情。

  • to help us control what comes in and what our children see.

    來幫助我們控制進入的東西和我們的孩子看到的東西。

  • So Cox and Wyden wrote a provision, Section 230, that let companies moderate content without

    所以考克斯和懷登寫了一個條款,即第230條,讓公司在不對內容進行節制的情況下

  • being on the legal hook for it. Their hope was that Internet companies would, in good

    正在為此承擔法律責任。他們希望互聯網公司能夠在良好的情況下,將互聯網公司的產品和服務推向市場。

  • faith, police objectionable content on the Web.

    信,對網絡上的不良內容進行治安。

  • We came to call it the sword and the shield. And the sword is the ability to take down

    我們來稱它為劍和盾。而劍就是能夠打倒

  • horrible stuff on the Internet. The shield is the protection from frivolous litigation.

    可怕的東西在互聯網上。盾牌是防止輕率訴訟的保護。

  • Section 230 was added to Senator Exon's Communications Decency Act, and the whole

    埃克森參議員的《通信正直法》中增加了第230條,整個。

  • thing passed in 1996. But then Exon's porn ban ran into one big wall: the First Amendment.

    事情在1996年通過。但後來艾克森的色情禁令遇到了一堵大牆:第一修正案。

  • Free speech advocates are hailing a ruling: the U.S. government cannot enforce the Communications Decency Act without violating the constitutional right to free speech.

    言論自由的倡導者們正在歡呼一項裁決:美國政府不能在不侵犯憲法規定的言論自由權的情況下執行《通信正派法》。

  • -You, you probably guessed that because, uh, there's — Spoiler alert,

    -你,你可能猜到了,因為,呃,有... ... 擾亂警報。

  • there's porn on the Internet.”

    互聯網上有色情。"

  • But the courts let Section 230 stand. And that little law created a massive industry.

    但法院讓第230條成立。這條小小的法律創造了一個龐大的產業。

  • -So, you think about Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, even Wikipedia. None of these business models

    -所以,你想想Facebook、Twitter、YouTube,甚至維基百科。這些商業模式都不是

  • could exist in their current forms if the platforms had to defend in court the veracity

    如果平臺必須在法庭上為其真實性辯護,那麼其目前的形式可能存在。

  • of every single thing that people post.

    的每一件事,人們發。

  • The story of Section 230 is the story of the Internet: more and more people posting what

    第230條的故事就是互聯網的故事:越來越多的人在網上發佈什麼。

  • they want online, and websites not getting sued for it because of their legal shield.

    他們想在網上,而網站因為有了法律的保護,不會是以而被起訴。

  • The dark side of that story started pretty early: in 1995, when an anonymous user on

    這個故事的黑暗面很早就開始了:1995年,一位匿名用戶在

  • AOL impersonated a man named Kenneth Zeran and used his name and phone number to sell

    AOL冒充一個叫Kenneth Zeran的人,用他的名字和電話號碼來銷售。

  • T-shirts glorifying the Oklahoma City bombing.

    頌揚俄克拉荷馬城爆炸案的T恤衫。

  • -At the time, it was a fairly novel approach of, really, ruining someone's life.

    -在當時,這是一個相當新穎的方法,真的,毀掉一個人的生活。

  • After receiving a tsunami of threatening phone calls, Zeran begged AOL to take down the anonymous

    在接到海嘯般的威脅電話後,澤蘭懇求AOL下架匿名。

  • user's ads.

    用戶的廣告。

  • -They, for a while, would take them down. But then they stopped listening to him. He

    -他們有一陣子會把他們打倒。但後來他們不再聽他的了。他...

  • was annoying. They just moved on.

    是煩人的。他們只是繼續前進。

  • Zeran sued AOL in 1996. But the court said Section 230 allowed AOL to leave up the posts

    Zeran在1996年起訴了AOL。但法院表示,第230條允許AOL留下帖子

  • even after Zeran reported them. AOL got to use Section 230's shield, in other words,

    即使在澤蘭舉報他們之後。換句話說,AOL得用第230條的盾牌。

  • without ever having to touch its sword.

    而不必去碰它的劍。

  • -It becomes, effectively, the law of the land. You could keep up the content no matter how

    -它實際上成了國家的法律。你可以跟上內容,無論

  • horrific, how defamatory it is, and you are not going to be liable for it.

    可怕,這是多麼大的誹謗,你是不會為此承擔責任的。

  • Carrie Goldberg is a lawyer who says the broad immunity Section 230's shield gives Internet

    卡莉-戈德堡是一名律師,她說,第230條的屏蔽給了互聯網的廣泛豁免權。

  • companies has made some of them lazy and irresponsible.

    公司使一些人變得懶惰和不負責任。

  • -Section 230 is not a law that protects free speech. Section 230 is a law that protects

    -第230條不是保護言論自由的法律。第230條是保護

  • an industry.

    一個行業。

  • Four years ago, her client, Matthew Herrick, was impersonated by a vengeful ex-boyfriend

    四年前,她的委託人Matthew Herrick 被一個復仇的前男友冒名頂替

  • on the dating app, Grindr.

    在約會應用Grindr上。

  • -He would create profiles using Matthew's picture and his name and then send unwitting

    -他用Matthew的照片和他的名字建立檔案,然後向不知情的人發送

  • people to Matthew's home and to his job to have sex with Matthew.

    人到馬修的家裡,到他的工作崗位與馬修發生性關係。

  • -Matthew Herrick says for months he couldn't go to the restaurants where he waited tables,

    馬修-赫瑞克說,幾個月來,他不能去他當服務員的餐館。

  • or his home, without men he didn't know approaching him for sex or drugs.

    或他的家,沒有男人他不知道接近他的性或藥物。

  • -Matthew was receiving sometimes 23 people in person at his home. And often, Matthew's

    -馬修有時在家中親自接待23人。而且,馬修的

  • ex would say that Matthew was into rape fantasies. So he was setting Matthew up to be sexually

    前夫會說馬修有強姦的幻想。所以他是在陷害Matthew,讓他在性生活上

  • assaulted.

    毆打。

  • -Herrick said he filed 50 reports with Grindr and the company never did anything.

    -Herrick說他向Grindr公司提交了50份報告,但該公司從未做任何事情。

  • -We were suing them ultimately for, uh, releasing a dangerous product onto the marketplace.

    -我們最終起訴他們,呃,向市場投放危險產品。

  • But the court said that, just like in the Zeran-AOL case, Grindr didn't have to help Herrick.

    但法院表示,就像在Zeran-AOL案中一樣,Grindr沒有必要幫助Herrick。

  • It was, in my opinion, the most expansive and extravagant interpretation of Section 230 to date.

    我認為,這是對第230條迄今為止最寬泛、最奢侈的解釋。

  • Goldberg thinks that Section 230 should be changed or revoked so people like Herrick

    戈德堡認為應該修改或撤銷第230條,這樣像赫裡克這樣的人

  • could sue for Internet companies' negligence.

    可以起訴互聯網公司的過失。

  • Everybody should have the right to be able to sue somebody or a company who has harmed you

    每個人都應該有權利能夠起訴傷害你的人或公司。

  • or is continuing to harm you. And so I see this not as a speech issue, but an access

    或正在繼續傷害你。所以我認為這不是一個言論的問題, 而是一個訪問的問題

  • to justice issue.

    司法問題。

  • You know, why do these harms happen? It's a combination of the perpetrator and the platform.

    你知道,為什麼會發生這些傷害嗎?這是由肇事者和平臺共同造成的。

  • Site operators should only enjoy immunity from liability if they're engaged in reasonable

    網站經營者只有在合理的情況下,才應享有責任豁免權。

  • content moderation practices. Right, there here has to be an exchange, like, you get

    內容節制的做法。對,這裡必須有一個交流,就像,你得到了

  • the legal shield, but you've got to do something.

    法律的盾牌,但你必須做一些事情。

  • Today, Section 230 has helped create an Internet industry worth more than a trillion dollars.

    今天,第230節已經幫助創造了一個價值超過一萬億美元的互聯網產業。

  • Section 230 is how these companies have gotten big, it's how they've gotten powerful,

    第230節這些公司就是這樣做大的,就是這樣做強的。

  • it's how they've gotten rich.

    這就是他們致富的方式。

  • And agreeing on what it would mean for these companies to use Section 230's sword and

    並同意這些公司使用第230條的刀劍,意味著什麼?

  • shield responsibly has gotten harder. It depends on what you think the problem is. Democrats

    盾牌負責任地變得更難了。這取決於你認為問題是什麼。民主黨人

  • want companies like Facebook to do more policing of disinformation.

    希望像Facebook這樣的公司對虛假資訊進行更多的監管。

  • Because it is not merely an internet company. It is propagating falsehoods they know to

    因為它不僅僅是一家互聯網公司。它是在宣傳他們明知故犯的假話。

  • be false

    作假

  • But some Republicans claim there's a different problem: censorship of conservative views.

    但一些共和黨人聲稱有一個不同的問題:對保守派觀點的審查。

  • And they want to change or scrap Section 230 to make Internet companies do less policing.

    而他們希望改變或取消第230條,讓互聯網公司少做一些治安工作。

  • The Big Tech oligarchs have declared war on the Republican Party and conservatives.

    大科技寡頭們已經向共和黨和保守派宣戰。

  • I think it's time that we consider the outright repeal of Section 230.

    我認為現在是時候考慮徹底廢除第230條了。

  • Tweaking Section 230 might help individual victims of abuse like Matthew Herrick, and

    修改第230條可能會幫助像Matthew Herrick這樣的個別受虐者,以及。

  • it could make Internet companies more accountable for the way they moderate content. But defenders

    它可以使互聯網公司對其管理內容的方式承擔更多責任。但維護者

  • of the law say that changing it too much could undermine people's freedom to post what

    的人說,修改太多,可能會破壞人們發佈資訊的自由。

  • they want online.

    他們想在網上。

  • What I think we need are changes that are very carefully tailored and that address a

    我認為,我們需要的是非常有針對性的改革,解決的是

  • particular harm and that also consider, how do we address this harm without just sort

    傷害,同時也考慮到,我們如何處理這種傷害,而不只是排序。

  • of, um, causing total chaos to the existing Internet that we know?

    的,嗯,造成全面混亂 現有的互聯網,我們知道嗎?

In 1995, Senator James Exon brought a blue binder to the floor of the Senate. It was

1995年,參議員詹姆斯-埃克森把一個藍色的文件夾帶到了參議院的會場。它是

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B1 中級 中文 互聯網 公司 法律 馬修 色情 起訴

90年代的色情片是如何導致互聯網的基礎性法律的? (How '90s porn led to the internet's foundational law)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 01 日
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